Study Guide Test 2 (Visual Elements and Design Principles)

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Study Guide Test 2 (Visual Elements and Design Principles)

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Marc Chagall. I AND THE VILLAGE.<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. M.C. Escher. SKY AND WATER I.<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Alberto Giacometti. MAN POINTING.<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. POND IN A GARDEN. Tomb of Nebamun, Egypt.<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Asher Brown Durand. KINDRED SPIRITS.<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Shen Zhou. POET ON A MOUNTAIN TOP.<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Sassetta. THE MEETING OF SAINT ANTHONY AND SAINT PAUL.<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. James Whistler. NOCTURNE: BLUE AND GOLD-(OLD BATTERSEA BRIDGE).<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Meret Oppenheim. OBJECT (DEJEUNER EN FOURRURE).<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Jacob Lawrence. GOING HOME.<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Pieter de Hooch. INTERIOR OF A DUTCH HOUSE.<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Nicolas Poussin. THE HOLY FAMILY ON THE STEPS.<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Edgar Degas. JOCKEYS BEFORE THE RACE.<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Francisco Goya. BULLFIGHT.<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Raphael. MADONNA OF THE CHAIR.<br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Ogata Korin. CRANES.<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Jose Clemente Orozco. ZAPATISTAS.<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Michelangelo Buonarroti. PIETA.<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. ROETTGEN PIETA.<br />
  39. 39. LINE<br /><ul><li>Line types
  40. 40. Actual
  41. 41. Implied
  42. 42. Line in Two-dimensional Art
  43. 43. Line in Three-dimensional Art</li></li></ul><li>A series of points that the eye recognizes as a line; a perceived line where areas of contrasting color or texture meet.<br />
  44. 44. IMPLIED LINE<br />A series of points that the eye recognizes as a line; a perceived line where areas of contrasting color or texture meet.<br />
  45. 45. An actual line or implied line that defines the outer limits of a three dimensional object or two-dimensional shape; used synonymously with “outline”.<br />
  46. 46. CONTOUR LINE<br />An actual line or implied line that defines the outer limits of a three dimensional object or two-dimensional shape; used synonymously with “outline”.<br />
  47. 47. Line that conveys the energy of the artist’s hand as it moves across the drawing surface.<br />
  48. 48. GESTURAL LINE<br />Line that conveys the energy of the artist’s hand as it moves across the drawing surface.<br />
  49. 49. SHAPE<br /><ul><li>Geometric or Organic
  50. 50. Figure and Ground
  51. 51. Positive and Negative Shape
  52. 52. Amorphous Shape
  53. 53. Three-dimensional Shape</li></li></ul><li>SHAPE<br /><ul><li>Geometric or Organic
  54. 54. Figure and Ground
  55. 55. Positive and Negative Shape
  56. 56. Amorphous Shape
  57. 57. Three-dimensional Shape</li></li></ul><li>A dominant shape on a ground.<br />
  58. 58. POSITIVE SHAPE<br />A dominant shape on a ground.<br />
  59. 59. A shape “left over” or around a dominant shape.<br />
  60. 60. NEGATIVE SHAPE<br />A shape “left over” or around a dominant shape.<br />
  61. 61. A shape on a background.<br />
  62. 62. FIGURE<br />A shape on a background.<br />
  63. 63. A background on which marks, shapes, or figures are placed.<br />
  64. 64. GROUND<br />A background on which marks, shapes, or figures are placed.<br />
  65. 65. MASS and VOLUME<br /><ul><li>Mass: the physical bulk
  66. 66. Volume: the measurable area that an object occupies
  67. 67. Mass and volume can be actual or implied</li></li></ul><li>MASS and VOLUME<br /><ul><li>Mass: the physical bulk
  68. 68. Volume: the measurable area that an object occupies
  69. 69. Mass and volume can be actual or implied</li></li></ul><li>An actual or illusory three-dimensional bulk.<br />
  70. 70. MASS<br />An actual or illusory three-dimensional bulk.<br />
  71. 71. The measurable area that an object occupies-its height, width, and depth.<br />
  72. 72. VOLUME<br />The measurable area that an object occupies-its height, width, and depth.<br />
  73. 73. Actual Space<br /><ul><li>The Psychology of Space
  74. 74. Architectural Space
  75. 75. Interior Spaces
  76. 76. Artifacts within Spaces</li></li></ul><li>Actual Space<br /><ul><li>Three-dimensional Artifacts
  77. 77. In the Round
  78. 78. In Relief
  79. 79. Positive and Negative Space</li></li></ul><li>An expanse of three-dimensionality in which objects and events occur.<br />
  80. 80. SPACE<br />An expanse of three-dimensionality in which objects and events occur.<br />
  81. 81. Illusional Space<br /><ul><li>Indicators of Illusional Space
  82. 82. Foreground, middle ground, and background
  83. 83. Size
  84. 84. Overlap
  85. 85. Transparency
  86. 86. Placement</li></li></ul><li>The appearance of depth, height, and width on a two-dimensional surface.<br />
  87. 87. ILLUSIONAL SPACE<br />The appearance of depth, height, and width on a two-dimensional surface.<br />
  88. 88. The illusion of space on planar surfaces, created by techniques for representing three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface.<br />
  89. 89. PERSPECTIVE<br />The illusion of space on planar surfaces, created by techniques for representing three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface.<br />
  90. 90. Types of Perspective<br /><ul><li>Atmospheric Perspective
  91. 91. Linear Perspective
  92. 92. One-point perspective
  93. 93. Two-point perspective
  94. 94. Three-point perspective</li></li></ul><li>Types of Perspective<br /><ul><li>Points of View
  95. 95. Bird’s-eye view
  96. 96. Worm’s-eye view
  97. 97. Foreshortening
  98. 98. Isometric Perspective
  99. 99. Multiple Perspective</li></li></ul><li>A system of rendering the appearance of three dimensions on a two-dimensional plane by making objects appear smaller as they recede and by making parallel lines converge in the distance at a vanishing point on a horizon line.<br />
  100. 100. LINEAR PERSPECTIVE<br />A system of rendering the appearance of three dimensions on a two-dimensional plane by making objects appear smaller as they recede and by making parallel lines converge in the distance at a vanishing point on a horizon line.<br />
  101. 101. Where converging lines drawn in linear perspective seem to disappear into a distant dot on the horizon line.<br />
  102. 102. VANISHING POINT<br />Where converging lines drawn in linear perspective seem to disappear into a distant dot on the horizon line.<br />
  103. 103. Lines or edges in a picture that lead the viewer’s eyes to the vanishing points in an illusional three-dimensional space.<br />
  104. 104. ORTHOGONAL LINES<br />Lines or edges in a picture that lead the viewer’s eyes to the vanishing points in an illusional three-dimensional space.<br />
  105. 105. A means of rendering three-dimensional objects without reliance on vanishing points or converging lines; scale of objects remains the same regardless of the distance from the foreground and background.<br />
  106. 106. ISOMETRIC PERSPECTIVE<br />A means of rendering three-dimensional objects without reliance on vanishing points or converging lines; scale of objects remains the same regardless of the distance from the foreground and background.<br />
  107. 107. The technique of representing dimensional space by making objects close to the viewer appear crisp and vibrant and making them fuzzy and less intense in color and tone as they recede.<br />
  108. 108. ATMOSPHERIC (AERIAL) PERSPECTIVE<br />The technique of representing dimensional space by making objects close to the viewer appear crisp and vibrant and making them fuzzy and less intense in color and tone as they recede.<br />
  109. 109. Indicating Time in Art<br /><ul><li>Actual Time
  110. 110. Implied Time
  111. 111. Recorded Time</li></li></ul><li>Artifacts that are designed to move.<br />
  112. 112. KINETIC ART<br />Artifacts that are designed to move.<br />
  113. 113. VALUE<br /><ul><li>Highlights
  114. 114. Shadow
  115. 115. Contrast</li></li></ul><li>The relative degree of light or dark.<br />
  116. 116. VALUE<br />The relative degree of light or dark.<br />
  117. 117. The degree of value difference in an image; high contrast is a wide separation between dark and light; low contrast is a narrow range of values in an image.<br />
  118. 118. CONTRAST<br />The degree of value difference in an image; high contrast is a wide separation between dark and light; low contrast is a narrow range of values in an image.<br />
  119. 119. A name of a color family or an area on the color wheel.<br />
  120. 120. HUE<br />A name of a color family or an area on the color wheel.<br />
  121. 121. The mixing of pigments and dyes so that all colors of light except the color are absorbed (subtracted).<br />
  122. 122. SUBTRACTIVE COLOR PROCESS<br />The mixing of pigments and dyes so that all colors of light except the color are absorbed (subtracted).<br />
  123. 123. The mixing of colored lights so that they shine on a surface, they combine (add) to make other colors.<br />
  124. 124. ADDITIVE COLOR PROCESS<br />The mixing of colored lights so that they shine on a surface, they combine (add) to make other colors.<br />
  125. 125. In a color system, the basic colors that cannot be broken down into other colors and that can be combined to create other colors.<br />
  126. 126. PRIMARY COLORS<br />In a color system, the basic colors that cannot be broken down into other colors and that can be combined to create other colors.<br />
  127. 127. The product of mixing two primary colors.<br />
  128. 128. SECONDARY COLORS<br />The product of mixing two primary colors.<br />
  129. 129. The products of mixing a primary and secondary color.<br />
  130. 130. TERTIARY COLORS<br />The products of mixing a primary and secondary color.<br />
  131. 131. Used synonymously with value. In a scale of values, high-key colors are lighter than colors in the middle of the scale; low-key colors are darker than the colors in the middle of the scale.<br />
  132. 132. KEY<br />Used synonymously with value. In a scale of values, high-key colors are lighter than colors in the middle of the scale; low-key colors are darker than the colors in the middle of the scale.<br />
  133. 133. A color that has white added to it.<br />
  134. 134. TINT<br />A color that has white added to it.<br />
  135. 135. A color that has black added to it.<br />
  136. 136. SHADE<br />A color that has black added to it.<br />
  137. 137. The strength or weakness of a color.<br />
  138. 138. INTENSITY, SATURATION<br />The strength or weakness of a color.<br />
  139. 139. A color that has gray added to it.<br />
  140. 140. TONE<br />A color that has gray added to it.<br />
  141. 141. Placement of different colors in such a way that the human eye mixes them to form new colors.<br />
  142. 142. OPTICAL COLOR MIXING<br />Placement of different colors in such a way that the human eye mixes them to form new colors.<br />
  143. 143. Color Schemes<br /><ul><li>Monochromatic, Analogous, and Complementary
  144. 144. Triads, Tetrads, and Hexads
  145. 145. Warm and Cool Colors
  146. 146. Earth Tones
  147. 147. Polychromatic Schemes</li></li></ul><li>Variations in color based on one hue.<br />
  148. 148. MONOCHROMATIC COLOR SCHEME<br />Variations in color based on one hue.<br />
  149. 149. Variations in color between hues adjacent to one another on the color wheel.<br />
  150. 150. ANALOGOUS COLOR SCHEME<br />Variations in color between hues adjacent to one another on the color wheel.<br />
  151. 151. Variations in color based on colors opposite each other on the color wheel.<br />
  152. 152. COMPLIMENTARY COLOR SCHEME<br />Variations in color based on colors opposite each other on the color wheel.<br />
  153. 153. An effect achieved by placing highly contrasting colors (complements), values, and intensities next to each other.<br />
  154. 154. SIMULTANEOUS CONTRAST<br />An effect achieved by placing highly contrasting colors (complements), values, and intensities next to each other.<br />
  155. 155. Three colors that are equidistant from one another (form an equilateral triangle) on the color wheel.<br />
  156. 156. TRIAD<br />Three colors that are equidistant from one another (form an equilateral triangle) on the color wheel.<br />
  157. 157. Four colors that are equidistant from one another (form a square or rectangle) on the color wheel.<br />
  158. 158. TETRAD<br />Four colors that are equidistant from one another (form a square or rectangle) on the color wheel.<br />
  159. 159. TEXTURE<br /><ul><li>Actual Texture
  160. 160. Implied Texture
  161. 161. Visual texture: an illusion of tactile qualities
  162. 162. Invented Texture</li></li></ul><li>TEXTURE<br />INVENTED TEXTURE: The illusion of tactility through the arrangement of lines, colors, and other design elements.<br />ACTUAL TEXTURE: The tactile quality of the material used to make an artifact.<br />IMPLIED TEXTURE: The tactile quality of elements in an artifact rendered in a way that gives the impression of texture.<br />
  163. 163. Design Principles<br /><ul><li>Design Principles: strategies of organization for effective visual expression
  164. 164. Ancient Greeks: harmony, symmetry, and organization
  165. 165. David Hume: uniformity, variety, clarity of expression, and brilliance of color
  166. 166. Arthur Wesley Dow: subordination and rhythmic repetition, symmetry, opposition, transition, and notions of black and white</li></li></ul><li>Design Principles<br /><ul><li>Using the strategies:
  167. 167. What elements to use
  168. 168. How to organize them
  169. 169. What effect is achieved
  170. 170. Implications for meaning
  171. 171. Strengthening or weakening through repetition
  172. 172. Possibility of work that is monotonous or chaotic
  173. 173. Reinforcing or diluting expressive idea
  174. 174. Possibility of diffusing emotional impact by overlooking design principles</li></li></ul><li>Design Principles<br /><ul><li>Analyzing and discussing artworks of past, present, and future:
  175. 175. What elements did the artist use most and least?
  176. 176. How did the artist organize those elements?
  177. 177. How does the artist get and hold your attention?
  178. 178. Where does the artist direct your attention within the work?
  179. 179. What does the artist emphasize most and least in the work?</li></li></ul><li>Compositional means by which artists arrange design elements for effective visual expression.<br />
  180. 180. DESIGN PRINCIPLES<br />Compositional means by which artists arrange design elements for effective visual expression.<br />
  181. 181. The feeling that a composition holds together well visually and is designed to be experienced as a whole.<br />
  182. 182. UNITY<br />The feeling that a composition holds together well visually and is designed to be experienced as a whole.<br />
  183. 183. Visual diversity to avoid an unintended monotonous composition and to hold the viewer’s interest.<br />
  184. 184. VARIETY<br />Visual diversity to avoid an unintended monotonous composition and to hold the viewer’s interest.<br />
  185. 185. An equilibrium of weight and force; distribution of weight enabling someone or something to remain upright and steady.<br />
  186. 186. BALANCE<br />An equilibrium of weight and force; distribution of weight enabling someone or something to remain upright and steady.<br />
  187. 187. Visual or actual equilibrium that is almost but not exactly symmetrical.<br />
  188. 188. ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE<br />Visual or actual equilibrium that is almost but not exactly symmetrical.<br />
  189. 189. Visual or actual equilibrium of visual elements in size, shape, and placement.<br />
  190. 190. SYMMETRICAL BALANCE<br />Visual or actual equilibrium of visual elements in size, shape, and placement.<br />
  191. 191. Equilibrium achieved by elements emanating from a point, usually the center, in a composition.<br />
  192. 192. RADIAL BALANCE<br />Equilibrium achieved by elements emanating from a point, usually the center, in a composition.<br />
  193. 193. Arrangement of elements that can move the viewer’s eye in, around, or through a work of art.<br />
  194. 194. DIRECTIONAL FORCE<br />Arrangement of elements that can move the viewer’s eye in, around, or through a work of art.<br />
  195. 195. EMPHASIS<br />Arrangement of elements of art to make some areas the primary focus of a viewer’s attention.<br />
  196. 196. EMPHASIS<br />Arrangement of elements of art to make some areas the primary focus of a viewer’s attention.<br />
  197. 197. Arrangement of elements of art to make some areas the primary focus of a viewer’s attention.<br />
  198. 198. SUBORDINATION<br />Arrangement of elements of art to make some areas the primary focus of a viewer’s attention.<br />
  199. 199. Use of any element or object more than once in an artifact in order to structure a viewer’s experience of that work.<br />
  200. 200. REPETITION<br />Use of any element or object more than once in an artifact in order to structure a viewer’s experience of that work.<br />
  201. 201. A systematic repetition of an element in a work.<br />
  202. 202. PATTERN<br />A systematic repetition of an element in a work.<br />
  203. 203. RHYTHM<br />The movement, fluctuation, or variation marked by a regular recurrence of related elements.<br />
  204. 204. RHYTHM<br />The movement, fluctuation, or variation marked by a regular recurrence of related elements.<br />
  205. 205. Size, Scale, and Proportion<br /><ul><li>Making a Statement with Size
  206. 206. Playing with Scale
  207. 207. Searching for Perfection in Proportion
  208. 208. Classical Proportions
  209. 209. The Spiral</li></li></ul><li>The comparative size of an elements of art or object in relation to other elements or objects and normative conventions.<br />
  210. 210. SCALE <br />The comparative size of an elements of art or object in relation to other elements or objects and normative conventions.<br />
  211. 211. The relationship of the sizes of parts to each other and to the whole.<br />
  212. 212. PROPORTION<br />The relationship of the sizes of parts to each other and to the whole.<br />

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