STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 16WORKSMASACCIO, Holy Trinity.Donatello. MARY MAGDALEN.DONATELLO, David.SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus.LEONARDO DA VINCI, Mona Lisa,MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David.MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, The Creation of Adam.PAOLO VERONESE, Christ in the House of Levi.JAN VAN EYCK, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride.PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, Hunters in the Snow.GIANLORENZO BERNINI, David.GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa.CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of Saint Paul,DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor).PETER PAUL RUBENS, Elevation of the Cross.REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Return of the Prodigal Son.JAN VERMEER, The Kitchen MaidJEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD, The Swing.Artists and WorksGiotto Feelings and physical nature of human beings. New sense of realism by using light and space. Re-inventor of “naturalistic” painting.Masaccio Used perspective to construct an illusion of figures in three-dimensional space. o I once was what you are and what I am you also will be.Donatello Incorporates Greek idealism into Christian context. Goes beyond Classical Idealism by incorporating the dimension of personal expression.Botticelli Byzantine influence shown in lyrical use of line. Decorative and flat space, little illusion of depth. Strong focus on Classical Mythology.Leonard da Vinci Motivated by intense curiosity and a optimistic belief in the human ability to understand the world. Art and science are two means to the same end: knowledge.Michelangelo Human beings are unique, almost godlike. In an artists hands, “life” could be created through inspiration from God. The Creation of Adam •Expresses the Humanist concept of God: an idealized, rational man who actively tends every aspect of human creation and has a special interest in humans.
Movements and “Schools”RenaissancePeriod in Europe from the late fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries, which wascharacterized by a renewed interest in human-centered classical art, literature, and learning. Early Renaissance in Italy: Giotto Masaccio Donatello Boticelli High Renaissance Da Vinci Michelangelo Northern European Artists Concerned with depicting life in the real world. Artists like Jan van Eyck used linseed oil paint to achieve a brilliance and transparency of color that were previously unattainable. Van Eyck Bruegel The Limbourg BrothersVenetian SchoolIn the sixteenth century, artists such as Giorgione and Titian preferred a gentler, more sensuousapproach to oil painting than had been adopted by the Florentine School. The Venetians usedwarm atmospheric tones.Distant from the influence of the Papacy, Venetian artists did not shy away from controversial(erotic/pagan) themes. Veronese Titian GiorgioneMannerismA style that developed in the sixteenth century as a reaction to the classical rationality andbalanced harmony of the high Renaissance; characterized by dramatic use of space and light;exaggerated color, elongation of figures, and distortions of perspective, scale, and proportion.BaroqueThe seventeenth-century period in Europe characterized in the visual arts by dramatic light andshade, turbulent composition, and exaggerated expression. Caravaggio Bernini Rubens Velazquez Rembrandt VermeerRococoFrom the French “rocaille” meaning “rock work.” This late Baroque style used in interiordecoration and painting was characteristically playful, pretty, romantic, and visually loose or soft;it used small scale and ornate decoration, pastel colors, and asymmetrical arrangement ofcurves. Rococo was popular in France and southern Germany in the eighteenth century. Fragonard Watteau
BoucherMethods and Techniques:Camera ObscuraA technical aid, widelv used in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which consisted of adarkened box or tent containing lenses and a mirror. The artist could project the image of anobject or landscape onto the oil painting surface and then trace it out in charcoal or graphite.ChiaroscuroItalian word meaning “light-dark.” The gradations of light and dark values in two-dimensionalimagery; especially the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional form created through gradations oflight and shade rather than line. Highly developed by Renaissance painters.ContraposstoItalian for “counterpose.” The counterpositioning of parts of the human figure about a centralvertical axis, as when the weight is placed on one foot causing the hip and shoulder lines tocounter balance each other-often in a graceful s-curve.Fete Galante A term first used in. the eighteenth centurv to describe an oil painting of a dreamlike pastoralsetting which shows people, often in extravagant costume, amusing themselves with dancing,music-making and courtship. Watteau is referred to as a painter of fetes galantes.FrescoA method of wall-painting on a plasterground.Buon fresco, or true fresco, was much used in Italvfrom the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries.First, the arriccio is applied and upon this the design, or sinopia, is traced. An area.small enoughto be completed in one day - the giornata - is covered with a final layer of plaster, the inionaco.The design is then redrawn and painted with pigments mixed with water. Fresco secco is paintingon dry plaster and suffers, like distemper, from impermanence.GlazingAn oil painting technique by which thin, transparent layers of oil paint are applied over an opaquelayer to modify that layers color. It is sometimes difficult to determine exactly the glazes used bythe Old Masters because of previous restoration or cleaning, and also because of the similaritybetween the appearance of a glazed paint layer and varnish.Genre PaintingA term used to loosely categorize paintings depicting scenes of everyday life, including domesticinteriors, merry companies, inn scenes, and street scenes.Memento MoriA visual reminder of human mortality.PietaA work in which the Virgin is supporting and mourning the death of Jesus.SfumatoA painting technique using an imperceptable, subtle transition from light to dark, without any clearbreak or line. The theory was developed and mastered by Leonardo da Vinci, and the termderives from the Italian word fumo, meaning vapor, or smoke.Tenebrism,From the Italiantenebroso ("murky"), (also called dramatic illumination) is a style of painting usingvery pronounced chiaroscuro, where there are violent contrasts of light and dark, and darkness
becomes a dominating feature of the image. Spanish painters in the early seventeenth centurywho were influenced by the work of Caravaggio have been called Tenebrists, although they didnot form a distinct group.Historical Events/Philosophical Movements•The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% – 60% of Europes population, reducing theworld’s population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400. Thishas been seen as creating a series of religious, social and economic upheavals which hadprofound effects on the course of European History. It took 150 years for Europes population torecover.•Because the plague killed so many of the poor population, wealthy land owners were forced topay the remaining workers what they asked, in terms of wages.• Because there was now a surplus in consumer goods, luxury crops could now be grown. Thismeant that for the first time in history, many, formerly of the peasant population, now had achance to live a better life. Most historians now feel that this was the start of the middle class inEurope and England.HumanismA cultural and intellectual movement during the Renaissance, following the rediscovery of the artand literature of ancient Greece and Rome. A philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests,achievements, and capabilities of human beings rather than with the abstract concepts andproblems of theology and science.Neoplatonism A compilation of Platonic, Aristotelian and Stoic ideas that experienced a strong revival during thelate Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Central to the philosophy is the notion that spiritual thingsare real and that material things are not. The freeing of the spiritual element, the soul, from thematerial element, the body, should be the ultimate goal of all of mankind and could be achievedthrough knowledge and contemplation.All sources of inspiration, whether Biblical or Classical (Pagan)mythology, represent a means of ascending earthly existence to amystical union with “the One”.Protestant Reformation•By the early 1500s, many people in Western Europe were growing increasingly dissatisfied withthe Christian Church. Many found the Pope too involved with secular (worldly) matters, ratherthan with his flocks spiritual well-being. Lower church officials were poorly educated and brokevows by living richly and keeping mistresses. Some officials practiced simony, or passing downtheir title as priest or bishop to their illegitimate sons. In keeping with the many social changes ofthe Renaissance people began to boldly challenge the authority of the Christian Church.The Counter ReformationAttempts by the Catholic church and secular Catholic authorities to stem the flow of Protestantismand reform some of the worst excesses of medieval Catholicism.Art was used as a tool ofpersuasion.