Upper right, Giorgione “Sleeping Venus” (the Dresden Venus), c. 1510.Lower half, Goya “The Nude Maja”, c. 1796-1798.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (French, 1780–1867), Comtessed’Haussonville, dated 1845; Oil on canvas, 51 ⅞ x 36 ¼ inches (131.8 x 92); The Frick Collection, New York. How does Ingres work both acknowledge the existence of photography and displays traditional painting techniques?Compare with Nadar’s portraits (photography). Ingres captures realistic detail – light in the corner of the room, the reflection in the mirror, details of the dress and folds. He used models and photographs to get the human figure right. Ingres was able to color his portrait while photography was not. Which has the advantage?
Mentally ill fascinated Gericault due to their irrational state of mind, a perfect scenario against Enlightenment’s rationalityHe examined the influence of the mental state on human faces and believed that the face accurately revealed the character especailly at the moment of death, What tells you she’s insane? Redness of her eyes, mouth is tense, lines in her face depict her suffering, Not the earlier idealized portraiture
Gouache is watercolor that becomes opaque when it dries.Blake longed to see religion reformed, yet again. He was an engraver, painter and poet but his works weren’t well known until hundred years after his death From 1793-1796 he illustrated the Prophetic Books using biblical themes. What is God doing here? Organizing the universe with a compassWhat mixture of styles and contrast do you see here? Renaissance body, baroque lighting, naturalistic clouds, precise circle and compass,Renaissance colors, Blake, rejected rationalism of the EnlightenmentAcknowledged the beast in humansFigure is Urizen, a pun on “your reason” an evil Enlightenment figure of rational thinking,
Los Caprichos emerged after Goya thought deeply about the proclivity for rationality and order in Neoclassicism.He is asleep, slumped on a table while creatures converge on him . The creatures are Owls, then a symbol of folly and bats a symbol of ignorance; What is romantic about it? Monsters, creatures, imaginative, emotional, nightmarish , fantasy not reason
Romantic transcendental landscape not experienced but knowable; philosophy independent of human experience of phenomena but within the range of knowledgeHis work Demands silence appropriate for sacred placesWhat are all the signs that lead to death? Bare treed, dark shaded forest, sundown, dark sky, casket, gothic ruins, old cemetery, tilted cross,
Rococo to Realism 1
Rococo to Realism
The EnlightenmentEurope started the 18th century in asemi-feudal state Economic and political power was centrally-based Aristocratic class held most of the powerBy the end, industrial manufacturingwould shift the economic paradigm
The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment pushedthinkers, philosophes, to improve theinstitutions of mankind Nature is both rational and good Observation of natural laws could theoretically lead to happiness for mankind
Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution was a periodfrom the 18th to the 19th centurywhere major changes inagriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had aprofound effect on thesocioeconomic, and cultural conditionsof the times. It began in the UnitedKingdom , then subsequently spreadthroughout Europe, NorthAmerica, and eventually the world.
Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution marks amajor turning point in human history;almost every aspect of daily life wasinfluenced in some way. Mostnotably, average income andpopulation began to exhibitunprecedented sustained growth. Inthe two centuries following 1800, theworlds average per capita incomeincreased over 10-fold, while theworlds population increased over 6-fold.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau• Tranquility is found also in dungeons; but is that enough to make them desirable places to live in?• To say that a man gives himself gratuitously, is to say what is absurd and inconceivable; such an act is null and illegitimate, from the mere fact that he who does it is out of his mind. To say the same of a whole people is to suppose a people of madmen; and madness creates no right.• Even if each man could alienate himself, he could not alienate his children: they are born men and free; their liberty belongs to them, and no one but they has the right to dispose of it.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau• I know that [civilized men] do nothing but boast incessantly of the peace and repose they enjoy in their chains.... But when I see [barbarous man] sacrifice pleasures, repose, wealth, power, an d life itself for the preservation of this sole good which is so disdained by those who have lost it; when I see animals born free and despising captivity break their heads against the bars of their prison; when I see multitudes of entirely naked savages scorn European voluptuousness and endure hunger, fire, the sword, and death to preserve only their independence, I feel it does not behoove slaves to reason about freedom.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau • In reality, the difference is, that the savage lives within himself while social man lives outside himself and can only live in the opinion of others, so that he seems to receive the feeling of his own existence only from the judgement of others concerning him. It is not to my present purpose to insist on the indifference to good and evil which arises from this disposition, in spite of our many fine works on morality, or to show how, everything being reduced to appearances, there is but art and mummery in even honour, friendship, virtue, and often vice itself, of which we at length learn the secret of boasting; to show, in short, how abject we are, and never daring to ask ourselves in the midst of so much philosophy, benevolence, politeness, and of such sublime codes of morality, we have nothing to show for ourselves but a frivolous and deceitful appearance, honour without virtue, reason without wisdom, and pleasure without happiness.
The Rococo - 1700-1750• “Rococo” derived from rocaille, (pebble or shell) and barocco. Motifs in Rococo art resemble ornate shell or pebble work popular in gardens.• Refined, fanciful, and often playful style fashionable in France at turn of century, spread thru Europe in 18th century• Pastel colors, delicately curving forms, dainty figures, light hearted• Reaction against rigidity and solemnity of 17th century court The Swing, Fragonard, 1766
RococoThough Rococo originated in thepurely decorative arts, the styleshowed clearly in painting. Thesepainters used delicate colors andcurving forms, decorating theircanvases with cherubs and myths oflove. Portraiture was also popularamong Rococo painters. Some worksshow a sort of naughtiness or impurityin the behavior of theirsubjects, showing the historical trendof departing away from the Baroqueschurch/state orientation. Landscapeswere pastoral and often depicted theleisurely outings of aristocraticcouples.
GERMAIN BOFFRAND, Salon de laPrincesse, with painting by CHARLES-JOSEPH NATOIRE and sculpture by J. B. LEMOINE, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, France, 1737–1740. 37
FRANÇOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace park, Munich, Germany, early 18th century. 38
The Drunken Cobbler, Jean-Baptiste Greuze. Oil on canvas, 1785.“The Natural” : morality painting expressing real sentiment and honest virtue.Inspired by the writing of Rousseau and Diderot, father of modern art criticism-wrote that art’sproper function was to improve virtue and purify manners… criticized rococo “immoral” art…
BENJAMIN WEST, Death of General Wolfe, 1771. 63
Italy and Classical Revival• The Grand Tour – the completion of an aristocratic education was a tour of the major cultural sites of Europe• Paris, Venice, Florence, Naples, a nd Rome• This heavily inspires the growth of Neoclassicism during the Enlightenment• Pleased the senses and taught moral lessons• Was a reaction to frivolity of Rococo• Pompeii and Herculaneum discovered in 1738
ANTONIO CANALETTO, Riva degli Schiavoni, Venice, ca. 1735-1740. 65
veduta (Italian for "view"; plural vedute) is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting of a cityscape or some other vista.
The History of Ancient Art• Published by Johann Joachim Winckelmann• “A noble simplicity and calm grandeur…”• Greek art is hailed for its beauty and moral character – Response to Rococo frivolity• Became the focus and agenda for Neoclassical art
1789 French Revolution Causes• Enlightenment (knowledge & observation)• Economic crisis• Clash between the Third Estate and the First and Second Estates – 3rd = peasants, workers, bourgeoisi e – 1st & 2nd = clergy & nobility• Fought over issue of representation in the legislative body, the Estates- General – Convened to discuss taxation
Jacques Louis David• Started as a Rococo painter (relative of Boucher)• Spent time in Italy and turned to academic painting – Declared Rococo “artificial taste” – Exalted classical art as the imitation of nature in the most beautiful and perfect form
JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. 70
Neoclassicism• A reaction against both the Baroque and Rococo styles, and as a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, the more vague perception ("ideal") of Ancient Greek arts (where almost no western artist had actually been) and, to a lesser extent, 16th century Renaissance Classicism.• Stimulated by widespread interest and enthusiasm among the literati for the findings at archaeological excavations at Herculaneum and Pompeii and by the interpretative writings of J. J. Winckelmann, especially his History of Ancient Art (1764).
Neoclassical Art Training• Tended to continue to dominate academies• Teachers stressed the study of ancient sculpture and great artists from the past – Raphael, Michelangelo• Art was for the universal and the beautiful, meant to shape public thinking towards virtue and taste• Art was for cultural indoctrination
• Paris was the center of the cultural world• Ecole des Beaux-Arts renowned academy• Ateliers – private studios offering instruction• Paris Salon was preeminent place to show art – Controlled by juries that stressed conservative views of art• Gradually alternatives begin to appear to meet needs for different forms of art (see Impressionists)
JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, The Death of Marat, 1793. 74
• Different variations on great slain leaders of the time• Grandiose vs. sparse
Jacques Louis David and Napoleon• David’s political agenda was highly successful through the influence of his art• Was imprisoned in 1794 after supporting a regime which fell out of favor• Pulled back from center stage, painted portraits and classical events• Napoleon, upon being crowned emperor in 1804, sought David’s artistic abilities• David enthusiastically accepted, depicted Napoleon as an invincible hero
Napoleon and Art• Napoleon used art to help push his ambitious agenda• Arc de Triomphe was based on Arch of Titus• His political order combined with the art ushered in the Romantic era of art• Created a model for how modern politicians and leaders could use the power of art and images for political means.
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres• Spokesman for the traditional style of painting• Intellect and draftsmanship – Never let the brushstroke show• His intricate line work influenced Picasso, Matisse, and Degas
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque
“Odalisque”• Reclining female nude• Turkish word for “harem girl”• Found throughout Western art
• Mannerist influence – Small head, elongated head – Languid pose – Cool colors
Edmund Burke• 18th c. English politician and philosopher – wrote A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origins of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful• Sublime = feelings of awe mixed with terror• The most intense human emotions are evoked by pain or fear and that when these emotions are distanced they can be thrilling
RomanticismLiterary, artistic, and philosophicalmovement that began in Europe in the18th century and lasted roughly untilthe mid-19th century. In its intensefocus on the individualconsciousness, it was both acontinuation of and a reaction againstthe Enlightenment. Romanticismemphasized the individual, thesubjective, the irrational, theimaginative, the personal, thespontaneous, the emotional, thevisionary, and the transcendental.
RomanticismAmong its attitudes were a deepenedappreciation of the beauties of nature;a general exaltation of emotion overreason and of the senses overintellect; a turning in upon the self anda heightened examination of humanpersonality; a preoccupation with thegenius, the hero, and the exceptionalfigure; a new view of the artist as asupremely individual creator; anemphasis on imagination as a gatewayto transcendent experience andspiritual truth; a consuming interest infolk culture, national and ethniccultural origins, and the medieval era;and a predilection for the exotic, theremote, the mysterious, the weird, theoccult, the monstrous, thediseased, and even the satanic.
Romanticism:Emerged from a desire to be freeDesire for freedom in: politics; feelings; thought; action; worship;speech; tasteFreedom is the right and property of all.Path to freedom was through imagination, not reasonFreedom functioned through feeling not accepted wisdomOriginated among German literary groups (ironically)Neoclassicism v. RomanticismReasons FeelingsCalculation IntuitionObjective Nature Subjective emotionsInterest in Classical Interest in Medievalart and literature and sublime
Eugène Delacroix• French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school. Delacroixs use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of color profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the symbolists.
Neoclassicism vs. Romanticism Neoclassicism Romanticism• Values: Order • Values: Emotion, imagination• Tone: Rational, calm • Tone: Spontaneous• Subjects: Greek and Roman • Subjects: history, myth Legends, exotic, nature, violen ce• Technique: Stressed use of • Technique: Quick lines, no trace of brushstrokes, chiaroscuro, ten brushstrokes ebrism• Role: Morally • Genre: Heroic uplifting, inspiring struggle, landscape, wild• Key Artist: David animals • Key Artists: Gericault, Delacroix
Ingres vs. Delacroix Ingres Delacroix• Brushstrokes should be as • “The real man is the smooth “as the skin of an savage” onion” • “Passionately in love with• Intellect and craftsmanship passion”• Conservative • Exotic images charged with• Technical skill violence• Strong, warm colors were • Lush colors, swirling curves “antihistorical” • Animals and human figures swirling, knotted in combat
Delacroix in Morocco• Visit to Morocco changed his life/subject matter, color expression• Renewed his conviction that beauty exists in the fierceness of nature, especially animals
Eugene Delacroix, THE DEATH OF SARDANAPALUS, 1827.
Francisco de Goya• Defines Spanish Romantic movement• Started off painting cartoons for Rococo tapestries• French Revolution (1789) inspired his art• Political enlightenment and the freedom of the individual• Disillusionment sets in as reforms in France were short-lived
EUGÈNE DELACROIX, Liberty Leading the People, 1830. Oil on canvas, approx. 8’ 6” x 10’ 8”. Louvre, Paris.
Francisco Goya, Sleep ofReason ProducesMonsters, from LosCaprichos (The Caprices)Plate 43, 1798, etching andaquatint.
Romantic Landscapes• Rather than just describing the scene, Romantic artists colored it by mood and used nature as allegory• Artists comment on spiritual, moral, historical, or philosophical issues – Allows the artist to “naturalize” conditions – make them appear normal, acceptable, or inevitable
John Martin, MANFRED AND THE ALPINE WITCH, 1837.
The Fighting Téméaire, 1838Sun setting on the past – last days of the sailboat, historical changes
Orientalism• European art patrons wanted landscapes of more exotic, unfamiliar places• The lands of the east tended to capture the imagination of Western Europeans• Romantic fascination with foreign culture• Oriental subjects engaged both Romantic and Neoclassical artists• Stressed sex and violence• Who is depicting whom?