AH 2: Medieval to Renaissance

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  • 1. Medieval to Renaissance 1
  • 2. The Course of EmpireThe Course of Empire is a five-part seriesof paintings created by Thomas Cole inthe years 1833-36. It is notable in part forreflecting popular American sentiments ofthe times, when many saw pastoralism asthe ideal phase of human civilization,fearing that empire would lead to gluttonyand inevitable decay.The series of paintings depicts the growthand fall of an imaginary city, situated onthe lower end of a river valley, near itsmeeting with a bay of the sea. The valleyis distinctly identifiable in each of thepaintings, in part because of an unusuallandmark: a large boulder is precariouslysituated atop a crag overlooking thevalley. 2
  • 3. The Savage State 3
  • 4. The Arcadian or Pastoral State 4
  • 5. The Consumation of Empire 5
  • 6. Destruction 6
  • 7. Desolation 7
  • 8. MorphologyOswald Spengler:Civilization as an organism 8
  • 9. HegelDialectical MaterialismInfinite “Progress” throughREASON. 9
  • 10. Robert McCall
  • 11. A secular “New Jerusalem”
  • 12. There are NO limits to growth or “progress”.The Universe is infinite and the Earth must be transcended.MAN has ultimate control of his destiny.Things only get better and better and better and…… 12
  • 13. Europe in the late 5th Century CE 13
  • 14. The Dark Ages…..were really this dark? 14
  • 15. those who work, those who fight, those who pray 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. 21
  • 22. 22
  • 23. Determinism “learned helplessness” Is this necessarily “Fatalism” ? 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. Christian CosmologyThe Ptolemaic World“The World Dome” 25
  • 26. St. Augustine of Hippo354- 430 CE“The City of God” 26
  • 27. Asgard 27
  • 28. Saṃsāra 28
  • 29. This World is less Realthan the Next 29
  • 30. St. Mark, Venice1063 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. 35
  • 36. 36
  • 37. 37
  • 38. Italy Around 1400 38
  • 39. The Black Death•Estimated to have killed 30% – 60% of Europes population, reducing theworld’s population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and375 million in 1400. This has been seen as creating a series of religious,social and economic upheavals which had profound effects on the courseof European History. It took 150 years for Europes population to recover.•Because the plague killed so many of the poor population, wealthy landowners were forced to pay the remaining workers what they asked, in termsof wages.• Because there was now a surplus in consumer goods, luxury crops couldnow be grown. This meant that for the first time in history, many, formerly ofthe peasant population, now had a chance to live a better life. Mosthistorians now feel that this was the start of the middle class in Europe andEngland. 39
  • 40. yersinia pestis 40
  • 41. 41
  • 42. 42
  • 43. 43
  • 44. 44
  • 45. 45
  • 46. A “black swan” 46
  • 47. St. Thomas Aquinas“Summa Theologica”Aristotle 47
  • 48. The Great Chain of Being 48
  • 49. 49
  • 50. Fall of Constantinople 1453 50
  • 51. Marsilio FicinoTranslated Plato into Latin(from Greek) 51
  • 52. Niccolò Machiavelli“The Prince” 52
  • 53. Giordano Bruno“infinity” 53
  • 54. Renaissance Humanists• Petrarch• Giovanni Boccaccio• Cosimo de Medici• Marsilio Ficino• Niccolò Machiavelli• Baldassare Castiglione• Giordano Bruno 54
  • 55. Humanism• A cultural and intellectual movement during the Renaissance, following the rediscovery of the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome.• It is a philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests, achievements, and capabilities of human beings rather than with the abstract concepts and problems of theology and science. 55
  • 56. HUMANISM a Focus onHuman Beings:Education that perfected humansthrough the study of past models ofcivic and personal virtue.Value system that emphasizedpersonal effort and responsibility.Physically and intellectually activelife that was directed at a commongood as well as individual nobility . 56
  • 57. Humanism through theAGESHumans can solve their own problemsand don’t have to turn to a higherauthority. This thought began inFlorence, Italy then spread allthroughout Europe.Modern humanism is the belief that nosupernatural being can help us, suchas God but relies mainly on reason,science, democracy, and humancompassion. 57
  • 58. BONAVENTURA BERLINGHIERI,panel from the Saint Francis Altarpiece,San Francesco, Pescia, Italy, 1235.Tempera on wood, 5’ x 3’ x 6”. 58
  • 59. CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels andProphets, from Santa Trinità, Florence, Italy, ca. 1280–1290. Tempera and gold leaf on wood, 12’ 7” x 7’ 4”.Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 60
  • 60. GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Madonna Enthroned, fromthe Church of Ognissanti, Florence, Italy, ca. 1310.Tempera and gold leaf on wood, 10’ 8” x 6’ 8”.Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 61
  • 61. 63
  • 62. 64
  • 63. Giotto di Bondone, Arena Chapel(Cappella Scrovegni; interior looking west),Padua, Italy, 1305–1306. 65
  • 64. Lapis lazuli 66
  • 65. GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Lamentation, Arena Chapel, (Cappella Scrovegni), Padua, Italy, ca. 1305. Fresco, 6’ 63/4” x 6’ 3/4”. 67
  • 66. GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Entry into Jerusalem, Arena Chapel (Cappella Scrovegni), Padua, Italy,ca. 1305. Fresco, 6’ 6 3/4" X 6’ 3/4". 70
  • 67. GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Betrayal of Jesus, Arena Chapel (Cappella Scrovegni), Padua, Italy, ca.1305. Fresco, 6’ 6 3/4" X 6’ 3/4". 71
  • 68. 73
  • 69. 74
  • 70. 75
  • 71. 76
  • 72. 80
  • 73. BARTOLOMEO DIFRUOSINO
Inferno, from the DivineComedy by Dante (Folio 1v)
1430-35 81
  • 74. 82
  • 75. Siena 83
  • 76. DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, principal panel of the Maestà altarpiece, fromthe Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, 1308–1311. Tempera and gold leaf on wood, 7’ x 13’ (center panel). Museodell’Opera del Duomo, Siena. 84
  • 77. DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA, Life of Jesus, 14 panels from the back of the Maestà altarpiece, from Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, 1308–1311. Tempera and gold leaf on wood, 7’ X 13’. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena. 85
  • 78. DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA, Betrayal of Jesus, detail from the back of the Maestà altarpiece, from Siena Cathedral,Siena, Italy, 1309–1311. Tempera and gold leaf on wood, detail 1’ 10 1/2” x 3’ 4”. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena. 86
  • 79. DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA, Entry into Jerusalem, panel from the back of the Maestà altarpiece, from Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, 1308–1311.Tempera and gold leaf on wood, 3’ 4 1/2" X 1’ 9 1/8”. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena. 88
  • 80. SIMONE MARTINI AND LIPPO MEMMI(?), Annunciation, altarpiece, from Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, 1333 (framereconstructed in the19th century). Tempera and gold leaf on wood, center panel 10’ 1” x 8’ 8 3/4”. Galleria degli Uffizi,Florence. 89
  • 81. PIETRO LORENZETTI, Birthof the Virgin, from the altar ofSaint Savinus, SienaCathedral, Siena, Italy, 1342.Tempera on wood, 6’ 1” x 5’11”. Museo dell’Opera delDuomo, Siena. 90
  • 82. • INSERT FIGURE 19-15Aerial view of the Campo with the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy, 1288–1309. 91
  • 83. AMBROGIO LORENZETTI, Allegory of Good Government, north (left) and east (right) walls of the Sala dellaPace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy, 1338–1339. Fresco, north wall 25’ 3” wide, east wall 46’ wide. 92
  • 84. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Peaceful City, detail from Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country, Saladella Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy, 1338–1339. Fresco. 93
  • 85. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Peaceful Country, detail from Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country, Sala dellaPace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy, 1338–1339. Fresco. 94
  • 86. 96
  • 87. 97
  • 88. 98
  • 89. 99
  • 90. Condottieri 100
  • 91. Francesco Traini, Triumph of Death. 101
  • 92. Francesco Traini, Triumph of Death. 102
  • 93. Francesco Traini, Triumph of Death. 103
  • 94. Florence CathedralThe “Duomo” 104
  • 95. 105
  • 96. 106
  • 97. 107