ART HISTORY 2 de BeaufortSTUDY GUIDE TEST 4WORKSFRANÇOIS BOUCHER, Cupid a Captive.JEAN-BAPTISTE GREUZE, Village Bride.JOSEPH WRIGHT OF DERBY, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery.JEAN-BAPTISTE-SIMÉON CHARDIN, Saying Grace.JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii.JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, The Death of Marat.Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, (INGRES)Large Odalisque.EUGENE DELACROIX, The Death of SardanapalusTHÉODORE GÉRICAULT, Raft of the Medusa.HENRY FUSELI,The Nightmare.FRANCISCO GOYA,Third of May, 1808FRANCISCO GOYA,Saturn Devouring one of his SonsGUSTAVE COURBET, Burial at Ornans.JEAN-FRANÇOIS MILLET, The Gleaners.HONORÉ DAUMIER, Rue Transnonain.NADAR, Eugène Delacroix.JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS, Ophelia.ÉDOUARD MANET, Le Déjeunersurl’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass).Artists and WorksJacques Louis David • Started as a Rococo painter (relative of Boucher) • Spent time in Italy and turned to academic painting – Declared Rococo “artificial taste” – Exalted classical art as the imitation of nature in the most beautiful and perfect form –Jacques Louis David and Napoleon • David’s political agenda was highly successful through the influence of his art • Was imprisoned in 1794 after supporting a regime which fell out of favor • Pulled back from center stage, painted portraits and classical events • Napoleon, upon being crowned emperor in 1804, sought David’s artistic abilities • David enthusiastically accepted, depicted Napoleon as an invincible heroJean Auguste Dominique Ingres • Student of David • Spokesman for the traditional style of painting • Intellect and draftsmanship – Never let the brushstroke show • His intricate line work influenced Picasso, Matisse, and DegasEugène Delacroix • French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school. Delacroixs use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical
effects of color profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the symbolists. • • Delacroix in Morocco • Visit to Morocco changed his life/subject matter, color expression • Renewed his conviction that beauty exists in the fierceness of nature, especially animals •Francisco de Goya • Defines Spanish Romantic movement • Started off painting cartoons for Rococo tapestries • French Revolution (1789) inspired his art • Political enlightenment and the freedom of the individual • Disillusionment sets in as reforms in France were short-livedGustave Courbet • style: self-educated; copied Spanish, Dutch & Venetian masters @ Louvre • Baroque lighting (e.g., Caravaggio, Rembrandt) • objective record of customs & appearances of contemporary society • fight against official art (salon REJECT) • subjects: “Show me an angel, and I’ll paint one” • No exotic locales, no gods and goddesses, no heroes of history.. Only wht you can see or touch.Thomas Eakins • Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) – teacher: Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts • taught anatomy to medical students & figure drawing to art students • disapproved of academic technique of drawing from plaster casts – used nude model – allowed female students to study male nude • Critics called him a “butcher” and “degrading”Movements and “Schools”The Rococo - 1700-1750 • Though Rococo originated in the purely decorative arts, the style showed clearly in painting. These painters used delicate colors and curving forms, decorating their canvases with cherubs and myths of love. Portraiture was also popular among Rococo painters. Some works show a sort of naughtiness or impurity in the behavior of their subjects, showing the historical trend of departing away from the Baroques church/state orientation. Landscapes were pastoral and often depicted the leisurely outings of aristocratic couples. • “Rococo” derived from rocaille, (pebble or shell) and barocco. Motifs in Rococo art resemble ornate shell or pebble work popular in gardens. • Refined, fanciful, and often playful style fashionable in France at turn of century, spread thru Europe in 18th century • Pastel colors, delicately curving forms, dainty figures, light hearted • Reaction against rigidity and solemnity of 17th century court“The Natural” morality painting expressing real sentiment and honest virtue.
Inspired by the writing of Rousseau and Diderot, father of modern art criticism-wrote that art’s proper function was to improve virtue and purify manners… criticized rococo “immoral” art…The Grand Tour • the completion of an aristocratic education was a tour of the major cultural sites of Europe • Paris, Venice, Florence, Naples, and Rome • This heavily inspires the growth of Neoclassicism during the Enlightenment • Pleased the senses and taught moral lessons • Was a reaction to frivolity of Rococo • Pompeii and Herculaneum discovered in 1738The History of Ancient Art • Published by Johann Joachim Winckelmann • “A noble simplicity and calm grandeur…” • Greek art is hailed for its beauty and moral character – Response to Rococo frivolity • Became the focus and agenda for Neoclassical artNeoclassicism • A reaction against both the Baroque and Rococo styles, and as a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, the more vague perception ("ideal") of Ancient Greek arts (where almost no western artist had actually been) and, to a lesser extent, 16th century Renaissance Classicism. • Stimulated by widespread interest and enthusiasm among the literati for the findings at archaeological excavations at Herculaneum and Pompeii and by the interpretative writings of J. J. Winckelmann, especially his History of Ancient Art (1764).Romanticism • Literary, artistic, and philosophical movement that began in Europe in the 18th century and lasted roughly until the mid-19th century. In its intense focus on the individual consciousness, it was both a continuation of and a reaction against the Enlightenment. Romanticism emphasized the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the imaginative, the personal, the spontaneous, the emotional, the visionary, and the transcendental. • Among its attitudes were a deepened appreciation of the beauties of nature; a general exaltation of emotion over reason and of the senses over intellect; a turning in upon the self and a heightened examination of human personality; a preoccupation with the genius, the hero, and the exceptional figure; a new view of the artist as a supremely individual creator; an emphasis on imagination as a gateway to transcendent experience and spiritual truth; a consuming interest in folk culture, national and ethnic cultural origins, and the medieval era; and a predilection for the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the weird, the occult, the monstrous, the diseased, and even the satanic.Romantic Landscapes • Rather than just describing the scene, Romantic artists colored it by mood and used nature as allegory • Artists comment on spiritual, moral, historical, or philosophical issues – Allows the artist to “naturalize” conditions – make them appear normal, acceptable, or inevitableOrientalism • European art patrons wanted landscapes of more exotic, unfamiliar places • The lands of the east tended to capture the imagination of Western Europeans
• Romantic fascination with foreign culture • Oriental subjects engaged both Romantic and Neoclassical artists • Stressed sex and violence • Who is depicting whom?Realism • context: cultural – role of artist: • no longer to simply reveal beautiful & sublime • aimed to tell the truth • not beholden to higher, idealized reality (i.e., God) – subjects: • ordinary events and objects • working class & broad panorama of society • psychological motivation of characters • Enlightenment put focus on scientific method and observation • Empiricism – knowledge based on what can be measured and directly experienced • What can actually be seen/experienced in the world • Realists only painted subjects they themselves could experience (personal experience) •Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood • Not everyone was enjoying the world produced by industrialization • In England, Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood departed from subject matter of French Realists • Tired of classical themes, focused on medieval stories and spiritualityMethods and Techniques:Neoclassical Art Training • Tended to continue to dominate academies • Teachers stressed the study of ancient sculpture and great artists from the past – Raphael, Michelangelo – Art was for the universal and the beautiful, meant to shape public thinking towards virtue and taste • Art was for cultural indoctrination • Paris was the center of the cultural world • Ecole des Beaux-Arts renowned academy • Ateliers – private studios offering instruction • Paris Salon was preeminent place to show art – Controlled by juries that stressed conservative views of art • Gradually alternatives begin to appear to meet needs for different forms of art (see Impressionists) •“Odalisque” • Reclining female nude • Turkish word for “harem girl” • Found throughout Western artInfluential Figures:Napoleon and Art • Napoleon used art to help push his ambitious agenda
• Arc de Triomphe was based on Arch of Titus • His political order combined with the art ushered in the Romantic era of art • Created a model for how modern politicians and leaders could use the power of art and images for political means.Edmund Burke • 18th c. English politician and philosopher – wrote A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origins of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful • Sublime = feelings of awe mixed with terror • The most intense human emotions are evoked by pain or fear and that when these emotions are distanced they can be thrillingJean-Jacques Rousseau • Tranquility is found also in dungeons; but is that enough to make them desirable places to live in? • To say that a man gives himself gratuitously, is to say what is absurd and inconceivable; such an act is null and illegitimate, from the mere fact that he who does it is out of his mind. To say the same of a whole people is to suppose a people of madmen; and madness creates no right. • Even if each man could alienate himself, he could not alienate his children: they are born men and free; their liberty belongs to them, and no one but they has the right to dispose of it.History:The Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic, and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom , then subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. • The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. Most notably, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. In the two centuries following 1800, the worlds average per capita income increased over 10-fold, while the worlds population increased over 6-fold.The Enlightenment th • Europe started the 18 century in a semi-feudal state – Economic and political power was centrally-based – Aristocratic class held most of the power – By the end, industrial manufacturing would shift the economic paradigm • The Enlightenment pushed thinkers, philosophes, to improve the institutions of mankind – Nature is both rational and good – Observation of natural laws could theoretically lead to happiness for mankindFrench Revolution 17889, Causes • Enlightenment (knowledge & observation) • Economic crisis • Clash between the Third Estate and the First and Second Estates rd – 3 = peasants, workers, bourgeoisie st nd – 1 & 2 = clergy & nobility • Fought over issue of representation in the legislative body, the Estates-General – Convened to discuss taxation
The Realist Era • Typically associated with the 1850’s • Scientific method is used rather than accept dogma • Develops the “Age of Reason” • Industrial Revolution takes shape as factories produce goods cheaper and faster • Migration from rural areas into cities (urbanization), economies change from agrarian to industrial • Major inventions are the train and photographyRealism: Exploring human evolution & social equality • political context: Marxism • Communist Manifesto(c. 1850) – thesis: all history was history of class struggles – determined by humanity’s relationship to material wealth • Darwin: theory of evolution • POSITIVISM: all knowledge comes from tested scientific proof – Developed by philosopher Auguste Comte (1798-1857) – All knowledge could be derived from objectivity of scientific observation – (Ahem…anyone ever hear of Aristotle??!!) – Social scientists would deduce laws of human culture – Metaphysical and theological speculation was out – Positivism stressed emphasis on objectivity