IMPLIED LINE A series of points that the eye recognizes as a line; a perceived line where areas of conrasting color or texture meet.
Line Variations. b. Implied line.
Line Variations. c. Actual straight lines and implied curved line.
Marc Chagall. I and the Village. 1911. 75 5/8" x 59 5/8".
GESTURAL LINE Line that conveys the energy of the artist’s hand as it moves across the drawing surface.
Line Variations. h. Dance of curving lines.
CONTOUR LINE An actual line or implied line that defines the outer limits of a three dimensional object or two-dimensional shape; used synonymously with “outline”.
Geometric or Organic
Figure and Ground
Positive and Negative Shape
Amorphous (irregular) shape
POSITIVE SHAPE A dominant shape on a ground.
NEGATIVE SHAPE A shape “left over” or around a dominant shape.
Figure (or ground) can be either dark or light…
FIGURE A shape on a background.
GROUND A background on which marks, shapes, or figures are placed.
Figure- Ground Confusion
MASS and VOLUME
Mass: the physical bulk
Volume: the measurable area that an object occupies
Mass and volume can be actual or implied
MASS An actual or illusory three-dimensional bulk.
VOLUME The measurable area that an object occupies-its height, width, and depth.
The Psychology of Space
Artifacts within Spaces
In the Round
Positive and Negative Space
SPACE An expanse of three-dimensionality in which objects and events occur.
Indicators of Illusional Space
Foreground, middle ground, and background
ILLUSIONAL SPACE The appearance of depth, height, and width on a two-dimensional surface.
PERSPECTIVE The illusion of space on planar surfaces, created by techniques for representing three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface.
Types of Perspective
Types of Perspective
Points of View
LINEAR PERSPECTIVE A system of rendering the appearance of three dimensions on a two-dimensional plane by making objects appear smaller as they recede and by making parallel lines converge in the distance at a vanishing point on a horizon line.
VANISHING POINT Where converging lines drawn in linear perspective seem to disappear into a distant dot on the horizon line.
ORTHOGONAL LINES Lines or edges in a picture that lead the viewer’s eyes to the vanishing points in an illusional three-dimensional space.
Raphael. The School of Athens. 1508. Study.
ATMOSPHERIC (AERIAL) PERSPECTIVE The technique of representing dimensional space by making objects close to the viewer appear crisp and vibrant and making them fuzzy and less intense in color and tone as thet recede.