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AF chapter16c
AF chapter16c
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AF chapter16c

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  • 1. 1
    Baroque and Rococo
  • 2. 2
    Europe in the 15th Century
  • 3. Northern European artists concerned with depicting life in the real world.
    Artists like Jan van Eyck used linseed oil paint to achieve a brilliance and transparency of color that were previously unattainable.
    3
  • 4. Book of Hours
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. 11
    LIMBOURG BROTHERS (POL, JEAN, HERMAN), January, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413–1416. Ink on vellum, approx. 8 7/8" X 5 3/8". Musée Condé, Chantilly.
  • 12. 12
    LIMBOURG BROTHERS (POL, JEAN, HERMAN), October, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413–1416. Ink on vellum, 8 7/8" X 5 3/8”. Musée Condé, Chantilly.
  • 13. Glazing
    An oil painting technique by which thin, transparent layers of oil paint are applied over an opaque layer to modify that layer's color. It is sometimes difficult to determine exactly the glazes used by the Old Masters because of previous restoration or cleaning, and also because of the similarity between the appearance of a glazed paint layer and varnish.
    13
  • 14. Altarpieces placed at the front of a church
    Series of Wood Panels with religious stories
  • 15. ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece (open), ca. 1425-1428. Oil on wood, center panel 2’ 1 3/8” X 2’ 7/8”, each wing 2’ 1 3/8” X 10 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (The Cloisters Collection, 1956).
    15
  • 16. Annunciation Theme – Angel Gabriel comes to visit Virgin Mary
    Triptych – painting with three panels (altarpiece)
    Northern European Style architecture, human figures look European
    Symbolism – extinguished candle, lillies, white towel – symbols of Virgin Mary’s purity
    Left panel – Peter Engelbrect and wife – patrons (painting commissioned for private use) and artist (Campin) in background in doorway
    Right panel – Joseph (Virgin Mary’s husband) working in his wood shop
    Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece, 1425 – 1428, Oil on Wood
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. 23
    JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (closed), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, completed 1432. Oil on wood, 11’ 6" X 7’ 6".
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. 26
    JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (open), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, completed 1432. Oil on wood, 11’ 5" X 15’ 1”.
  • 27. 27
    HANS MEMLING, Virgin with Saints and Angels, center panel of the Saint John Altarpiece, HospitaalSint Jan, Bruges, Belgium, 1479. Oil on wood, 5’ 7 3/4" X 5’ 7 3/4" (center panel), 5’ 7 3/4" X 2’ 7 1/8" (each wing).
  • 28. 28
    JAN VAN EYCK, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434. Oil on wood, approx. 2’ 9" X 1’ 10 1/2". National Gallery, London.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32. 32
    PETRUS CHRISTUS, A Goldsmith in His Shop, 1449. Oil on wood, approx. 3’ 3" X 2’ 10". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (the Robert Lehman Collection, 1975).
  • 33. Subject is Couple buying Wedding Rings
    Goldsmith weighing gemstones – symbol of Last Judgement of Christ (weighing good and evil)
    Mirror in Foreground – participation of the viewer – we are part of painting
    PetrusChristus, A Goldsmith in His Shop, 1449, Oil on Wood
  • 34. 34
    JAN VAN EYCK, Man in a Red Turban, 1433. Oil on wood, 1’ 1 1/8” X 10 1/4". National Gallery, London.
  • 35. 35
    ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Portrait of a Lady, ca. 1460. Oil on panel, 1’ 1 3/8" X 10 1/16". National Gallery, Washington, D.C. (Andrew W. Mellon Collection).
  • 36. 36
    Europe in the 16th Century
  • 37. 37
    PIETER AERTSEN, Butcher’s Stall, 1551. Oil on wood, 4’ 3/8” x 6’ 5 3/4”. Uppsala University Art Collection, Uppsala.
  • 38. 38
    JOACHIM PATINIR, Landscape with Saint Jerome, ca. 1520–1524. Oil on wood, 2’ 5 1/8” x 2’ 11 7/8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  • 39. 39
    PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559. Oil on wood, 3’ 10” x 5’ 4 1/8”. Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
  • 40. 40
    PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, Hunters in the Snow, 1565. Oil on wood, approx. 3’ 10 1/8” x 5’ 3 3/4”. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
  • 41. 41
  • 42.
  • 43. 43
    Europe in the 17th Century
  • 44. Protestant Reformation
    By the early 1500s, many people in Western Europe were growing increasingly dissatisfied with the Christian Church. Many found the Pope too involved with secular (worldly) matters, rather than with his flocks spiritual well-being. Lower church officials were poorly educated and broke vows by living richly and keeping mistresses. Some officials practiced simony, or passing down their title as priest or bishop to their illegitimate sons. In keeping with the many social changes of the Renaissance people began to boldly challenge the authority of the Christian Church.
    44
  • 45. Martin Luther
    45
  • 46. Lucas Cranach, Allegory of Law and Grace.
    46
  • 47. Martin Luther and his 95 Theses
    A German monk by the name of Martin Luther was particularly bothered by the selling of indulgences. An indulgence, a religious pardon that released a sinner from performing specific penalties, could be bought from a church official for various fees. Martin Luther was especially troubled because some church officials gave people the impression that they could buy their way into heaven. To express his growing concern of church corruption, Martin Luther wrote his famous 95 Theses, which called for a full reform of the Christian Church. In it, he stressed the following points:
    47
  • 48. The Pope is a false authority. The bible was the one true authority.
    All people with faith in Christ were equal. People did not need priest and bishops to interpret the bible for them. They could read it themselves and make up their own minds.
    People could only win salvation by faith in God's forgiveness. The Church taught that faith, along with good works was needed for salvation.
    48
  • 49. ICONOCLASM
    49
  • 50. Baroque
    The seventeenth-century period in Europe characterized in the visual arts by dramatic light and shade, turbulent composition, and exaggerated expression.
    50
  • 51. 51
    GIANLORENZO BERNINI, ScalaRegia (Royal Stairway), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1663–1666.
  • 52. Gian Lorenzo Bernini
    52
  • 53. 53
    GIANLORENZO BERNINI, David, 1623. Marble, 5’ 7” high. Galleria Borghese, Rome.
  • 54. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, inerior of the Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria dellavittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645-1652.
    54
  • 55. 55
    GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria dellaVittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645–1652. Marble, height of group 11’ 6”.
  • 56. The Counter Reformation
    Attempts by the Catholic church and secular Catholic authorities to stem the flow of Protestantism and reform some of the worst excesses of medieval Catholicism.
    Art was used as a tool of persuasion.
    56
  • 57. 57
    CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of Saint Paul, ca. 1601. Oil on canvas, 7’ 6” x 5’ 9”. Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome.
  • 58. 58
    CARAVAGGIO, Calling of Saint Matthew, ca. 1597–1601. Oil on canvas, 11’ 1” x 11’ 5”. Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi deiFrancesi, Rome
  • 59. 59
  • 60. 60
  • 61. Tenebrism
    From the Italiantenebroso ("murky"), (also called dramatic illumination) is a style of painting using very pronounced chiaroscuro, where there are violent contrasts of light and dark, and darkness becomes a dominating feature of the image. Spanish painters in the early seventeenth century who were influenced by the work of Caravaggio have been called Tenebrists, although they did not form a distinct group.
     
    61
  • 62. 62
    CARAVAGGIO, Entombment, from the chapel of PietroVittrice, Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome, Italy, ca. 1603. Oil on canvas, 9’ 10 1/8” x 6’ 7 15/16”. MuseiVaticani, Rome.
  • 63. 63
    ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Judith Slaying Holofernes, ca. 1614–1620. Oil on canvas, 6’ 6 1/3” x 5’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  • 64. 64
    JOSÉ DE RIBERA, Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, ca. 1639. Oil on canvas, 7’ 8” x 7’ 8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  • 65. 65
    FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN, Saint Serapion, 1628. Oil on canvas, 3’ 11 1/2” x 3’ 4 3/4”. Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford (The Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection Fund).
  • 66. 66
    DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Water Carrier of Seville, ca. 1619. Oil on canvas, 3’ 5 1/2” x 2’ 7 1/2”. Victoria & Albert Museum, London.
  • 67. 67
    DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip),
  • 68. 68
    DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil on canvas, approx. 10’ 5” x 9’. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  • 69. 69
    PETER PAUL RUBENS, Elevation of the Cross, from Saint Walburga, Antwerp, 1610. Oil on wood, 15’ 1 7/8” x 11’ 1 1/2” (center panel), 15' 1 7/8" x 4' 11" (each wing). Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp.
  • 70. 70
    PETER PAUL RUBENS, Arrival of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles, 1622–1625. Oil on canvas, 12’ 11 1/2” x 9’ 7”. Louvre, Paris.
  • 71. 71
    PETER PAUL RUBENS, Consequences of War, 1638–1639. Oil on canvas, 6’ 9” x 11’ 3 7/8”. Palazzo Pitti, Florence..
  • 72. 72
    CLARA PEETERS, Still Life with Flowers, Goblet, Dried Fruit, and Pretzels, 1611. Oil on panel, 1’ 7 3/4” x 2’ 1 1/4”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  • 73. 73
    PIETER CLAESZ, Vanitas Still Life, 1630s. Oil on panel, 1’ 2” x 1’ 11 1/2”. GermanischesNationalmuseum, Nuremberg.
  • 74. 74
    WILLEM KALF, Still Life with a Late Ming Ginger Jar, 1669. Oil on canvas, 2’ 6” x 2’ 1 3/4”. Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis. (gift in commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the Art Association of Indianapolis, in memory of Daniel W. and Elizabeth C. Marmon).
  • 75. 75
    RACHEL RUYSCH, Flower Still Life, after 1700. Oil on canvas, 2’ 5 3/4” x 1’ 11 7/8”. The Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo (purchased with funds from the Libbey Endowment, gift of Edward Drummond Libbey).
  • 76. 76
    HENDRICK TER BRUGGHEN, Calling of Saint Matthew, 1621. Oil on canvas, 3’ 4” x 4’ 6”. The Hague.
  • 77. 77
    CARAVAGGIO, Calling of Saint Matthew, ca. 1597–1601. Oil on canvas, 11’ 1” x 11’ 5”. Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi deiFrancesi, Rome
  • 78. Genre Painting
    A term used to loosely categorize paintings depicting scenes of everyday life, including domestic interiors, merry companies, inn scenes, and street scenes.
    78
  • 79. 79
    JAN STEEN, The Feast of Saint Nicholas, ca. 1660–1665. Oil on canvas, 2’ 8 1/4” x 2’ 3 3/4”. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
  • 80. 80
    GERRIT VAN HONTHORST, Supper Party, 1620. Oil on canvas, 4’ 8” x 7’. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  • 81. 81
    GEORGES DE LA TOUR, Adoration of the Shepherds, 1645–1650. Oil on canvas, approx. 3’ 6” x 4’ 6”. Louvre, Paris.
  • 82. 82
    LOUIS LE NAIN, Family of Country People, ca. 1640. Oil on canvas, 3’ 8” x 5’ 2”. Louvre, Paris.
  • 83. 83
    FRANS HALS, Archers of Saint Hadrian, ca. 1633. Oil on canvas, approx. 6’ 9” x 11’. FransHalsmuseum, Haarlem.
  • 84. 84
    FRANS HALS, The Women Regents of the Old Men’s Home at Haarlem, 1664. Oil on canvas, 5’ 7” x 8’ 2”. FransHalsmuseum, Haarlem.
  • 85. 85
    REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Self-Portrait, ca. 1659–1660. Oil on canvas, approx. 3’ 8 3/4” x 3’ 1”. Kenwood House, London (Iveagh Bequest).
  • 86. 86
    REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632. Oil on canvas, 5’ 3 3/4” x 7’ 1 1/4”. Mauritshuis, The Hague.
  • 87. 87
    REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch), 1642. Oil on canvas (cropped from original size), 11’ 11” x 14’ 4”. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
  • 88. 88
    REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Return of the Prodigal Son, ca. 1665. Oil on canvas, approx. 8’ 8” x 6’ 9”. Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
  • 89. 89
    REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Christ with the Sick around Him, Receiving the Children (Hundred Guilder Print), ca. 1649. Etching, 11” x 1’ 3 1/4”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.
  • 90. JAN VERMEER, The Kitchen Maid
    90
  • 91. 91
    JAN VERMEER, Allegory of the Art of Painting, 1670–1675. Oil on canvas, 4’ 4” x 3’ 8”. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
  • 92. Camera Obscura
    A technical aid, widelv used in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which consisted of a darkened box or tent containing lenses and a mirror. The artist could project the image of an object or landscape onto the oil painting surface and then trace it out in charcoal or graphite.
    92
  • 93. 93
  • 94. JAN VERMEER, The Girl With the Red Hat
    94
  • 95. 95
    JAN VERMEER, The Letter, 1666. Oil on canvas, 1’ 5 1/4” x 1’ 3 1/4”. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
  • 96. 96
    HYACINTHE RIGAUD, Louis XIV, 1701. Oil on canvas, 9’ 2” x 6’ 3”. Louvre, Paris.
  • 97. Rococo
    From the French “rocaille” meaning “rock work.” This late Baroque style used in interior decoration and painting was characteristically playful, pretty, romantic, and visually loose or soft; it used small scale and ornate decoration, pastel colors, and asymmetrical arrangement of curves. Rococo was popular in France and southern Germany in the eighteenth century.
    97
  • 98. 98
    JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART and CHARLES LE BRUN, Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), palace of Louis XIV, Versailles, France, ca. 1680.
  • 99. 99
    GERMAIN BOFFRAND, Salon de la Princesse, with painting by CHARLES-JOSEPH NATOIRE and sculpture by J. B. LEMOINE, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, France, 1737–1740.
  • 100. 100
    FRANÇOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace park, Munich, Germany, early 18th century.
  • 101. Fete Galante
    A term first used in. the eighteenth centurv to describe an oil painting of a dreamlike pastoral setting which shows people, often in extravagant costume, amusing themselves with dancing, music-making and courtship. Watteau is referred to as a painter of 'fetes galantes'.
    101
  • 102. 102
    ANTOINE WATTEAU, Return from Cythera, 1717. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3” x 6’ 4 1/2”. Louvre, Paris.
  • 103. 103
    FRANÇOIS BOUCHER, Cupid a Captive, 1754. Oil on canvas, 5’ 6” x 2’ 10”. The Wallace Collection, London.
  • 104. 104
    JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD, The Swing, 1766. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 8 5/8” x 2’ 2”. Wallace Collection, London.
  • 105. CLODION, Satyr Crowning a Bacchante, 1770. Terracotta, 1’ 5/8” high. Louvre, Paris.
    105

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