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AF chapter16a
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AF chapter16a

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  • 1. The Renaissance
  • 2. 2
  • 3. The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% – 60% of Europe's population, reducing the world’s population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400. This has been seen as creating a series of religious, social and economic upheavals which had profound effects on the course of European History. It took 150 years for Europe's population to recover.
    Because the plague killed so many of the poor population, wealthy land owners were forced to pay the remaining workers what they asked, in terms of wages.
    Because there was now a surplus in consumer goods, luxury crops could now be grown. This meant that for the first time in history, many, formerly of the peasant population, now had a chance to live a better life. Most historians now feel that this was the start of the middle class in Europe and England.
    3
  • 4. Original Sin
    4
  • 5. Humanism
    A cultural and intellectual movement during the Renaissance, following the rediscovery of the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome. A philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests, achievements, and capabilities of human beings rather than with the abstract concepts and problems of theology and science.
    5
  • 6. A WIDE VARIETY OF OPINIONS AND ATTITUDES
    6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. HUMANISM a Focus on Human Beings:
    Education that perfected humans through the study of past models of civic and personal virtue.
    Value system that emphasized personal effort and responsibility.
    Physically and intellectually active life that was directed at a common good as well as individual nobility .
    9
  • 10. Renaissance
    Period in Europe from the late fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries, which was characterized by a renewed interest in human-centered classical art, literature, and learning.
    10
  • 11. Renaissance Humanists
    Petrarch
    Giovanni Boccaccio
    Cosimo de Medici
    Marsilio Ficino
    Niccolò Machiavelli
    Baldassare Castiglione
    Giordano Bruno
    11
  • 12. CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets,
    12
  • 13. 13
    GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Madonna Enthroned
  • 14. 14
  • 15. Fresco
    A method of wall-painting on a plasterground. Buon fresco, or true fresco, was much used in Italv from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries.
    First, the arriccio is applied and upon this the design, or sinopia, is traced. An area. small enough to be completed in one day - the giornata - is covered with a final layer of plaster, the inionaco. The design is then redrawn and painted with pigments mixed with water. Fresco secco is painting on dry plaster and suffers, like distemper, from impermanence.
    15
  • 16. 16
    Giotto diBondone, Arena Chapel
  • 17. Giotto
    Feelings and physical nature of human beings.
    New sense of realism by using light and space.
    Re-inventor of “naturalistic” painting.
    17
  • 18. 18
    GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Lamentation, Arena Chapel, (Cappella Scrovegni), Padua, Italy, ca. 1305. Fresco, 6’ 6 3/4” x 6’ 3/4”.
  • 19.
  • 20. Chiaroscuro
    Italian word meaning “light-dark.” The gradations of light and dark values in two-dimensional imagery; especially the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional form created through gradations of light and shade rather than line. Highly developed by Renaissance painters.
    20
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. 26
    Italy Around 1400
  • 27. 27
    ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO and others, Florence Cathedral (aerial view looking northeast), Florence, Italy, begun 1296.
  • 28. 28
    FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for east doors, baptistery, Florence, Italy, 1401–1402. Gilded bronze, 1’ 9” x 1’ 5”. MuseoNazionale del Bargello, Florence.
  • 29. 29
    LORENZO GHIBERTI, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for east doors, baptistery, Florence, Italy, 1401–1402. Gilded bronze relief, 1’ 9” x 1’ 5”. MuseoNazionale del Bargello, Florence.
  • 30.
  • 31. 31
    DONATELLO, Saint Mark, Or San Michele, Florence, Italy, 1411–1413. Marble, 7’ 9” high. Modern copy in exterior niche. Original sculpture in museum on second floor of Or San Michele, Florence.
  • 32. Contrapossto
    Italian for “counterpose.” The counterpositioning of parts of the human figure about a central vertical axis, as when the weight is placed on one foot causing the hip and shoulder lines to counter balance each other-often in a graceful s-curve.
    32
  • 33. Contrapossto
    33
  • 34. 34
    MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, ca. 1424–1427. Fresco, 21’ 10’ 5/8” x 10’ 4 3/4”.
  • 35. Masaccio
    Used perspective to construct an illusion of figures in three-dimensional space.
    35
  • 36. 36
    Notice symmetry created by the pyramidal composition. How many triangles can you count?
    Notice the significance of the donors (Renaissance interest in the individual), classical architecture, and the memento moriat the base.
    MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, ca. 1424–1427. Fresco, 21’ 10’ 5/8” x 10’ 4 3/4”.
  • 37. 37
  • 38. 38
  • 39. I once was what you are and what I am you also will be.
    39
  • 40. Memento Mori
    A visual reminder of human mortality.
    40
  • 41. 41
  • 42. Ancient Greek Sculpture
    Renaissance Sculpture
  • 43. 43
    DONATELLO, David, late 1440–1460. Bronze, 5’ 2 1/4” high. MuseoNazionale del Bargello, Florence.
  • 44. 44
  • 45. Donatello
    Incorporates Greek idealism into Christian context.
    Goes beyond Classical Idealism by incorporating the dimension of personal expression.
    45
  • 46. Donatello. MARY MAGDALEN.
    46
  • 47. 47
    DONATELLO, David, late 1440–1460. Bronze, 5’ 2 1/4” high. MuseoNazionale del Bargello, Florence.
  • 48. 48
    ANDREA DEL VERROCCHIO, David, ca. 1465–1470. Bronze, 4’ 1 1/2” high. MuseoNazionale del Bargello, Florence.
  • 49. Neoplatonism

    A compilation of Platonic, Aristotelian and Stoic ideas that experienced a strong revival during the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Central to the philosophy is the notion that spiritual things are real and that material things are not. The freeing of the spiritual element, the soul, from the material element, the body, should be the ultimate goal of all of mankind and could be achieved through knowledge and contemplation.
    49
  • 50. 50
  • 51. Kabbalah
    51
  • 52. Neoplatonism

    Embraced by the powerful Medici family.
    All sources of inspiration, whether Biblical or Classical (Pagan)
    mythology, represent a means of ascending earthly existence to a
    mystical union with “the One”.
    52
  • 53. The Medici Dynasty
    53
  • 54. 54
    SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus, ca. 1484–1486. Tempera on canvas, approx. 5’ 9” x 9’ 2”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  • 55. 55
  • 56. Venus – Roman Goddess of Love and Beauty
    Zephyrus – God of Wind with his lover, Chloris
    Pomona – Nymph greeting Venus with a robe
    • Painting inspired by a poem by Angelo Poliziano, an Italian Humanist
    • 57. Commissioned by the Medici for the Medici family, a powerful wealthy Italian family
    • 58. From a series of paintings based on Classical themes
  • Idealism + thought and feeling (inrospection)
  • 59. Botticelli
    Byzantine influence shown in lyrical use of line.
    Decorative and flat space, little illusion of depth.
    Strong focus on Classical Mythology.
    58
  • 60.
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63. 62
    PERUGINO, Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome, Italy, 1481–1483. Fresco, 11’ 5 1/2” x 18’ 8 1/2”.
  • 64.
  • 65.
  • 66. 65
    LUCA SIGNORELLI, Damned Cast into Hell, San Brizio Chapel, Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy, 1499–1504. Fresco, 23’ wide.
  • 67. Girolamo Savonarola
    66
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70. The HIGH RENAISSANCE
    69
  • 71. 70
    The Achievements of the Masters
    Leonardo da Vinci: superb master of line, pioneer of sfumato, inventor, naturalist, and painter of the soul’s intent.
    RaffaeloSanzio(a.k.a Raphael): younger master painter who incorporated elements of Leonardo and Michelangelo in to his own unique style.
    Michelangelo Buonarroti: master of sculpture, also excellent painter and architect, the man in demand.
    Venetian masters
    Bellini, Giorgione, Titian
    Palladio (architecture)
  • 72. Leonard Da Vinci
    Motivated by intense curiosity and a optimistic belief in the human ability to understand the world.
    Art and science are two means to the same end: knowledge.
    71
  • 73. 72
    LEONARDO DA VINCI, cartoon for Madonna and Child with Saint Anne and the Infant Saint John, ca. 1505–1507. Charcoal heightened with white on brown paper, 4’ 6” x 3’ 3”. National Gallery, London.
  • 74. LEONARDO DA VINCI, Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks, from San Francesco Grande, Milan, Italy, begun 1483. Oil on wood (transferred to canvas), 6’ 6 1/2” x 4’. Louvre, Paris.
    73
  • 75. sfumato 
    A painting technique using an imperceptable, subtle transition from light to dark, without any clear break or line. The theory was developed and mastered by Leonardo da Vinci, and the term derives from the Italian word fumo, meaning vapor, or smoke.
    74
  • 76. Camera Obscura
    A technical aid, widelv used in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which consisted of a darkened box or tent containing lenses and a mirror. The artist could project the image of an object or landscape onto the oil painting surface and then trace it out in charcoal or graphite.
    75
  • 77. 76
  • 78. 77
    LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper, ca. 1495–1498. Oil and tempera on plaster, 13’ 9” x 29’ 10”. Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
  • 79. 78
    LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper, ca. 1495–1498. Oil and tempera on plaster, 13’ 9” x 29’ 10”. Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
  • 80. 79
  • 81. 80
  • 82. 81
  • 83. 82
  • 84. 83
    LEONARDO DA VINCI, Mona Lisa, ca. 1503–1505. Oil on wood, 2’ 6 1/4” x 1’ 9”. Louvre, Paris.
  • 85. 84
  • 86. 85
    LEONARDO DA VINCI, The Fetus and Lining of the Uterus, ca. 1511–1513. wash, over red chalk and traces of black chalk on paper, 1’ 8 5/8”. Royal Library, Windsor Castle.
  • 87. 86
    RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), Stanza dellaSegnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy, 1509–1511. Fresco, 19’ x 27’.
  • 88. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Pieta, ca. 1498-1500. Marble, 5’ 8 ½” high. Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome.
    87
  • 89. Pieta
    Works in which the Virgin is supporting and mourning the death of Jesus.
    88
  • 90. 89
    MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David, from Piazza dellaSignoria, Florence, Italy, 1501–1504. Marble, 17’ high. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence.
  • 91. David
    Carved from an abandoned eighteen foot block or marble.
    Symbol of freedom from tyranny for Florence which had just become a Republic.
    Career making piece for a 26 year old Michelangelo.
    90
  • 92. 91
    MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Moses, from the tomb of Pope Julius II, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1515 Marble, 7’ 8 1/2” high. San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome.
  • 93. Michelangelo
    Human beings are unique, almost godlike.
    In an artists hands, “life” could be created through inspiration from God.
    92
  • 94. 93
    MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Bound Slave (Rebellious Captive), from the tomb of Pope Julius II, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1516. Marble, 7’ 5/8” high. Louvre, Paris.
  • 95. 94
    Interior of the Sistine Chapel (looking east), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, built 1473.
  • 96. 95
  • 97. 96
    MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Creation of Adam. detail of the ceiling (FIG. 22-1) of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1511–1512. Fresco, 9’ 2” x 18’ 8”.
  • 98. Expresses the Humanist concept of God: an idealized, rational man who actively tends every aspect of human creation and has a special interest in humans.
    97
  • 99. 98
    Detail of the Azor-Sadoch lunette over one of the Sistine Chapel windows (FIG. 22-18) at the beginning (left) and final stage (right) of the restoration process.
  • 100. 99
  • 101. 100
  • 102. 101
    MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Last Judgment, altar wall of the Sistine Chapel (FIG. 22-18), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1536–1541. Fresco, 48’ x 44’.
  • 103. 102
  • 104. 103
  • 105. 104
  • 106. Self-portrait ?
    105
  • 107. Venetian   School
    In the sixteenth century, artists such as Giorgione and Titian preferred a gentler, more sensuous approach to oil painting than had been adopted by the Florentine School . The Venetians used warm atmospheric tones.
    106
  • 108. 107
    GIOVANNI BELLINI and TITIAN, Feast of the Gods, from the Camerinod’Alabastro, Palazzo Ducale, Ferrara, Italy, 1529. Oil on canvas, 5’ 7” x 6’ 2”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (Widener Collection).
  • 109. 108
    GIORGIONE DA CASTELFRANCO (and/or TITIAN?), Pastoral Symphony, ca. 1508–1510. Oil on canvas, 3’ 7 1/4” x 4’ 6 1/4”. Louvre, Paris.
  • 110. 109
    GIORGIONE DA CASTELFRANCO, The Tempest, ca. 1510. Oil on canvas, 2’ 8 1/4” x 2’ 4 3/4”. Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice.
  • 111. 110
    TITIAN, Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne, from the Camerinod’Alabastro, Palazzo Ducale, Ferrara, Italy, 1522–1523. Oil on canvas, 5’ 9” x 6’ 3”. National Gallery, London.
  • 112. 111
    TITIAN, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil on canvas, 3’ 11” x 5’ 5”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  • 113. Mannerism
    A style that developed in the sixteenth century as a reaction to the classical rationality and balanced harmony of the high Renaissance; characterized by dramatic use of space and light; exaggerated color, elongation of figures, and distortions of perspective, scale, and proportion.
    112
  • 114. 113
    JACOPO DA PONTORMO, Entombment of Christ, Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicità, Florence, Italy, 1525–1528. Oil on wood, 10’ 3” x 6’ 4”.
  • 115. 114
    PARMIGIANINO, Madonna with the Long Neck, from the Baiardi Chapel, Santa Maria deiServi, Parma,Italy, 1534–1540. Oil on wood, 7’ 1” x 4’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  • 116. 115
    BRONZINO, Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, ca. 1546. Oil on wood, 5’ 1” x 4’ 8 1/4”. National Gallery, London.
  • 117. 116
    BRONZINO, Portrait of a Young Man, ca. 1530–1545. Oil on wood, 3’ 1 1/2” x 2’ 5 1/2”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (H. O. Havemeyer Collection, bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929).
  • 118. 117
    TINTORETTO, Last Supper, 1594. Oil on canvas, 12’ x 18’ 8”. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice.
  • 119. 118
    PAOLO VERONESE, Christ in the House of Levi, from the refectory of Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, Italy, 1573. Oil on canvas, 18’ 3” x 42’. Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice.

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