1
The Baroque Era
2
Europe in the 17th Century
Protestant Reformation
• By the early 1500s, many people in Western Europe were growing
increasingly dissatisfied with the...
Martin Luther
4
Martin Luther and his 95 Theses
• A German monk by the name of Martin Luther was particularly
bothered by the selling of i...
• The Pope is a false authority. The bible
was the one true authority.
• All people with faith in Christ were equal.
Peopl...
7
LUCAS CRANACH THE ELDER, Allegory of Law and Grace, ca. 1530. Woodcut, 10 5/8” x 1’ 3/4”. British Museum, London.
8
ICONOCLASM
9
10
11
St. Bartholomew’s
Day Massacre
1572
12
The Thirty Years War
13
Thirty Years’ War
The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648)
was fought primarily in what is now
Germany, and at various points
inv...
15
16
The Counter Reformation
• Attempts by the Catholic church
and secular Catholic authorities to
stem the flow of Protestanti...
Baroque
• The seventeenth-century period in Europe characterized in
the visual arts by dramatic light and shade, turbulent...
What is Baroque?
•Art produced from the end of the 16th to early 18th
centuries
•Stresses emotional, rather than intellect...
Culture of Baroque Era
•Wealthy middle class continues to pursue strong
patronage of arts
•Buildings, painting, sculpture ...
Bernini
A child prodigy who the pope
demanded an audience of
Deemed the “Michelangelo” of
his generation
His David is hail...
Bernini and St. Peters
•Bernini also was responsible for the courtyard
extending in front of the basilica
•From Bramante’s...
24
alternate view Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1506–1666.
Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy. Piazza designed by GIANLORENZO BERNINI, 1656-1667.
25
GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Fountain of the Four Rivers, Piazza Navona, Rome, Italy, 1648–1651. Travertine and marble figures, gr...
28
29
Solomonic column
30
GIANLORENZO BERNINI, baldacchino, Saint
Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1624–1633.
Gilded bronze, 100’ high.
31
GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Scala Regia (Royal Stairway),
Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1663–1666.
GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Apollo and Daphne, 1623–1624. Marble,
8’ high. Galleria Borghese, Rome.
32
33
34
35
36
GIANLORENZO BERNINI, David, 1623. Marble, 5’ 7” high.
Galleria Borghese, Rome.
Teresa of Ávila
In the cloister, she suffered greatly from illness.
Early in her sickness, she experienced periods of
reli...
GIANLORENZO BERNINI, inerior of the
Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della vittoria,
Rome, Italy, 1645-1652.
39
40
GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa,
Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy,
1645–1652. Marbl...
41
42
43
Caravaggio
•Recast biblical scenes or themes in new light
•Used naturalism but instead did not idealize the
narratives
•Ac...
45
47
CARAVAGGIO, Musicians, ca. 1595. Oil on canvas, 3’ 1/4" X 3’ 10 5/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Rogers Fund, 1...
Tenebrism
• From the Italian tenebroso ("murky"), (also called
dramatic illumination) is a style of painting using
very pr...
50
CARAVAGGIO, Calling of Saint Matthew, ca. 1597–1601. Oil on canvas, 11’ 1” x 11’ 5”. Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei F...
51
52
53
54
55
CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of Saint Paul, ca.
1601. Oil on canvas, 7’ 6” x 5’ 9”. Cerasi Chapel,
Santa Maria del Popolo, Ro...
56
CARAVAGGIO, Entombment, from the chapel of Pietro
Vittrice, Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome, Italy, ca. 1603. Oil
on ca...
57
58
59
ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Judith Slaying
Holofernes, ca. 1614–1620. Oil on canvas, 6’
6 1/3” x 5’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffiz...
60
61
62
63
ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Self-Portrait as the
Allegory of Painting, ca. 1638–1639. Oil on canvas,
3’ 2 7/8” X 2’ 5 5/8”. Roy...
The Habsburgs
•Charles V abdicates Holy Roman Empire throne in
1556
– The Western portion (Spain, American colonies,
Nethe...
Spain: Hapsburg Empire
• 16th century: dominant power in
Europe-(Portugal, pt. Italy,
Netherlands, New World)
• 17th Centu...
68
DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain
(Fraga Philip),
69
JOSÉ DE RIBERA, Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, ca. 1639. Oil on canvas, 7’ 8” x 7’ 8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
70
72
FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN, Saint
Serapion, 1628. Oil on canvas, 3’ 11 1/2”
x 3’ 4 3/4”. Wadsworth Atheneum,
Hartford (The E...
73
Diego Velazquez
Leading artist in the court of
King Phillip IV
Because of Velasquez' great
skill in merging color, light,
...
75
DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Water Carrier of Seville,
ca. 1619. Oil on canvas, 3’ 5 1/2” x 2’ 7 1/2”.
Victoria & Albert Museum, Lo...
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain
(Fraga Philip), 1644. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3 1/8” x 3’
3 1/8”. The Frick Collecti...
85
86
87
88
DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The
Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil on canvas,
approx. 10’ 5” x 9’. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
89
90
91
92
• Hung in the kings private quarters
• The Mystery of the visual world
– Canvas image
– Mirror image
– Optical images, not...
94
Reformation to Baroque 1
Reformation to Baroque 1
Reformation to Baroque 1
Reformation to Baroque 1
Reformation to Baroque 1
Reformation to Baroque 1
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Reformation to Baroque 1

  1. 1. 1 The Baroque Era
  2. 2. 2 Europe in the 17th Century
  3. 3. Protestant Reformation • By the early 1500s, many people in Western Europe were growing increasingly dissatisfied with the Christian Church. Many found the Pope too involved with secular (worldly) matters, rather than with his flocks spiritual well-being. Lower church officials were poorly educated and broke vows by living richly and keeping mistresses. Some officials practiced simony, or passing down their title as priest or bishop to their illegitimate sons. In keeping with the many social changes of the Renaissance people began to boldly challenge the authority of the Christian Church. 3
  4. 4. Martin Luther 4
  5. 5. Martin Luther and his 95 Theses • A German monk by the name of Martin Luther was particularly bothered by the selling of indulgences. An indulgence, a religious pardon that released a sinner from performing specific penalties, could be bought from a church official for various fees. Martin Luther was especially troubled because some church officials gave people the impression that they could buy their way into heaven. To express his growing concern of church corruption, Martin Luther wrote his famous 95 Theses, which called for a full reform of the Christian Church. In it, he stressed the following points: 5
  6. 6. • The Pope is a false authority. The bible was the one true authority. • All people with faith in Christ were equal. People did not need priest and bishops to interpret the bible for them. They could read it themselves and make up their own minds. • People could only win salvation by faith in God's forgiveness. The Church taught that faith, along with good works was needed for salvation. 6
  7. 7. 7 LUCAS CRANACH THE ELDER, Allegory of Law and Grace, ca. 1530. Woodcut, 10 5/8” x 1’ 3/4”. British Museum, London.
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. ICONOCLASM 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572 12
  13. 13. The Thirty Years War 13
  14. 14. Thirty Years’ War The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history. The conflict lasted, unceasing, for 30 years, making it the longest continuous war in modern history. 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. The Counter Reformation • Attempts by the Catholic church and secular Catholic authorities to stem the flow of Protestantism and reform some of the worst excesses of medieval Catholicism. • Art was used as a tool of persuasion. 17
  18. 18. Baroque • The seventeenth-century period in Europe characterized in the visual arts by dramatic light and shade, turbulent composition, and exaggerated expression. 18
  19. 19. What is Baroque? •Art produced from the end of the 16th to early 18th centuries •Stresses emotional, rather than intellectual responses; likes drama – Grew out of the tug-of-war between Protestant Reformation (Northern Europe) and Counter Reformation (Italy) •Artists tried to persuade to the faithful through dramatic works •Used by “absolute” rulers (popes and kings) to overwhelm and awe
  20. 20. Culture of Baroque Era •Wealthy middle class continues to pursue strong patronage of arts •Buildings, painting, sculpture continue to be adapted – Still lifes and genre paintings (everyday life) emerge •Science begins to challenge religion, Earth is not center of the universe •Workshops begin to churn out copies of popular themes •Value on the original work is a modern notion
  21. 21. Bernini A child prodigy who the pope demanded an audience of Deemed the “Michelangelo” of his generation His David is hailed as the first Baroque sculpture – it depicts a dramatic moment and involves the audience (many ducked when seeing the statue for the first time)
  22. 22. Bernini and St. Peters •Bernini also was responsible for the courtyard extending in front of the basilica •From Bramante’s original central plan design to the extensions made by Maderno, Bernini unified these artistic styles •Two curved porticoes extended like the “motherly arms of the Church”
  23. 23. 24 alternate view Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1506–1666.
  24. 24. Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy. Piazza designed by GIANLORENZO BERNINI, 1656-1667. 25
  25. 25. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Fountain of the Four Rivers, Piazza Navona, Rome, Italy, 1648–1651. Travertine and marble figures, granite obelisk. 26
  26. 26. 28
  27. 27. 29 Solomonic column
  28. 28. 30 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, baldacchino, Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1624–1633. Gilded bronze, 100’ high.
  29. 29. 31 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Scala Regia (Royal Stairway), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1663–1666.
  30. 30. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Apollo and Daphne, 1623–1624. Marble, 8’ high. Galleria Borghese, Rome. 32
  31. 31. 33
  32. 32. 34
  33. 33. 35
  34. 34. 36 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, David, 1623. Marble, 5’ 7” high. Galleria Borghese, Rome.
  35. 35. Teresa of Ávila In the cloister, she suffered greatly from illness. Early in her sickness, she experienced periods of religious ecstasy through the use of the devotional book "Tercer abecedario espiritual. She claimed that during her illness she rose from the lowest stage, "recollection", to the "devotions of silence" or even to the "devotions of ecstasy", which was one of perfect union with God. During this final stage, she said she frequently experienced a rich "blessing of tears." As the Catholic distinction between mortal and venial sin became clear to her, she says she came to understand the awful terror of sin and the inherent nature of original sin. She also became conscious of her own natural impotence in confronting sin, and the necessity of absolute subjection to God. 38
  36. 36. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, inerior of the Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della vittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645-1652. 39
  37. 37. 40 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645–1652. Marble, height of group 11’ 6”.
  38. 38. 41
  39. 39. 42
  40. 40. 43
  41. 41. Caravaggio •Recast biblical scenes or themes in new light •Used naturalism but instead did not idealize the narratives •Accentuates the “sinner” or the lower classes in his works •Strong use of light with deep pockets of shadow - tenebrism •Strong personality, thrived in Roman underground scene – nec spe nec metu
  42. 42. 45
  43. 43. 47
  44. 44. CARAVAGGIO, Musicians, ca. 1595. Oil on canvas, 3’ 1/4" X 3’ 10 5/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Rogers Fund, 1952). 48
  45. 45. Tenebrism • From the Italian tenebroso ("murky"), (also called dramatic illumination) is a style of painting using very pronounced chiaroscuro, where there are violent contrasts of light and dark, and darkness becomes a dominating feature of the image. Spanish painters in the early seventeenth century who were influenced by the work of Caravaggio have been called Tenebrists, although they did not form a distinct group. 49
  46. 46. 50 CARAVAGGIO, Calling of Saint Matthew, ca. 1597–1601. Oil on canvas, 11’ 1” x 11’ 5”. Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome
  47. 47. 51
  48. 48. 52
  49. 49. 53
  50. 50. 54
  51. 51. 55 CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of Saint Paul, ca. 1601. Oil on canvas, 7’ 6” x 5’ 9”. Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome.
  52. 52. 56 CARAVAGGIO, Entombment, from the chapel of Pietro Vittrice, Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome, Italy, ca. 1603. Oil on canvas, 9’ 10 1/8” x 6’ 7 15/16”. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  53. 53. 57
  54. 54. 58
  55. 55. 59 ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Judith Slaying Holofernes, ca. 1614–1620. Oil on canvas, 6’ 6 1/3” x 5’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  56. 56. 60
  57. 57. 61
  58. 58. 62
  59. 59. 63
  60. 60. ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting, ca. 1638–1639. Oil on canvas, 3’ 2 7/8” X 2’ 5 5/8”. Royal Collection, Kensington Palace, London. 65
  61. 61. The Habsburgs •Charles V abdicates Holy Roman Empire throne in 1556 – The Western portion (Spain, American colonies, Netherlands, Burgundy, Milan, Naples and Sicily) go to his son Phillip II – The Eastern portion (Germany and Austria) go to his brother Ferdinand •Even as Spain’s gold imports lessen from New World, and eventual bankruptcy in 1692, this is known as Golden Age of Spain •The artwork tends to support heavily the Catholic Church and the Habsburgs liked the use of strong dramatic effect and lighting
  62. 62. Spain: Hapsburg Empire • 16th century: dominant power in Europe-(Portugal, pt. Italy, Netherlands, New World) • 17th Century: 1660 Hapsburg Empire has fallen – failure to capitalize on trade – Catholic and repressive – King Philip • Religious fanaticism • Counter Reformation – Religious scenes of death and Martyrdom – Realistic details and tenebrism
  63. 63. 68 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip),
  64. 64. 69 JOSÉ DE RIBERA, Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, ca. 1639. Oil on canvas, 7’ 8” x 7’ 8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  65. 65. 70
  66. 66. 72 FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN, Saint Serapion, 1628. Oil on canvas, 3’ 11 1/2” x 3’ 4 3/4”. Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford (The Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection Fund).
  67. 67. 73
  68. 68. Diego Velazquez Leading artist in the court of King Phillip IV Because of Velasquez' great skill in merging color, light, space, rhythm of line, and mass in such a way that all have equal value, he was known as "the painter's painter.” Master realist, and few painters have surpassed him in the ability to seize essential features and fix them on canvas with a few broad, sure strokes. 74
  69. 69. 75 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Water Carrier of Seville, ca. 1619. Oil on canvas, 3’ 5 1/2” x 2’ 7 1/2”. Victoria & Albert Museum, London.
  70. 70. 76
  71. 71. 77
  72. 72. 78
  73. 73. 79
  74. 74. 80
  75. 75. 81
  76. 76. 82
  77. 77. 83
  78. 78. 84 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip), 1644. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3 1/8” x 3’ 3 1/8”. The Frick Collection, New York.
  79. 79. 85
  80. 80. 86
  81. 81. 87
  82. 82. 88 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil on canvas, approx. 10’ 5” x 9’. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  83. 83. 89
  84. 84. 90
  85. 85. 91
  86. 86. 92
  87. 87. • Hung in the kings private quarters • The Mystery of the visual world – Canvas image – Mirror image – Optical images, not forms • Dual theme – Family portrait • Genre scene – Self portrait-The Artists studio • Wearing illustrious order of Santiago
  88. 88. 94
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