ART HISTORY 2 de BeaufortSTUDY GUIDE TEST 2WORKSLEONARDO DA VINCI, Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks.RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), Stanza dellaSegnatura.MICHELANGELO, David,.MICHELANGELO, Creation of Adam detail of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel,.MICHELANGELO, Last Judgment, altar wall of the Sistine ChapelBELLINI and TITIAN, Feast of the Gods.TITIAN, Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne.GIORGIONE (and/or TITIAN?), Pastoral Symphony.TITIAN, Venus of Urbino.PONTORMO, Entombment of Christ,PARMIGIANINO, Madonna with the Long Neck,.BRONZINO, Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time.TINTORETTO, Last Supper.VERONESE, Christ in the House of Levi.ArtistsLeonard da Vinci Motivated by intense curiosity and an optimistic belief in the human ability to understand the world. Art and science are two means to the same end: knowledge. Studied under Verrocchio Painters should paint “man and the intention of his soul” The definition of Renaissance Man (an expert in many areas) Left behind 10,000+ pages of drawings, ideas, and notes, all written in mirror image, left handedMichelangelo “IlDivino” Human beings are unique, almost godlike. In an artists hands, “life” could be created through inspiration from God. “Terribilita” David • Commissioned by Wool Guild for a buttress of the Duomo • Instead placed in front of town hall • First colossal nude since ancient times . • Embodies Humanist ideas. • Carved from an abandoned eighteen foot block or marble-took over 2 years to make
• Symbol of freedom from tyranny for Florence which had just become a Republic. • Career making piece for a 26 year old Michelangelo. Sistine Chapel: The Creation of Adam •Expresses the Humanist concept of God: an idealized, rational man who actively tends every aspect of human creation and has a special interest in humans. Serpent as Evil Woman The Last Judgement • Commissioned by Pope Paul III – A response to the Reformation of the Protestants • The Counter-Reformation • One of the first commissions was the Last Judgment fresco – Christ as Judge • Raised arm damning souls to hellPurposeful lack of beauty in many figures King Minos or Biagio da Cesena ?Raphael • His style combines the sculptural aspect of Michelangelo and the feeling of Leonardo and the detail and light of his teacher (Perugino) • Won a commission to paint frescoes in the papal apartments • Stanza dellaSegnatura: Theology (Disputà), Law (Justice), Poetry (Parnassus), and Philosophy (School of Athens) – Paintings symbolize and sum up Western learning during the Renaissance • Talented, popular, and beloved artist who died young (entombed in the Pantheon) • Master of balance and harmony The School of Athens • Unification of mathematics and pictorial science for a masterful depiction of space – Combination of Roman Architecture, pagan gods, and St. Peter’s new building • Psychological element to figures and groups – Like Leonardo, gestures and glances – Elliptical movementTitian • Extraordinary and prolific painter and supreme colorist • Establishes oil on canvas rather than wood panel as the norm • Is said to have used his fingers as well as the brush
• Believed color and mood were more important than line (design) and science • Would paint entire canvas red first – Using brushstrokes to create a textured surfaceMovements and “Schools”Venetian SchoolIn the sixteenth century, artists such as Giorgione and Titian preferred a gentler,more sensuous approach to oil painting than had been adopted by theFlorentineSchool. The Venetians used warm atmospheric tones.Distant from the influence of the Papacy, Venetian artists did not shy away fromcontroversial (erotic/pagan) themes. Veronese Titian GiorgioneVenice vs Florence and Rome: • Venetian Themes – Poetry of senses – Nature’s beauty – Pleasures of Humanity (Eros) • Florence & Rome Themes – Esoteric, intellectual themes – Conceptions of religion – Grandeur of the idealMannerism(1525-1600)“The Stylish Style”Art from ArtA style that developed in the sixteenth century as a reaction to the classicalrationality and balanced harmony of the high Renaissance; characterized bydramatic use of space and light; exaggerated color, elongation of figures, anddistortions of perspective, scale, and proportion. • All problems of representing reality had been solved and art had reached a peak of perfection and harmony – Now what? • Answer: replace harmony with dissonance, reason with emotion, and reality with imagination – Highly subjective, arbitrary light – Unusual color – Dramatic composition – often with vacant centers • Writhing/twisting/elongated bodies: FiguraSerpentinata
• Less emphasis on balance, symmetry, and rational composition (values of High Renaissance) • Technical Fireworks Bronzino Portrait of a Young Man Cool sophistication and detachment Hyper-articulate elegance Very “posed” and obvious artificiality Identity is understood as a performance Pontormo Parmigianino Young prodigy from Northern Italy Madonna With the Long Neck Painting is actually unfinished (has to flee Rome-Charles V invades) Tintoretto (Venetian) Highly dramatic lightingMethods and Techniques:SfumatoA painting technique using an imperceptable, subtle transition from light to dark,without any clear break or line. The theory was developed and mastered byLeonardo da Vinci, and the term derives from the Italian word fumo, meaningvapor, or smoke.INFLUENTIAL FIGURESGiorgio Vasari Biographer of artists-great primary source for historiansPope Julius II • Chose the name Julius after Julius Ceasar – Referred to as “warrior-pope” – Taste for the colossal • Generous art patron • Used the visual imagery for propaganda – Immediately commissioned work to represent his authoritative image and reinforce the primacy of the Catholic Church – Sistine Chapel ceiling, his tomb, decorating of papal apartments • Large scale projects required a lot of $$$, and many Church members saw this as indulging papal art, architecture, and lavish lifestyles • Tomb as Moses
– Seated “contrapposto” EXTRA CREDIT: The horns have elicited various interpretations. The likeliest explanation is that Michelangelo relied on Jeromes vulgate translation of the Old Testament. In this commonly available version, the "rays of light" that were seen around Moses face after his meeting with God on Mt Sinai were expressed as horns. Some people believe that Jeromes intention was to express a metaphor for the glory of God reflected from Mosess face.