Ancient Rome (CONDENSED)

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Ancient Rome (CONDENSED)

  1. 1. 1 The Roman Empire
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  8. 8. Roman Foundation Myths: Aeneas According to the Aeneid, the survivors from the fallen city of Troy banded together under Aeneas, underwent a series of adventures around the Mediterranean Sea, including a stop at newly founded Carthage under the rule of Queen Dido, and eventually reached the Italian coast. The Trojans fought with local tribes, won the right to stay and to assimilate with the local peoples. Aeneas was the son of the Goddess Venus Therefore all Romans connected to Olympic Gods Emphasizes connections with Carthaginians who fought bravely against the Romans in the Punic Wars 8
  9. 9. Roman Foundation Myths: Romulus and Remus According to legend, Romulus and Remus were twin sons of Mars, the God of War. Jealous gods wanted to harm the boys- so to protect them, their mother Rhea sent them afloat in a basket down the Tiber River. They were found by a female wolf and she fed them and took care of them. 9
  10. 10. Roman Foundation Myths: Romulus and Remus Eventually a shepherd adopted the boys and raised them. As the twins grew older, they decided they didn’t want to tend sheep, but wanted something greater and they built a city along the banks Tiber River. However, both wanted to be king. Eventually they quarreled and in a fit of rage, Romulus killed Remus. The city was then named after its first king, Romulus. 10
  11. 11. 11 Capitoline Wolf, from Rome, Italy, ca. 500–480 BCE. Bronze, 2’ 7 1/2” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome.
  12. 12. Roman Foundation Myths: Romulus and Remus The new city grew rapidly, swelled by landless refugees; as most of these were male and unmarried, Romulus arranged the abduction of women from the neighboring Sabines. The ensuing war ended with the joining of Sabines and Romans as one Roman people. Emphasizes absorption of local tribes and cultures. 12"The Rape of the Sabine Women" (1637-1638) by Nicolas Poussin
  13. 13. The Origins of Rome In reality, Rome was built by the Latin people between 1000 BC and 500 BC along the Tiber River located on the Italian peninsula in center of Mediterranean Sea. The site of Rome was chosen for its fertile soil and strategic location-the city was built on seven hills, making it difficult to attack. Located on the Tiber River and the Mediterranean Sea meant that the people could easily conduct trade throughout the region.
  14. 14. The origins of Rome Two other groups also lived on the Italian peninsula, the Etruscans in the north and the Greeks in the South. Both the Greeks and the Etruscans have a strong influence on the development of Rome. (ex. culture, architecture, military, religion, etc.) All three groups competed for control of the region with the Romans the ultimate victors.
  15. 15. Roman Republic: Roots Etruscans ruled the Latins but were overthrown in 509 BC Gradually, monarchy gave way to government by the people (res publica) Predominately comprised the patricians (aristocrats) and the plebians (farmers, artisans, and other common folk. Slaves formed a third category as the empire expanded The rise of the republic was a slow process
  16. 16. The Roman Republic Following the expulsion of the Etruscans, the Roman people create a republic from the Latin term res publica or “public works”. In this system, Roman citizens were allowed to elect the leaders of their government. Only free-born males were considered citizens.
  17. 17. Structure of the Roman Republic • Patricians through the Senate controlled the lawmaking process • However, plebians filled the ranks of the Roman army and exercised veto power over the decisions of the Senate • Eventually, through their leaders, the tribunes, acquired the right to hold executive office and lawmaking power
  18. 18. Patricians and Plebeians Two groups struggled for power in the new republic—the patricians and the plebeians. Patricians were the wealthy, land-owning class that held most power. - Made up a very small portion of the population Plebeians were common farmers, artisans and merchants - Most people fell into this class
  19. 19. Roman Government Roman government had three parts. The 2 consuls were like kings. One led the government, the other led the army. They could veto each other’s decisions.
  20. 20. Roman Government The second part of the government was the Senate. Senate members were elected by the people; however, most Senators were patricians. The Senate passed laws and also controlled the treasury (money). The Senate is the most powerful group in the government of the Roman Republic.
  21. 21. Roman Government Lastly, there were citizen assemblies. Any citizen could belong to an assembly and they elected tribunes and made laws that applied to the common man.
  22. 22. Dictators Dictators were leaders appointed in times of crisis. Chosen by consuls then approved by the Senate, Dictators had absolute power to make laws and control the army. Their power would only last 6 months.
  23. 23. The Roman Military Romans placed a great value on their military. All landowning citizens were required to serve in the military. Some political positions even required 10 years of military service. Roman soldiers were organized into large military units known as legions. Therefore, soldiers were known as legionaries.
  24. 24. Military Organization • The army was the tool of imperial expansion • The Roman army was a highly disciplined force and the backbone of Rome • Initially, all free men served two-years • Later, professional soldiers filled the ranks • As the empire expanded, non- Romans joined to gain Roman citizenship • The phalanx was the basic unit (Later it would be divided into smaller units • These units could combine to form a legion if necessary.
  25. 25. Roman Expansion In the fourth century B.C., Rome began to expand. The Romans defeat the Etruscans in the north and the Greeks in the south. Within 150 years, it had captured almost all of Italy. Rome treated the conquered peoples justly. They even allowed some of the conquered peoples to enjoy the benefits of citizenship.
  26. 26. 211 BC: Romans conquered the Greek city of Syracuse, Sicily- plundered Greek art 146 BCE Greece becomes a Roman Province
  27. 27. Rome vs. Carthage With full control of the Italian peninsula, Rome establishes a prosperous trade network throughout the Mediterranean Sea. This brings Rome into conflict with the Punics. The Punics were from Carthage, a powerful trading city located in North Africa (Tunisia).
  28. 28. The Punic Wars In the third and final Punic Wars, Rome once again attacks the hated rival Carthage. Rome burns the city to the ground and enslaves its 50,000 inhabitants. It was even said that the Romans covered the ground in salt so that the earth would not be able to produce any more crops. With Carthage finally destroyed, Rome gains dominance over the western Mediterranean
  29. 29. The Romans took over their neighbors one by one 27 BC Republic becomes Roman Empire
  30. 30. Roman Upheaval Rome was now the sole power in the Mediterranean and very prosperous. But as the territory grew, so did the gap between the rich and poor. The wealthy patricians benefited greatly from Roman expansion. - Slaves brought from conquered territories were sold to wealthy landowners. At one point, 1/3 of the population was slaves.
  31. 31. PATRONAGE and ARTISTIC LIFE in ancient Rome: •Roman government and wealthy people = major patrons of the arts Spent lavishly on themselves and homes •Dedicated to the general good of the arts •Gave generously to public projects •Huge workshops cranking out Greek-style works •Romans built houses to impress and entertain •Lavish interiors of homes (marble plumbing fixtures!) •Interiors were grand domestic spaces that announced the importance of the owner •Artists = low on social scale - treated poorly – many were slaves and never got credit for their work.
  32. 32. INNOVATIONS IN ROMAN ARCHITECTURE •Romans were master builders •Built great roads and massive aqueducts – efficient way to connect cities and make areas livable •Temples = hymns to the gods, symbols of civic pride •Arenas – awed spectators (size and engineering are awesome) •Perfected the arch and used it a lot (not used much before) •Used concrete in constructing huge buildings – but they thought it was ugly, so they covered concrete structures in other materials (like marble) to make them more attractive
  33. 33. Architecture Greek: religious artistry; the building as sculpture Roman: Structure and engineering Invention of concrete and use of the arch eclectic; borrowed from Etruscan and Greek Greek: the temple is a shrine to a deity Roman : the temple is a monument to an empire
  34. 34. 34 Temple of Portunus (Temple of “Fortuna Virilis”), Rome, Italy, ca. 75 BCE.
  35. 35. Temple of Fortuna Virilis (Portunus: Roman god of harbors) Rome, 75 BCE Etruscan Plan High podium entry Greek Ionic columns Stucco used as faux marble over stone Roman Pseudoperipteral: engaged columns
  36. 36. Roman Roads “All roads lead to Rome” is an apt description of Roman roads The network on this map show how the Roman army could go anywhere Later, it also indirectly contributed to the spread of Christianity throughout the empire The paving was basic to the rapids transport of troops
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  38. 38. The Arch • Rome built on the arch, contributed by the Etruscans • Weight is evenly distributed from the keystone to the sides • It could provide so much strength that other structures could be built above it
  39. 39. Aqueducts •ASHLAR MASONRY: carefully cut and grooved stones that support a structure without concrete, mortar, etc. •Roman cities had large populations because of their ability to bring water to city centers •Heavy, squat arches at bottom level •Thinner arches at second level •Lighter rhythm of smaller arches on top level, which carries the water of the aqueducts
  40. 40. Roman Engineering Feats: The Vault Barrel Vault (Tunnel); a series of connected arches needs buttressing dark and gloomy
  41. 41. Arches can be extended into space to form a continuous tunnel-like BARREL VAULT
  42. 42. SPANDREL SPANDREL Groin vaultGroin vault •When two barrel vaults intersect, a larger, more open space is formed called a GROIN VAULT •Groin vault can be supported by only four PIERS, rather than requiring a continuous wall space that a barrel vault needs •Space between piers = SPANDRELS
  43. 43. The Dome • Third form of rooftop architecture in Rome • Created by rotating a round arch through 180 degrees on its axis • Must be buttressed from all sides • The weight must be evenly distributed at all sides • The dome included a circular skylight
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  45. 45. Roman concrete construction. (a) barrel vault, (b) groin vault, (c) fenestrated sequence of groin vaults, (d) hemispherical dome with oculus (John Burge). 45
  46. 46. Roman Invention of Concrete • Cheap and strong; can be molded to any form • Placed in wooden frames, then dried • Architecture of space rather than mass. • Roman genius: many materials in the same building
  47. 47. Domestic Architecture  Entrance to a home was an atrium, a large hall entered through a corridor from the street,  An open compluvium (skylight) which let in rainwater and sunlight  Rainwater was collected in a sunken basin in the floor (impluvium) and channeled off into a cistern
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  49. 49. Public Architecture: The Forum • A rectangular open space, usually with a temple at one end • Bounded on three sides by colonnades (rows of columns) • Fourth side by a basilica • Best known: Forum Romanum and Forum Julium
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  54. 54. VERISM • Verism can be defined as a sort of hyperrealism in sculpture where the naturally occurring features of the subject are exaggerated, often to the point of absurdity. • In the case of Roman Republican portraiture, middle age males adopt veristic tendencies in their portraiture to such an extent that they appear to be extremely aged and care worn.
  55. 55. VERISM • This stylistic tendency is influenced both by the tradition of ancestral imagines as well as a deep-seated respect for family, tradition, and ancestry. • The imagines were essentially death masks of notable ancestors that were kept and displayed by the family. In the case of aristocratic families these wax masks were used at subsequent funerals so that an actor might portray the deceased ancestors in a sort of familial parade.
  56. 56. VERISM • The ancestor cult, in turn, influenced a deep connection to family. For Late Republican politicians without any famous ancestors (a group famously known as ‘new men’ or ‘homines novi’) the need was even more acute—and verism rode to the rescue. • The adoption of such an austere and wizened visage was a tactic to lend familial gravitas to families who had none—and thus (hopefully) increase the chances of the aristocrat’s success in both politics and business. • This jockeying for position very much characterized the scene at Rome in the waning days of the Roman Republic and the Otricoli head is a reminder that one’s public image played a major role in what was a turbulent time in Roman history.
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  58. 58. Head of an old man, from Osimo, mid- first century BCE. Marble, life-size. Palazzo del Municipio, Osimo. 58
  59. 59. Portrait of a Roman general, from the Sanctuary of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy, ca. 75-50 BCE. Marble, 6’ 2” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome. 59
  60. 60. Portrait of a Roman General, From Sanctuary of Hercules 75-50 BCE Marble 6’2” What’s wrong with this picture? Cuirass(breastplate): military general Body: Hero (Idealized) Face: portrait (verism)
  61. 61. 61 Aerial view of the forum (looking northeast), Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE and later. (1) forum, (2) Temple of Jupiter (Capitolium), (3) basilica.
  62. 62. 62 Aerial view of the amphitheater, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70 BCE.
  63. 63. Pompeii and the cities of Vesuvius Buried by a volcano 79 AD Excavated mid 1700’s Classical Revival 1760’s- (Neo Classic period) Forum: Public square Basilica: city hall Amphitheater: gladiators
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  70. 70. 70 Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings in Room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–50 BCE. Fresco, frieze 5’ 4” high.
  71. 71. 2nd style Dionysiac Mystery frieze, Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy 60-50 BCE 5’ 4” high
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  74. 74. Villa of Mysteries • Scene from the Villa of the Mysteries • An initiate is flagellated (by a winged woman out of view) • Another women plays cymbals while in a frenzied dance • Celebrate rites of the god of Bacchus • Women emulate Ariadne • Figures interact across the room • Fasting, alcohol, physical abuse • Pictorial devices: Modeling of figures- illusion of a ledge
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  77. 77. 77 Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater, wall painting from House I,3,23, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–79 CE. Fresco, 5’ 7” x 6’ 1”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
  78. 78. Restored view and plan of a typical Roman house of the Late Republic and Early Empire (John Burge). (1) fauces, (2) atrium, (3) impluvium, (4) cubiculum, (5) ala, (6) tablinum, (7) triclinium, (8) peristyle. 78
  79. 79. 79 Atrium of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE, rebuilt 62–79 CE.
  80. 80. 80 Second Style wall paintings (general view left, and detail of tholos right) from cubiculum M of the Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale, Italy, ca. 50–40 BCE. Fresco, 8’ 9” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  81. 81. 81 Portrait of a husband and wife, wall painting from House VII,2,6, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70–79 CE. Fresco, 1’ 11” X 1’ 8 1/2”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
  82. 82. Still Life with Peaches, detail of 4th style wall painting Herculaneum, Italy CE 62-79 Illusionistic light and shadow Still Life
  83. 83. 83 Still life with peaches, detail of a Fourth Style wall painting, from Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62–79 CE. Fresco, 1’ 2” x 1’ 1 1/2”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
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  87. 87. From Republic to Empire
  88. 88. From Republic to Empire • Led by military dictators, of which Julius Caesar was the best known • Caesar expanded the empire to include western and central Europe • Caesar assassinated Ides of March 44 BCE • After a brief civil war rule falls to Octavian (protégé of Caesar) • Augustus (Octavian), the empire entered into a pax romana (peace under Rome)- a long era og high culture and stability.
  89. 89. 89
  90. 90. Early Empire Pax Augusta, PAX ROMANA •Peace reigns for 200 years •Huge number of public works projects •Art and architecture become a tool of propaganda • Classical style after the Athenians
  91. 91. THE EARLY EMPIRE 27BC-96AD Senate confers the title of Augustus on Octavian-27 BCE Supreme emperor Calls himself the son of god Controls all aspects of Roman public life Princeps (first citizen) Imperator (Commaner in Chief) Pontifex Maximus (high priest) A powerful leader, but good and just man.
  92. 92. 92 Portrait of Augustus as general, from Primaporta, Italy, early-first-century CE copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6’ 8” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  93. 93. Portrait of Augustus as general ART AS PROPAGANDA Idealized He was 76 when this was made Polykletian style (Clssical Greece) A god and a man Eternally youthful Iconography: Every part carries a political message Cupid- descended from gods (Venus) Divine Hero- bare feet Cuirass: military power (return of captured military standard from the Parthians)
  94. 94. Oratorical pose
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  96. 96. 97
  97. 97. Cuirass: current events-the return of the captured Roman military standards by the Parthians
  98. 98. The Fruits of Pax Augustus Early Empire Pont-du-Gard, 16 BCE Nimes Frances Function: Bridge and aqueduct Each person had 100 gallons of water per day per person from natural spring 30 miles away Arch spans 82 feet Blocks weigh up to 2 tons
  99. 99. 100 Pont-du-Gard, Nîmes, France, ca. 16 BCE.
  100. 100. Pont du Gard Nimes, France Largest span 82’
  101. 101. Nero Tyrannical, corrupt, egomaniac Extravagrant tastes Burned down poor sections of Rome and built palace and artificial lake Blamed it on the Christians Rumored to have had captured Christians dipped in oil and set on fire in his garden at night as a source of light. 102
  102. 102. The Flavian Dynasty 69-96 CE General Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian ruled for 25 years- preceded by the much hated and arrogant Nero Titus ruled after Vespasian Domitian turns out to be a nut- job like Nero STRUCTURES: Colosseum 70-80 CE Arch of Titus, Rome 81 CE Vespasian 69-79 AD Good Character: simple, honest, able
  103. 103. 104 Portrait of Vespasian, ca. 75–79 CE. Marble, 1’ 4” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.
  104. 104. Recalls the veristic tradition of Republican Rome (the anti-Nero) 105
  105. 105. 106 Portrait bust of a Flavian woman, from Rome, Italy, ca. 90 CE. Marble, 2’ 1” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome.
  106. 106. Portrait bust of Flavian woman, 90 AD Corckscrew curls made with Drill bit Beauty idealized Portraits of people other than powerful men
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  108. 108. Coliseum: Flavian Amphitheater 70-80 CE Former site of Nero’s Domus Aurea and Collosol statue as sun god. Held 50,000 spectators Games for 100 days running Gladiators, animal combats, dead Christians
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  114. 114. Colosseum: Flavian Amphitheater 70-80 CE Exterior travertine marble, interior concrete Unification of the multistoried façade ARCH COLUMN construction Used 3 orders of architecture: Tuscan Doric, Ionic and Corinthian Equivalent to 16 stories tall (160 feet) 76 entrances Elliptical shape, concentric circles, banked seats with valerium
  115. 115. Ground level First level 2nd level 3rd level Sequence based on the proportion of the orders Roman Doric Ionic Corinthian
  116. 116. 117 Aerial view of the Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Italy, ca. 70–80 CE.
  117. 117. Interior barrel and groin vaults
  118. 118. 119 Aerial view of Timgad (Thamugadi), Algeria, founded 100 CE.
  119. 119. Trajan 120
  120. 120. Trajan: The First Spanish Emperor 98CE He became all things to all people: popular Trajan: “optimus” (the best) Instituted Social Programs Trajan and Augustus became the yardsticks for success Goal of all Emperors: Felicior Augusto, Melior Traiano luckier than Augustus, better than Trajan
  121. 121. The Forum of Trajan; Architect Apollodorus of DamascusRome 112 CE Rome’s greatest forum to glorify Emperor Trajan Huge Basilica rather than temple dominates the colonnaded square. Celebration of victory over the Dacians
  122. 122. 123 APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE. (James E. Packer and John Burge). 1) Temple of Trajan, 2) Column of Trajan, 3) libraries, 4) Basilica Ulpia, 5) forum, 6) equestrian statue of Trajan. 1 2 3 3 4 6 5
  123. 123. 124 Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE.
  124. 124. 625 feet of narrative scroll Depicts 2 successful campaigns against Dacians- 150 episodes, 2,500 figures Not reliable chronology Organization of Romans seen as key to victory 125
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  128. 128. 129 APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, aerial view of the Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. 100– 112 CE.
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  130. 130. Trajan’s Markets, Reconstruction
  131. 131. 132 APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, interior of the great hall, Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. 100–112 CE.
  132. 132. Hadrian 133
  133. 133. Hadrian as General, Israel 130-138 AD 2’11” high, bronze Successor to Trajan; also Spaniard Lover of the arts, author, architect Age 41 forever Influenced by Greeks (loved beards) Beards became the norm for Emperors for over 150 years.
  134. 134. Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118 – 125 CE. 135
  135. 135. 136
  136. 136. Interior: Revolutionary use of space
  137. 137. 138 Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118– 125 CE.
  138. 138. Metamorphis from real to virtual -earth to heavens Pantheon: all the gods Interior orb of the earth 7 planets: seven niches Dome: vault of the heavens oculus (27 feet wide)-the sun stars in the coffers Concrete of varied composition (heavy low, light higher up)
  139. 139. The Antonines 138-192 CE Peaceful Succession: from Hadrian Antoninus Pius, 23 yrs, Marcus Aurelius 138-Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius (age 51) Antoninus adopted Marcus Aurelius
  140. 140. Marcus Aurelius Emperor /Philosopher Stoicism “Meditations”
  141. 141. Marcus Aurelius Yet another turning point in art history Classical style being challenged Beyond Republican verism- exposure of the soul His personality appears Worry, strain from constant warfare, burden of Imperial power.
  142. 142. 144 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, from Rome, Italy, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, 11’ 6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome.
  143. 143. End of Antonine Dynasty Commodus as Hercules 191-192 CE marble Commodus Son of Marcus Aurelius Decadent and insane Complete Jackass Assassinated Septimius Severus takes power African Born General
  144. 144. 146 Portrait of Caracalla, ca. 211–217 CE. Marble, 1’ 2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  145. 145. 147 Angry, intense, serious killed 6 years into rule.
  146. 146. 148 Painted portrait of Septimius Severus and his family, from Egypt, ca. 200 CE. Tempera on wood, 1’ 2” diameter. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
  147. 147. 149 Had younger brother Geta killed and then removed from all artworks. (damnatio memoriae) Also had wife killed for good measure.
  148. 148. Baths of Caracalla Rome Italy 212 AD-216 • Exercise • Lecture halls • libraries • Conduct Business • Opera performances
  149. 149. 151 Plan of the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Italy, 212–216 CE. 1) natatio, 2) frigidarium, 3) tepidarium, 4) caldarium, 5) palaestra.
  150. 150. HOT WARM NEUTRAL COOL 152
  151. 151. The Third Century: Soldier Emperors 235-284CE Soldier emperors for the next 70 years Troubled times-out of control Death by assassination- frequently Little building activity Art expressed general/symbolic qualities Simplified and geometric forms Defensive building Increased demand for engravers & sculptors Designing coins Busts of ever changing emperors
  152. 152. DARK TIMES DARK EXPRESSIONS
  153. 153. 155 Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, Italy, 251–253 CE. Bronze, 7’ 11” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  154. 154. Emperor Trebonianus Gallus, Rome , Italy 251-253 7’-11” How does it reflect the art of the “soldier emperors”? Heroic Nudity Wrestlers body Not Greek Idealism- Image of brute force
  155. 155. The Four Tetrachs 305 CE porphyry, 4’3” high Saint Marks Venice Characteristics of Roman sculpture in 4th century Cubic heads Squat bodies schematic drapery Shapeless bodies Emotionless masks ICONIC
  156. 156. Diocletian and the Tetrarchy 284-306 CE • Division of the Roman Empire into West and East – Diocletian: Augustus of the East – Power sharing “rule by four” • Division continued throughout the Middle Ages; – Latin west – Byzantine (Greek)East • What do these statues tell us about the rule of the four tetrachs? – No indiv. identity – Embracing each other
  157. 157. 159 Portraits of the four tetrarchs, from Constantinople, ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, 4’ 3” high. Saint Mark’s, Venice.
  158. 158. Constantine 160
  159. 159. Arch of Constantine 312-315 CE Rome Reuse of statues and reliefs From Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius Why? Decline in creativity Association with “good” emperors Continuity of the empire
  160. 160. 162 Arch of Constantine (south side), Rome, Italy, 312–315 CE.
  161. 161. • Commemorates defeat of Maxentius
  162. 162. Constantine (in center without head) addressing the people. What stylistic changes do you see?
  163. 163. 166 Distribution of largess, detail of the north frieze of the Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy, 312–315 CE. Marble, 3’ 4” high.
  164. 164. 167 Portrait of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy, ca. 315– 330 CE. Marble, 8’ 6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome.
  165. 165. Constantine 306-337 313:Issued Edict of Milan- no persecution of Christians The beginning of the Middle Ages 324: Founded New Rome: Constantinople 325: Christianity becomes the official religion •Recognizes the new religion of Christianity. Gives freedom for Christians to worship. •Changes the scale and materials of some sculpture. • Borrows reliefs from previous “good” Emperors. These are called ‘Spolia’
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  167. 167. Coins with portraits of Constantine. Nummus (left), 307 CE. Billon, diameter 1”. American Numismatic Society, New York. Medallion (right), ca. 315 CE. Silver, diameter 1”. Staatliche Munzsammlung, Munich. 170
  168. 168. The Late Empire 192-337CE The Fall of Rome Lack of order and challenges to authority Under attack on all fronts- military important Economy in decline Bureaucracy disintegrating Decline of state religion :moving from a pagan to a Christian world
  169. 169. Rome: Date of Its Decline and Fall • Edward Gibbon fixes the date of the fall in 476 CE, when Odoacer, a Germanic officer in the Roman army overthrew the last emperor Romulus Augustulus • Odoacer leads the “Barbarians at the Gates” • Others fix the date at 410 CE with the First Sack of Rome, a siege led by another Germanic officer Alaric; lack of food induced Alaric’s army induced it to leave • Alaric died in 411, after his forces left • Dates vary from 410 CE to as recent as 1453, when Constantinople fell to the Turks; clearly this is a matter of definition
  170. 170. Rome: Decline and Fall This is a complex issue •The Edict of Milan of 313 CE allowed Christians freedom of worship and toleration became official policy •The state religion of the empire itself was Christianity by the end of the fourth century •When the fall finally came, Christianity was established in Rome •Rome was divided into the West and the East in 286 as an administrative convenience, but set the stage for the Eastern and Western churches. Thomas Couture, Romans in the Decadence of the Empire (1847).
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  172. 172. Factors Involved in the Fall of Rome • Christianity: Rome proved unable to resist the spread of Christianity despite persecution, partly because of its widespread appeal (details in the next presentation on roots of Christianity) • Bread and circuses (including gladiator contests at the coliseum) were used to support and entertain the returning soldiers after the conquests ended • Moral and political decline: The emperor as office became a source of wealth, corruption, and an object of contention between armed factions • Social conditions: most Romans lived in poverty as the urban infrastructure declined • Division of the empire: the empire was divided into east (Greek) and west (Latin) by Diocletan in 296 CE • Several explanations, not just one, satisfactorily explain the decline.
  173. 173. Conclusion • Romans were imperialists first and republicans second • Even the Republican era was one of conquests in the Italian peninsula— much like manifest destiny in the United States during the 19th century • Much of the themes emphasize war and conquest • The arts mostly had a practical side • Toward the end of the era, wealth mattered more than duty that had marked Rome’s earlier years • The insecurity of the latter years also opened the populace to new ideologies: mystical cults, revivals of older beliefs from Egypt—and Christianity
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