Reformation to Baroque 2

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Reformation to Baroque 2

  1. 1. The Baroque (2) 1
  2. 2. Spanish Netherlands: Flemish painting under Spanish control (Modern Belgium-Flemish Baroque) • Phillip II “Most Catholic King” of Spain repressive towards Protestants • Netherlands splits between north (Protestant) and South- (Catholic) • North is independent • South is ruled by Spanish Empire
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  7. 7. Peter Paul Rubens • Educated, looks, well-traveled, happy • ENERGY – his life and art – Rose at 4am and worked until midnight – Great work ethic, over 2,000 paintings • Influenced by Michelangelo and Caravaggio • Unified the styles of northern and southern Europe – Became synonymous with Flemish Baroque • Confident of Kings and Queens, dispatched on several diplomatic missions Created thousands of sketches in his travels of famous artwork to study and use • Built a house with a large studio that allowed his workshop and assistants to crank out hundreds of works • Price of work was equivalent to how much he actually painted
  8. 8. Peter Paul Rubens “Rubenesque” Applied to a woman who has similar proportions to those in paintings by the Flemish painter Peter Paul Ruben; attractively plump; a woman who is alluring or pretty but without the waif-like body or athletic build presently common in media. "Our waitress is really hot, even if she has a few extra pounds on her, but it doesn't matter because I like my women rubenesque anyway."
  9. 9. 9 PETER PAUL RUBENS, Elevation of the Cross, from Saint Walburga, Antwerp, 1610. Oil on wood, 15’ 1 7/8” x 11’ 1 1/2” (center panel), 15' 1 7/8" x 4' 11" (each wing). Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp.
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  11. 11. PETER PAUL RUBENS, Elevation of the Cross • Commissioned for the church of Saint Walburga in Antwerp • Influence of Michelangelo and Caravagio evident • Foreshortened anatomy and contortions of violent action • Christ body cuts dynamically across picture plane • Figures resonate with power of strenuous exertion • Emotional and physical tension • Movement-pushes out of the picture plane (Baroque) • Theatricality and emotionalism characteristic of Italian Baroque • Attention to detail represents the Northern Influence • Rubens combines the two to form an international synthesis 12
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  24. 24. Peter Paul Rubens, The Presentation of the Portrait of Marie de’ Medici, c. 1622-1625, oil on canvas, 394 x 295 cm (Musée du Louvre)
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  27. 27. 30 PETER PAUL RUBENS, Arrival of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles, 1622–1625. Oil on canvas, 12’ 11 1/2” x 9’ 7”. Louvre, Paris.
  28. 28. PETER PAUL RUBENS, Arrival of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles • Marriage of French king Henry IV and italian Marei de’Medici • Painted a series of 21 paintings (1622-26) to memorialize and glorify her life • Her life was not very interesting, so Rubens added Mythical figures to give it a sense of grandeur and importance • Over the top-huge ego • Personification of France greets Marie • Sea and sky rejoice at arrival • Neptune and the Nereids salute her • Decorative splendor holds composition together 31
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  32. 32. Also includes events that were both quite recent and quite humiliating. After Henry was assassinated in 1610, Marie—acting as regent for their young son, Louis XIII—ruled the kingdom of France for seven years. The position suited her; but many French nobles begrudged her power. Divisions in the court, including tensions with her own son, led to Marie’s exile from the Paris in 1617. The commission of the biographical cycle marked her reconciliation with Louis and her return to the capital city in 1620. It vindicated her reign as the queen of France. 35
  33. 33. 36 PETER PAUL RUBENS, Consequences of War, 1638–1639. Oil on canvas, 6’ 9” x 11’ 3 7/8”. Palazzo Pitti, Florence..
  34. 34. PETER PAUL RUBENS, Consequences of War • Rubens worked for many nations so could not comment on conflict in direct way(use of allegorical figures) • Door to temple of Janus is open (symbol to War) • Venus attempts to prevent Mars from going to battle. • Figure of Europe in black throws her arms up. • Fury Alekto drags Mars forward, sword drawn, to trample the arts and music, symbols of family and fecundity. Monsters of Pestilence and Famine lurk in the back. 37
  35. 35. The Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands North Region (Modern Holland) Late 16th Century: Independence from Spain Protestant 1609 Bank of Amsterdam Political power: urban merchants Prosperous: wealthiest region of Europe Moralistic No King (no feudal land rights)
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  37. 37. Arbitrage The practice of taking advantage of a price difference between two or more markets: striking a combination of matching deals that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices. In simple terms, it is the possibility of a risk-free profit at zero cost. 40
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  39. 39. 42 “Speculative Bubble”
  40. 40. The Golden Age of Dutch Art • The Dutch Republic was based on commerce and trade; merchant class held power, wealth • No royal court and officials and lacking Catholic church commissions, artists turned to merchant class for work • Portraiture rose in popularity as did works showing their possessions and land • Merchant patrons • Realism, Genre Scenes, still life, Little religious art • Moralizing • Landscapes that showed work ethic • Bourgeoisie portraits showed status without being ostentatious
  41. 41. 44 HENDRICK TER BRUGGHEN, Calling of Saint Matthew, 1621. Oil on canvas, 3’ 4” x 4’ 6”. The Hague.
  42. 42. HENDRICK TER BRUGGHEN, Calling of Saint Matthew • Selected them from Caravaggio • Softer tints, compressed space, much more intimate effect 45
  43. 43. Frans Hals Brilliant portrait painter Different from Leonardo, Holbein, or Durer’s portraits of exactness Quick brushstrokes capture the momentary smile and twinkle of an eye Actually took a lot of time to capture spontaneity Broke conventional ways of depiction Pose, setting, attire, accessories Typical conventions did not apply to middle class portraiture Hals produced lively and relaxed images Excelled at group portraits
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  45. 45. 48 FRANS HALS, Archers of Saint Hadrian, ca. 1633. Oil on canvas, approx. 6’ 9” x 11’. Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem.
  46. 46. FRANS HALS, Archers of Saint Hadrian • Popular group portraits reflect participation in Dutch civic organizations • Each member paid a fee • Dutch Civic Militia groups claim credit for liberation from Spain • Hals enlivens the troop, movements and moods vary markedly • Spontaneity of gesture despite uniformity of attire • Preservation of gesture and fleeting facial expressions evidence of careful planning but does not immediately appear so because of Hals vivacious brushwork 49
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  48. 48. 53 GERRIT VAN HONTHORST, Supper Party, 1620. Oil on canvas, 4’ 8” x 7’. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  49. 49. GERRIT VAN HONTHORST, Supper Party • Genre Scene • Informal gathering of un- idealized figures • Inspired by Caravaggio’s use of light but adding his own ideas • Lighthearted but Can be read in a moralistic way- could be warning against the sins of gluttony and lust 54
  50. 50. Rembrandt Born in Lieden, moved to Amsterdam, the financial center of Europe Became the cities most-renowned portrait artist Delved deeply into the psyche and personality of his sitters Long career (40 years) Without the Catholic Church in Holland to commission art, Rembrandt and his fellow Dutch artists were lavishly supported by a wealthy, Protestant, and expanding middle class. This group of patrons enthusiastically commissioned works of art with their increasing discretionary income- mostly portraits.
  51. 51. Rembrandt He deviated even more from the traditional group portrait than Hals Sitters not placed evenly across the picture plane Use of light is a key element Gradual transitions, no sharp edges Fine nuances of lights and darks Uses for psychological effect
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  53. 53. 58 FRANS HALS, Archers of Saint Hadrian, ca. 1633. Oil on canvas, approx. 6’ 9” x 11’. Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem.
  54. 54. 59 REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632. Oil on canvas, 5’ 3 3/4” x 7’ 1 1/4”. Mauritshuis, The Hague.
  55. 55. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, • Rembrandt age 26 • Deviates from traditional group portraiture. • Poses and expressions suggest varying degrees of intensity. • “spotlight” on each person- inner light of the individual as opposed to outer light of the divine. • Doctor is only person wearing a hat (signifies importance) • The cadaver—a recently executed thief named Adriaen Adriaenszoon • In actuality Dr. Tulp would be lecturing to larger audience while assistant dissected. 60
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  63. 63. The Catholic tenant of resurrection necessitated that dead bodies be interned in a state of wholeness, and this fact explains why Leonardo was forced to dissect human bodies in secret. In Protestant Holland but 113 years after Leonardo’s death, however, human dissections were not only common practice, they were often public spectacles, complete with food and wine, music and conversation. 68
  64. 64. Dead bodies usually Christ Northern Baroque- science replaces the spiritual 69
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  66. 66. 71 REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch), 1642. Oil on canvas (cropped from original size), 11’ 11” x 14’ 4”. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
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  69. 69. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch), • Actually a day scene (has darkened considerably) • Light used in amasterful way • One of many civic-guard portraits- one if 6 paintings commissioned for the banquet hall of Amsterdams Musketeers Hall • Painting trimmed on all sides in 1715 • Captures excitement and frenetic energy rather than dull staid poses • 3 important stages of loading and firing a musket 74
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  88. 88. 93 REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Return of the Prodigal Son, ca. 1665. Oil on canvas, approx. 8’ 8” x 6’ 9”. Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
  89. 89. • Rembrandt interested in probing the states of the soul • Psychological insight, sympathy for human affliction • Light directs attention • Religious Protestant art vs. Religious Catholic art • Piety vs. emotional drama • Human contemplation vs. theology • Humanity of Jesus vs. triumph of the church
  90. 90. Bathsheeba 95
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  93. 93. 106 REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Self- Portrait, ca. 1659–1660. Oil on canvas, approx. 3’ 8 3/4” x 3’ 1”. Kenwood House, London (Iveagh Bequest).
  94. 94. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Self-Portrait, 1658. Oil on canvas, 4’ 4 5/8” X 3’ 4 7/8”. Frick Collection, New York. 107

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