PALEOLITHICPALEOLITHIC“Old Stone Age”30,000-9,000 BCEFood gatheringHuntingStone toolsBands of people 25-100“Egalitarian” Social order
Prehistoric Europe and the Near East 5
How did this get started?? 6
Recognition intoRepresentation 8
Recognition intoRepresentation 9
Characteristic ofRepresentation Profile view Descriptive (ConceptualClarity) No variety No originality Overlapping Forms Floating Forms (no groundline) Natural features guiderepresentation Repetition 10
Strategies ofRepresentationIdea vs. Observation “Twisted Perspective” “Strict Profile” 11
Waterworn pebbleresembling a humanface, from Makapansgat,South Africa, ca.3,000,000 BCE. Reddishbrown jasperite, approx.2 3/8” wide. 13
IS THIS ART?Why, why not? 14
Human with feline head, fromHohlenstein-Stadel, Germany,ca. 30,000–28,000 BCE.Mammoth ivory, 11 5/8” high.Ulmer Museum, Ulm. 15
ShamanismAn anthropological term referencing arange of beliefs and practicesregarding communication with thespiritual world. Shamans areintermediaries or messengersbetween the human world and thespirit worlds and are said to treatailments/illness by mending the soul.The shaman also enters supernaturalrealms or dimensions to obtainsolutions to problems afflicting thecommunity. 16
Nude woman (Venus ofWillendorf), from Willendorf,Austria, ca. 28,000–25,000 BCE.Limestone, 4 1/4” high.Naturhistorisches Museum,Vienna. 18
The average PaleolithicWoman….. 19
•Small, portable, frontal•Emphasis on breasts,protruding stomach and pubictriangle-anatomicalexaggeration•Lack of facial features showsthe individual is not important.
Purpose?•fertility and nursing survival ofthe species ?
Sympathetic MagicThe idea that one caninfluence something based onits relationship or resemblanceto another thing. This includebeliefs that certain herbs withyellow sap can cure jaundice,that walnuts could strengthenthe brain because of the nutsresemblance to brain, that redbeet-juice is good for theblood, that phallic-shaped rootswill cure male impotence.
Woman holding a bison horn, fromLaussel, France, ca. 25,000–20,000BCE. Painted limestone, approx. 1’ 6”high. Musée d’Aquitaine, Bordeaux. 26
Red ochreHorn or crescent moon?13 notches
AnimismAnimism encompasses the beliefsthat there is no separation betweenthe spiritual and physical (ormaterial) worlds, and souls orspirits exist, not only in humans,but also in all other animals, plants,rocks, natural phenomena such asthunder, geographic features suchas mountains or rivers, or otherentities of the natural environment. 28
Act of God? 32
Bison, detail of a paintedceiling in the cave at Altamira,Spain, ca. 12,000–11,000BCE. Each bison 5’ long. 33
Spotted horses and negative hand imprints, wall painting in the cave at Pech-Merle, France,ca. 22,000 BCE. 11’ 2” long. 34
How did they create theimages?Artists used bone, sticks, brushmade with animal hair,hands/fingers, and sharpenedrocks.Dark caverns were litwith torches and prehistoriclamps: made with animal fat,etc etcIn Lascaux, scaffolds andladders were built to get to thehigh points.
PigmentsPaints came from earth mineralsand organic material - crushed andmixed with cave water to createcolorRed, yellow ochre-charcoal.
QUESTIONS to keep inmind…What did the artists paint?Why did they paint and carve onthe cave walls?Did they live in the caves also?What evidence of human life do wesee in the caves?What is the significance?What is represented in thesepaintings?Why are there so few images ofhumans?How does this artwork reflect life ofprehistoric peoples?
Hall of the Bulls (left wall) in the cave at Lascaux, France, ca. 15,000–13,000 BCE. Largest bull 11’6” long. 39
“Twisted Perspective” 40
Lascaux Cave Dordogne, c.17,000-15,000 BC Plan ofLascaux Lascaux
Lascaux - Chinese Horses & Bulls
Rhinoceros, wounded man, and disemboweled bison, painting in the well of thecave at Lascaux, France ca. 15,000 – 13,000 BCE. Bison 3’ 8” long. 43
Lascaux - Shaft of the dead man
Aurochs, horses, and rhinoceroses, wall painting in Chauvet Cave, Vallon-Pont-d’Arc, France, ca.30,000–28,000 or ca. 15,000–13,000 BCE. 47
“Strict Profile” 48
aurochBy 1599 only 24 remained. In 1602an audit revealed only four healthyaurochs left, but it stated that therewere many more sick onessuffering from an illness spreadfrom "other cows." In 1620 only onefemale remained, and in 1630 thekings inspector reported that shehad died three years earlier. A fewof them reportedly were alive incaptivity in the early 1600s, but it isnot known if any outlived those inthe wild. 56
Chauvet - bear
ENSURE CONTINUATION OF SPECIES ?
ENSURE SUCCESSFUL HUNT ?
Ok, explain this….. 64
MESOLITHICMiddle Stone Age 9,000-4,500BCELast phase of Paleolithic ageIntensified food gatheringTaming of the dogTribes and bands of 100-2000Humans begin to control theirenvironmentTransition from Hunter gatherer tofarmer-herderThe Mesolithic is not well definedexcept for the lack of domesticatedplants or animals (Dogs for hunting is an exception.) 66
NEOLITHIC8,000-2,000 BCEHerding/domesticated animals cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and camels)Farming wheat (Near East), corn(Mesoamerica) and rice (Central China orSoutheast Asia)Development of permanent settlements andtownsNew Technologies Stones for grinding grains Pottery for cooking andstorage Metallurgy for makingagricultural implementsTrade Roads and trade routes Seagoing vessels Exchange of ideas 67
NEOLITHICSimple to complex social structure Socioeconomic differentiation Economic specialization(nonfarm) and trade Rise of money Political institutions:chiefdom to state Legal institutions andcodified lawRise of ART A more leisured societybecause high productivitya allows freedom forsome from subsistence activities. Full-time artisans produce of luxury goods which include sculpture, painting, drawing They also include moreintangible pursuits, such asmusic, drama, dance, and evenphilosophy 68
Anarcho-primitivismis an anarchist critique of theorigins and progress of civilization.Primitivists argue that the shift fromhunter-gatherer to agriculturalsubsistence gave rise to socialstratification, coercion, andalienation. They advocate a returnto non-"civilized" ways of lifethrough deindustrialisation,abolition of division of labour orspecialization, and abandonment oftechnology.Many traditional anarchists rejectthe critique of civilization whilesome endorse it but do notconsider themselves primitivistssuch as Wolfi Landstreicher.Anarcho-primitivists are oftendistinguished by their focus on thepraxis of achieving a feral statethrough "rewilding". 69
Tassili, AlgeriaRock painting suggests transitionbetween foraging and herding todomestication of animalsOther rock art show war scenes,herdsmen warding off lion attacks, anddancing, usually with both human andanimal figures.
Tassili nAjjerThe range is noted for its prehistoricrock art and other ancientarchaeological sites, dating fromNeolithic times when the local climatewas more moist, with savannah ratherthan desert. It was have been dated to9-10 millennia ago or older, using OSLtechniques. The art depicts herds of cattle, largewild animals including crocodiles, andhuman activities such as hunting anddancing.The ranges exceptional density of rockart paintings-pictograms andengravings-petroglyphs, and thepresence of many prehistoric vestiges,are remarkable testimonies to Neolithicprehistory. 74
Stonehenge 2550-1600 BCE, England
Aerial view of Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, England, ca. 2550–1600 BCE. Circle is 97 indiameter; trilithons 24 high. 85
Stonehenge Menhirs are vertical columns of massive stone (post) Dolmens are the stone “tables” placed on the dolmens (lintels) This structure is called a trilithon
Stonehenge: Aubrey HolesOutside the circle are 56Aubrey holes, named aftertheir discoverer John AubreyThese are 3-foot holes filledwith chalk.A ditch surrounds the outerperimeter.The holes are said to becalibrated to track the eclipseof the moon over 56 years
Other Parts of StonehengeOutside the structure is theHeel Stone, placed northeast.Within the cromlech is the AltarStone, partly surrounded byfive inner trilithons, made ofbluestoneViewed from the Altar stone, itis said that the sun risesdirectly over the heel stone insummer solstice
Phase I ca 3100 BCE
Stonehenge is believed tohave religious significance dueto its many alignments tocelestial events. (Primarily therising and setting of the sun onthe winter and summersolstice.)
Sun rises behind the heel stone.
Winter Solstice 17 minutes
“Triple Goddess” 98
Hagar QimMalta3200-2500 BCE 99
Fertile Crescent: The FirstNeolithic Region The earliest known sites are found in the Near East around the so-called Fertile Crescent, from the Upper Nile to the East Mediterranean (Levant) Then into Turkey and Syria and to present-day Iraq.
Jericho: The Oldest Fortified City Pop: 2,000 8,000-6,000 BCE• Jordan River, Palestine• Mud brick houses• Fortified monumental city wall• Presence of fresh-water spring• Walls 5 feet wide, 20 feet tall• Surrounded by ditch
Great stone tower builtinto the settlement wall,Jericho, ca. 8000–7000BCE. 103
Jericho Human Skull7000-6,000 BCEDetached from body bodies in ground heads above groundOnly 14 found-Primarily femaleReconstructed features Plaster Seashells Paint
Human figure, from Ain Ghazal,Jordan, ca. 6750–6250 BCE.Plaster, painted and inlaid withbitumen, 3’ 5 3/8” high. Louvre,Paris. 105
Ain Ghazal“spring of the gazelle”32 figures found7650 BCE12”-40” tall (large)Plaster around bundles of weedsNo genitalia (only breasts)Faces painted with yellow ochrePossibly dressed with wigs and clothingLarge heads, small armsVenerated ancestors…?Ghosts…(lure into figure)…?Gods…(man, woman, child)…? 106
Çatal Höyük, Turkey7250-5900 BCEPrecursor to the first “civilization” in IraqPop. 8,000Manufacturing village:pottery, metallurgy,textiles. obsidianNo streets; enter and exit through chimneyHouses form one continuous wall to theoutside6000-5900BCE12 levels over 800 yearsTrade: obsidian and manufacturedgoods( arts, crafts, weaving, smeltingcopper and lead)No streets, no doorsEnter through chimney
Catal Hoyuk, Turkey, Southern Anatolia, ca. 7,500-5,700 BCE.
Catal Huyuk,• 12 levels over 800 years• Trade: obsidian and manufactured goods( arts, crafts, weaving, smelting copper and lead)• No streets, no doors• Enter through chimney• Enter on south wall• Houses vary in size, but all same basic plan• Bury dead beneath the floors
Reconstruction of settlement dwellingCatal Hoyuk
Landscape with volcanic eruption (?), watercolor copy of a wall painting from LevelVII, Çatal Höyük, Turkey, ca. 6150 BCE. 116
Hasan DagVolcano=Obsidian=money 117
Fired claySitting in throneFlanked by 2 catsGiving birthFemale god ? 119
“bucrania”Male God? 120
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