Art Before History

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  • I RESOLVED THE TWO LARGEST EGYPT PYRAMIDS
    At Christmas 2014 I will publish a new vision of the two major pyramids of Egypt. As new as amazing, my enlightening discovery gives meaning to many other egypt symbols.
    All my various cultural research best links to my work in videos and PPS system photos.
    Other RRRiu Works: http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/links-RRRiu.html

    En Navidad 2014 publicaré la razón de ser de las dos mayores pirámides de Egipto. Mi descubrimiento da sentido a muchos otros símbolos, siempre antes inexplicables.    
    Entretanto vean:
    http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/links-RRRiu.html
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  • Excellent!
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  • The upper part of the walls and the ceilings of the Lascaux Caves are all painted. Visitors could see mostly oxen, horses, and bisons. One of the most famous painting are the Chinese horses, represented here surrounded by red cows.Look at how the painting of the cow is not finished. Look at the details of the horse mane. Caveman are always presented as being primitive but their motor skills were developped when you look at this paintings.
  • What does this say about the relationship then between the man and the buffalo? .Humans are rarely represented in the caves.You can see the dots and lines: this sign is often represented in the cave, can it be the artist’s signature? Can they be numbers?Compare the quality of the animals drawings and the human drawing.The location of this painting is well hidden in the cave: forbidden art?
  • . You can actually see the horses and now we have the rhinos charging each other. Rhinos facing each other is unique in paleolithic art. We can also tell that artists were not equal already then. Different degree of mastering the techniques.
  • The animals in the Chauvet caves are mainly horses, rhinos, bears, mammoth, stags, and even an owl.One animal, a bison, is made out of dots, precursor of the pointillism. They also use perspective and shading.
    This panel of horses actually shows some perspective, showing some animals on the same plane. They used smudging to produce the shadows and somebody who entered the cave said that the artist had highlighted the outer edge of the drawing by chiseling into the white rock surface.
  • “The Panther Panel” - Chauvet Cave,
  • This is an auroch. The drawing looks like it has been done on top of another drawing or sketching. The auroch was bigger than our bull and disappeared in the XVIIth century. That’s when you realize that their art is the photograph book of their time.
  • Here you can see a bear. The artists did not live in the caves, but the bears did. The traces on the wall may have been left by bear paws. The bear lived there in winter and the humans came in the summer.
  • Carving - one of an owl also exists in the cave. You can actually see the white rock underneath. The carving is less detailed than the painting. They used silex to carve.
  • The owl can only be found in Chauvet.
  • “The Panther Panel” - Chauvet Cave, bear outline (top), hyena. Again, not all artists have equal talent.
  • Stonehenge is on the Salisbury Plain in England and is believed to have religious significance due to its many alignments to celestial events. (Primarily the rising and setting of the sun on the winter and summer solstice.)
  • Art Before History

    1. 1. Art Before History 1
    2. 2. 2
    3. 3. Paleolithic Man 3
    4. 4. 4
    5. 5. 5
    6. 6. PALEOLITHICPALEOLITHIC “Old Stone Age” 30,000-9,000 BCE Food gathering Hunting Stone tools Bands of people 25-100 “Egalitarian” Social order
    7. 7. Prehistoric Europe and the Near East 7
    8. 8. How did this get started?? 8
    9. 9. 12
    10. 10. Animism Animism encompasses the beliefs that there is no separation between the spiritual and physical (or material) worlds, and souls or spirits exist, not only in humans, but also in all other animals, plants, rocks, natural phenomena such as thunder, geographic features such as mountains or rivers, or other entities of the natural environment. 13
    11. 11. 14 “Katrina”
    12. 12. Animism “Fluidity” Things can behave like other things man can become animal trees can talk “Permeability” The spirit world is another dimension that can be entered and exited 15
    13. 13. Shamanism A range of beliefs and practices regarding communication with the spiritual world. Shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds and are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul. The shaman also enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community. 16
    14. 14. 17 Human with feline head, from Hohlenstein-Stadel, Germany, ca. 30,000–28,000 BCE. Mammoth ivory, 11 5/8” high. Ulmer Museum, Ulm.
    15. 15. Waterworn pebble resembling a human face, from Makapansgat, South Africa, ca. 3,000,000 BCE. Reddish brown jasperite, approx. 2 3/8” wide. 18
    16. 16. Recognition “Pareidolia” 19
    17. 17. Recognition into Representation 20
    18. 18. Recognition into Representation 21
    19. 19. IS THIS ART? Why, why not? 22
    20. 20. Characteristic of Representation Profile view Descriptive (Conceptual Clarity) No variety No originality Overlapping Forms Floating Forms (no ground line) Natural features guide representation Repetition 23
    21. 21. Strategies of Representation Idea vs. Observation “Twisted Perspective” “Strict Profile” 24
    22. 22. SUBJECTS 25
    23. 23. 29 Bison, detail of a painted ceiling in the cave at Altamira, Spain, ca. 12,000–11,000 BCE. Each bison 5’ long.
    24. 24. 30 Spotted horses and negative hand imprints, wall painting in the cave at Pech-Merle, France, ca. 22,000 BCE. 11’ 2” long.
    25. 25. How did they create the images? Artists used bone, sticks, brush made with animal hair, hands/fingers, and sharpened rocks.Dark caverns were lit with torches and prehistoric lamps: made with animal fat, etc etc In Lascaux, scaffolds and ladders were built to get to the high points.
    26. 26. Pigments Paints came from earth minerals and organic material - crushed and mixed with cave water to create color Red, yellow ochre charcoal.
    27. 27. 34 Hall of the Bulls (left wall) in the cave at Lascaux, France, ca. 15,000–13,000 BCE. Largest bull 11’ 6” long.
    28. 28. 35 “Twisted Perspective”
    29. 29. Lascaux Cave Dordogne, c. 17,000-15,000 BC Plan of Lascaux Lascaux
    30. 30. Lascaux - Chinese Horses & Bulls
    31. 31. Rhinoceros, wounded man, and disemboweled bison, painting in the well of the cave at Lascaux, France ca. 15,000 – 13,000 BCE. Bison 3’ 8” long. 38
    32. 32. Lascaux - Shaft of the dead man
    33. 33. 40
    34. 34. 41
    35. 35. Aurochs, horses, and rhinoceroses, wall painting in Chauvet Cave, Vallon-Pont-d’Arc, France, ca. 30,000–28,000 or ca. 15,000–13,000 BCE. 42
    36. 36. “Strict Profile” 43
    37. 37. Chauvet 44
    38. 38. Chauvet
    39. 39. Chauvet
    40. 40. Chauvet, horses
    41. 41. 48
    42. 42. Chauvet
    43. 43. Chauvet
    44. 44. auroch By 1599 only 24 remained. In 1602 an audit revealed only four healthy aurochs left, but it stated that there were many more sick ones suffering from an illness spread from "other cows." In 1620 only one female remained, and in 1630 the king's inspector reported that she had died three years earlier. A few of them reportedly were alive in captivity in the early 1600s, but it is not known if any outlived those in the wild. 51
    45. 45. Chauvet - bear
    46. 46. Chauvet
    47. 47. Chauvet
    48. 48. Chauvet Woolly mammoth
    49. 49. Theories
    50. 50. ENSURE CONTINUATION OF SPECIES ?
    51. 51. ENSURE SUCCESSFUL HUNT ?
    52. 52. Ok, explain this….. 59
    53. 53. Picasso 60
    54. 54. 61 Nude woman (Venus of Willendorf), from Willendorf, Austria, ca. 28,000–25,000 BCE. Limestone, 4 1/4” high. Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna.
    55. 55. •Small, portable, frontal •Emphasis on breasts, protruding stomach and pubic triangle-anatomical exaggeration •Lack of facial features shows the individual is not important.
    56. 56. Purpose? •fertility and nursing survival of the species ?
    57. 57. Sympathetic Magic The idea that one can influence something based on its relationship or resemblance to another thing. This include beliefs that certain herbs with yellow sap can cure jaundice, that walnuts could strengthen the brain because of the nuts' resemblance to brain, that red beet-juice is good for the blood, that phallic-shaped roots will cure male impotence.
    58. 58. 68 Woman holding a bison horn, from Laussel, France, ca. 25,000–20,000 BCE. Painted limestone, approx. 1’ 6” high. Musée d’Aquitaine, Bordeaux.
    59. 59. Red ochre Horn or crescent moon? 13 notches
    60. 60. MESOLITHIC Middle Stone Age 9,000-4,500 BCE Last phase of Paleolithic age Intensified food gathering Taming of the dog Tribes and bands of 100-2000 Humans begin to control their environment Transition from Hunter gatherer to farmer-herder The Mesolithic is not well defined except for the lack of domesticated plants or animals (Dogs for hunting is an exception.) 70
    61. 61. NEOLITHIC 8,000-2,000 BCE Herding/domesticated animals cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and camels) Farming wheat (Near East), corn (Mesoamerica) and rice (Central China or Southeast Asia) Development of permanent settlements and towns New Technologies Stones for grinding grains Pottery for cooking and storage Metallurgy for making agricultural implements Trade Roads and trade routes Seagoing vessels Exchange of ideas 71
    62. 62. NEOLITHIC Simple to complex social structure Socioeconomic differentiation Economic specialization (nonfarm) and trade Rise of money Political institutions: chiefdom to state Legal institutions and codified law Rise of ART A more leisured society because high productivitya allows freedom for some from subsistence activities. Full-time artisans produce of luxury goods which include sculpture, painting, drawing They also include more intangible pursuits, such as music, drama, dance, and even philosophy 72
    63. 63. Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. Primitivists argue that the shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural subsistence gave rise to social stratification, coercion, and alienation. They advocate a return to non-"civilized" ways of life through deindustrialisation, abolition of division of labour or specialization, and abandonment of technology. Many traditional anarchists reject the critique of civilization while some endorse it but do not consider themselves primitivists such as Wolfi Landstreicher. Anarcho-primitivists are often distinguished by their focus on the praxis of achieving a feral state through "rewilding". 73
    64. 64. Tassili, Algeria Rock painting suggests transition between foraging and herding to domestication of animals Other rock art show war scenes, herdsmen warding off lion attacks, and dancing, usually with both human and animal figures.
    65. 65. 75
    66. 66. 76
    67. 67. 77
    68. 68. Tassili n'Ajjer The range is noted for its prehistoric rock art and other ancient archaeological sites, dating from Neolithic times when the local climate was more moist, with savannah rather than desert. It was have been dated to 9-10 millennia ago or older, using OSL techniques. The art depicts herds of cattle, large wild animals including crocodiles, and human activities such as hunting and dancing. The range's exceptional density of rock art paintings-pictograms and engravings-petroglyphs, and the presence of many prehistoric vestiges, are remarkable testimonies to Neolithic prehistory. 78
    69. 69. 79
    70. 70. 80
    71. 71. 81
    72. 72. 82
    73. 73. 83
    74. 74. 84
    75. 75. 85
    76. 76. 86
    77. 77. Aerial view of Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, England, ca. 2550–1600 BCE. Circle is 97' in diameter; trilithons 24' high. 87
    78. 78. Stonehenge 2550-1600 BCE, England
    79. 79. Phase III
    80. 80. 90
    81. 81. Stonehenge post-and-lintel construction Menhirs are vertical columns of massive stone (post) Dolmens are the stone “tables” placed on the dolmens (lintels) This structure is called a trilithon Trilithons arranged in a circle form a Chromlech
    82. 82. Stonehenge: Aubrey Holes Outside the circle are 56 Aubrey holes, named after their discoverer John Aubrey These are 3-foot holes filled with chalk. A ditch surrounds the outer perimeter. The holes are said to be calibrated to track the eclipse of the moon over 56 years
    83. 83. Other Parts of Stonehenge Outside the structure is the Heel Stone, placed northeast. Within the cromlech is the Altar Stone, partly surrounded by five inner trilithons, made of bluestone Viewed from the Altar stone, it is said that the sun rises directly over the heel stone in summer solstice
    84. 84. Stonehenge is believed to have religious significance due to its many alignments to celestial events. (Primarily the rising and setting of the sun on the winter and summer solstice.)
    85. 85. Sun rises behind the heel stone.
    86. 86. “Axis-mundi” 97
    87. 87. 98
    88. 88. 99
    89. 89. Winter Solstice 17 minutes
    90. 90. 101
    91. 91. 102 “Triple Goddess”
    92. 92. Hagar Qim Malta 3200-2500 BCE 103
    93. 93. Fertile Crescent: The First Neolithic Region The earliest known sites are found in the Near East around the so-called Fertile Crescent, from the Upper Nile to the East Mediterranean (Levant) Then into Turkey and Syria and to present-day Iraq.
    94. 94. 105
    95. 95. Jericho: The Oldest Fortified City Pop: 2,000 8,000-6,000 BCE • Jordan River, Palestine • Mud brick houses • Fortified monumental city wall • Presence of fresh-water spring • Walls 5 feet wide, 20 feet tall • Surrounded by ditch
    96. 96. Great stone tower built into the settlement wall, Jericho, ca. 8000–7000 BCE. 107
    97. 97. 108
    98. 98. Civilization IS the City 109
    99. 99. The city is where all the action is…but… 110
    100. 100. 80-90% live in farms 111
    101. 101. 112
    102. 102. Infant mortality 25-30% Women needed to give birth 5 times to keep the population stable Only 5% of men made it to age 50 113
    103. 103. Jericho Human Skull 7000-6,000 BCE Detached from body bodies in ground heads above ground Only 14 found-Primarily female Reconstructed features Plaster Seashells Paint
    104. 104. 115
    105. 105. Ain Ghazal 116
    106. 106. Human figure, from Ain Ghazal, Jordan, ca. 6750–6250 BCE. Plaster, painted and inlaid with bitumen, 3’ 5 3/8” high. Louvre, Paris. 117
    107. 107. Ain Ghazal “spring of the gazelle” 32 figures found 7650 BCE 12”-40” tall (large) Plaster around bundles of weeds No genitalia (only breasts) Faces painted with yellow ochre Possibly dressed with wigs and clothing Large heads, small arms Venerated ancestors…? Ghosts…(lure into figure)…? Gods…(man, woman, child)…? 118
    108. 108. 119
    109. 109. Çatal Höyük, Turkey 7250-5900 BCE Precursor to the first “civilization” in Iraq Pop. 8,000 Manufacturing village:pottery, metallurgy, textiles. obsidian No streets; enter and exit through chimney Houses form one continuous wall to the outside 6000-5900BCE 12 levels over 800 years Trade: obsidian and manufactured goods( arts, crafts, weaving, smelting copper and lead) No streets, no doors Enter through chimney
    110. 110. 121
    111. 111. 122
    112. 112. 123
    113. 113. Catal Huyuk, • 12 levels over 800 years • Trade: obsidian and manufactured goods( arts, crafts, weaving, smelting copper and lead) • No streets, no doors • Enter through chimney • Enter on south wall • Houses vary in size, but all same basic plan • Bury dead beneath the floors
    114. 114. Catal Hoyuk, Turkey, Southern Anatolia, ca. 7,500-5,700 BCE.
    115. 115. Reconstruction of settlement dwelling Catal Hoyuk
    116. 116. Landscape with volcanic eruption (?), watercolor copy of a wall painting from Level VII, Çatal Höyük, Turkey, ca. 6150 BCE. 127
    117. 117. Hasan Dag Volcano=Obsidian=money 128
    118. 118. 129
    119. 119. Fired clay Sitting in throne Flanked by 2 cats Giving birth Female god ? 130
    120. 120. “bucrania” Male God? 131

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