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Reformation to Baroque 1
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  • 1. The Baroque Era 1
  • 2. Europe in the 16th Century 2
  • 3. Europe in the 17th Century 3
  • 4. Protestant Reformation• By the early 1500s, many people in Western Europe were growing increasingly dissatisfied with the Christian Church. Many found the Pope too involved with secular (worldly) matters, rather than with his flocks spiritual well-being. Lower church officials were poorly educated and broke vows by living richly and keeping mistresses. Some officials practiced simony, or passing down their title as priest or bishop to their illegitimate sons. In keeping with the many social changes of the Renaissance people began to boldly challenge the authority of the Christian Church. 4
  • 5. Martin Luther 5
  • 6. Martin Luther and his 95 Theses• A German monk by the name of Martin Luther was particularly bothered by the selling of indulgences. An indulgence, a religious pardon that released a sinner from performing specific penalties, could be bought from a church official for various fees. Martin Luther was especially troubled because some church officials gave people the impression that they could buy their way into heaven. To express his growing concern of church corruption, Martin Luther wrote his famous 95 Theses, which called for a full reform of the Christian Church. In it, he stressed the following points: 6
  • 7. • The Pope is a false authority. The bible was the one true authority.• All people with faith in Christ were equal. People did not need priest and bishops to interpret the bible for them. They could read it themselves and make up their own minds.• People could only win salvation by faith in Gods forgiveness. The Church taught that faith, along with good works was needed for salvation. 7
  • 8. LUCAS CRANACH THE ELDER, Allegory of Law and Grace, ca. 1530. Woodcut, 10 5/8” x 1’ 3/4”. British Museum, London. 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. ICONOCLASM 10
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  • 13. St. Bartholomew’sDay Massacre1572 13
  • 14. The Thirty Years War 14
  • 15. Thirty Years’ WarThe Thirty Years War (1618–1648)was fought primarily in what is nowGermany, and at various pointsinvolved most countries in Europe.It was one of the longest and mostdestructive conflicts in Europeanhistory. The conflict lasted,unceasing, for 30 years, making itthe longest continuous war inmodern history. 15
  • 16. 16
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  • 21. The Counter Reformation• Attempts by the Catholic church and secular Catholic authorities to stem the flow of Protestantism and reform some of the worst excesses of medieval Catholicism.• Art was used as a tool of persuasion. 21
  • 22. Baroque• The seventeenth-century period in Europe characterized in the visual arts by dramatic light and shade, turbulent composition, and exaggerated expression. 22
  • 23. What is Baroque?•Art produced from the end of the 16th to early 18thcenturies•Stresses emotional, rather than intellectual responses;likes drama – Grew out of the tug-of-war between Protestant Reformation (Northern Europe) and Counter Reformation (Italy)•Artists tried to persuade to the faithful through dramaticworks•Used by “absolute” rulers (popes and kings) tooverwhelm and awe
  • 24. Culture of Baroque Era•Wealthy middle class continues to pursue strongpatronage of arts•Buildings, painting, sculpture continue to be adapted – Still lifes and genre paintings (everyday life) emerge•Science begins to challenge religion, Earth is notcenter of the universe•Workshops begin to churn out copies of popularthemes•Value on the original work is a modern notion
  • 25. BerniniA child prodigy who the popedemanded an audience ofDeemed the “Michelangelo” ofhis generationHis David is hailed as the firstBaroque sculpture – it depictsa dramatic moment andinvolves the audience (manyducked when seeing thestatue for the first time)
  • 26. Bernini and St. Peters•Bernini also was responsible for the courtyardextending in front of the basilica•From Bramante’s original central plan design to theextensions made by Maderno, Bernini unified theseartistic styles•Two curved porticoes extended like the “motherly armsof the Church”
  • 27. alternate view Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1506–1666. 28
  • 28. Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy. Piazza designed by GIANLORENZO BERNINI, 1656-1667. 29
  • 29. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Fountain of the Four Rivers, Piazza Navona, Rome, Italy, 1648–1651. Travertine and marble figures, graniteobelisk. 30
  • 30. 32
  • 31. Solomonic column 33
  • 32. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, baldacchino, SaintPeter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1624–1633.Gilded bronze, 100’ high. 34
  • 33. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Scala Regia (RoyalStairway), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1663–1666. 35
  • 34. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Apollo and Daphne, 1623–1624. Marble,8’ high. Galleria Borghese, Rome. 36
  • 35. 37
  • 36. 38
  • 37. 39
  • 38. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, David, 1623. Marble, 5’ 7” high.Galleria Borghese, Rome. 40
  • 39. Teresa of ÁvilaIn the cloister, she suffered greatly from illness.Early in her sickness, she experienced periods ofreligious ecstasy through the use of the devotionalbook "Tercer abecedario espiritual.She claimed that during her illness she rose fromthe lowest stage, "recollection", to the "devotionsof silence" or even to the "devotions of ecstasy",which was one of perfect union with God. Duringthis final stage, she said she frequentlyexperienced a rich "blessing of tears." As theCatholic distinction between mortal and venial sinbecame clear to her, she says she came tounderstand the awful terror of sin and the inherentnature of original sin. She also became consciousof her own natural impotence in confronting sin,and the necessity of absolute subjection to God. 42
  • 40. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, inerior of theCornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della vittoria,Rome, Italy, 1645-1652. 43
  • 41. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa,Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy,1645–1652. Marble, height of group 11’ 6”. 44
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  • 45. Caravaggio•Recast biblical scenes or themes in new light•Used naturalism but instead did not idealize thenarratives•Accentuates the “sinner” or the lower classes in hisworks•Strong use of light with deep pockets of shadow -tenebrism•Strong personality, thrived in Roman undergroundscene – nec spe nec metu
  • 46. 49
  • 47. 50
  • 48. CARAVAGGIO, Musicians, ca. 1595. Oil on canvas, 3’ 1/4" X 3’ 10 5/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Rogers Fund, 1952). 51
  • 49. 53
  • 50. 54
  • 51. 55
  • 52. CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of Saint Paul, ca.1601. Oil on canvas, 7’ 6” x 5’ 9”. Cerasi Chapel,Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. 56
  • 53. CARAVAGGIO, Calling of Saint Matthew, ca. 1597–1601. Oil on canvas, 11’ 1” x 11’ 5”. Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi,Rome 57
  • 54. 58
  • 55. Tenebrism• From the Italian tenebroso ("murky"), (also called dramatic illumination) is a style of painting using very pronounced chiaroscuro, where there are violent contrasts of light and dark, and darkness becomes a dominating feature of the image. Spanish painters in the early seventeenth century who were influenced by the work of Caravaggio have been called Tenebrists, although they did not form a distinct group. 59
  • 56. CARAVAGGIO, Entombment, from the chapel of PietroVittrice, Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome, Italy, ca. 1603. Oilon canvas, 9’ 10 1/8” x 6’ 7 15/16”. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 60
  • 57. 61
  • 58. 62
  • 59. ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Judith SlayingHolofernes, ca. 1614–1620. Oil on canvas, 6’6 1/3” x 5’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 63
  • 60. ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Self-Portrait as theAllegory of Painting, ca. 1638–1639. Oil on canvas,3’ 2 7/8” X 2’ 5 5/8”. Royal Collection, KensingtonPalace, London. 64
  • 61. The Habsburgs•Charles V abdicates Holy Roman Empire throne in1556 – The Western portion (Spain, American colonies, Netherlands, Burgundy, Milan, Naples and Sicily) go to his son Phillip II – The Eastern portion (Germany and Austria) go to his brother Ferdinand•Even as Spain’s gold imports lessen from New World,and eventual bankruptcy in 1692, this is known asGolden Age of Spain•The artwork tends to support heavily the CatholicChurch and the Habsburgs liked the use of strongdramatic effect and lighting
  • 62. Spain: Hapsburg Empire• 16th century: dominant power in Europe-(Portugal, pt. Italy, Netherlands, New World)• 17th Century: 1660 Hapsburg Empire has fallen – failure to capitalize on trade – Catholic and repressive – King Philip• Religious fanaticism• Counter Reformation – Religious scenes of death and Martyrdom – Realistic details and tenebrism
  • 63. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain(Fraga Philip), 68
  • 64. JOSÉ DE RIBERA, Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, ca. 1639. Oil on canvas, 7’ 8” x 7’ 8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid. 69
  • 65. 70
  • 66. FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN, SaintSerapion, 1628. Oil on canvas, 3’ 11 1/2”x 3’ 4 3/4”. Wadsworth Atheneum,Hartford (The Ella Gallup Sumner andMary Catlin Sumner Collection Fund). 72
  • 67. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Water Carrier of Seville,ca. 1619. Oil on canvas, 3’ 5 1/2” x 2’ 7 1/2”.Victoria & Albert Museum, London. 73
  • 68. Diego VelazquezLeading artist in the court ofKing Phillip IVBecause of Velasquez greatskill in merging color, light,space, rhythm of line, and massin such a way that all haveequal value, he was known as"the painters painter.”Master realist, and few paintershave surpassed him in theability to seize essential featuresand fix them on canvas with afew broad, sure strokes. 74
  • 69. 75
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  • 72. 78
  • 73. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain(Fraga Philip), 1644. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3 1/8” x 3’3 1/8”. The Frick Collection, New York. 79
  • 74. 80
  • 75. 81
  • 76. 82
  • 77. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (TheMaids of Honor), 1656. Oil oncanvas, approx. 10’ 5” x 9’. Museo delPrado, Madrid. 83
  • 78. 84
  • 79. 85
  • 80. 86
  • 81. 87
  • 82. • Hung in the kings private quarters• The Mystery of the visual world – Canvas image – Mirror image – Optical images, not forms• Dual theme – Family portrait • Genre scene – Self portrait-The Artists studio • Wearing illustrious order of Santiago
  • 83. 89
  • 84. Richard Hamilton Meninas by PicassoPicasso’s Meninas