AH2 Study Guide Test 1


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AH2 Study Guide Test 1

  1. 1. AH2 STUDY GUIDE TEST 1 Italy 1200 to 1400 Italy 1400 to 1500 Northern Europe 1400 to 1500 WORKS BONAVENTURA BERLINGHIERI, panel from the Saint Francis Altarpiece. CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets. GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Madonna Enthroned. GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Lamentation, Arena Chapel. AMBROGGIO LORENZETTI, Peaceful City/Peaceful Country DIRK BOUTS, Last Supper. JAN VAN EYCK, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride. JAN VAN EYCK, Man in a Red Turban. JAN VAN EYCK, The Ghent Altarpiece. LIMBOURG BROTHERS October, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece . LORENZO GHIBERTI, Sacrifice of Isaac. LORENZO GHIBERTI, east doors (Gates of Paradise), baptistery, Florence. LORENZO GHIBERTI, Isaac and His Sons (Gates of Paradise). DONATELLO, David. DONATELLO, Penitent Mary Magdalene. SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus. PERUGINO, Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter. ANDREA MANTEGNA, Foreshortened Christ. LUCA SIGNORELLI, Damned Cast into Hell. Artists Bonaventura Berlinghieri Maniera greca (greek style) Cimabue Challenges some of the conventions of late medieval art Giotto  Feelings and physical nature of human beings.  New sense of realism by using light and space.  Re-inventor of “naturalistic” painting. o Arena Chapel  Chiaroscuro, naturalism  Sacre rappresentazioni  Scrovegni family  “usury”
  2. 2. Ambrogio Lorenzetti Gives visual form to Sienese civic Concerns. Dirk Bouts  Among the first northern painters to demonstrate the use of a single vanishing point (as illustrated in his Last Supper).  His work has a certain primitive stiffness of drawing, but his pictures are highly expressive, well designed and rich in color. Last Supper  Commissioned by Confraternity of the Holy Sacrement in Louvian (4 members appear in work as servants)  One of the first Northern Renaissance paintings to illustrate the use of a single vanishing point, although not completely accurate.  Focus is on consecration of the Eucharistic wafer rather than Judas’ betrayal.  Biblical figures dressed in contemporary Flemish attire. Jan van Eyck  A Flemish painter active in Bruges, considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century.  Traditionally known as the "father of oil painting.  Court Painter of Philip the good, Duke of Burgundy Ghent Altarpiece  commissioned by Jodocus Vyd (Chief Magistrate of Ghent)  meticulous attention to detail and also larger concept  Hidden away in a salt mine by Nazis during WWII  Usually closed (like most polyptchs) but would open for special days.  Closed panel is Annunciation theme  Open panel reveals superbly colored painting of humanity’s redemption through Christ o God the Father in center, Virgin Mary to left, John the Baptist to the Right. o Choir of angels and Adam and Eve at far ends o Lower panels:  Community of saints gather around altar of lamb (symbol of Christ) on octagonal fountain of life  Right: 12 apostles and a group of martyrs in red robes  Left: prophets  Far wings: hermits, pilgrims, knights and judges (4 cardinal virtues Temperance, Prudence, Fortitude, Justice)  Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife  Emerging capitalism leads to urban prosperity and interest in secular themes (portraiture).  Giovanni Arnolfini-wealthy financier with ties to Medici family  Holds hand of second wife during a ceremony (wedding, legal privileges?)  Every object has symbolic importance. o Man stands on the left near the window (outside world), woman stands inside (domestic world).
  3. 3. o Bride is not pregnant although fashionable costume makes it appear so. o Cast aside clogs indicate holy ground. o Oranges symbolize wealth and fertility. o Dog symbolizes marital fidelity (“fido”). Man in a Red Turban  First known portrait in 1,000 years where sitter looks directly at the viewer.  Widely considered to be a self-portrait.  “As I Can” in greek letters  Possible demonstration piece for prospective clients. Robert Campin (Master of Flemalle) Merode Altarpiece  Annunciation theme Isaiah 7:14  Small altarpieces for household prayer become common in the average household.  Religious themes usually depicted in contemporary, secular settings.  Closed garden symbolic of Mary’s purity.  Donors: wealthy merchant Peter Inghelbrecht (angel-bringer), and wife Margarete Scrynmakers (shrine-maker)  Outside we can see street scene of contemporary Flanders.  Wash basin refers to Mary’s purity as a vessel for Christ.  Lily flowers symbolize purity  Single extinguished candle represents the presence of the divine.  Joseph has constructed a mousetrap (symbolizes Christ as bait set to catch Satan)  Axe, saw, and rod are mentioned in Isaiah 10:15 Limbourg Brothers  Dutch miniature painters active in the early 15th century in France and Burgundy, working in the style known as International Gothic. They created what is certainly the best known late medieval illuminated manuscript, the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. o The Duke of Berry -avid art patron. o A “Book of Hours” was used for reciting prayers. o Full-page calendar pictures represent the 12 months and associated seasonal tasks alternating between nobility and peasantry. o Reinforces the image of the Duke of Berry as a cultured bibliophile and sophisticated art patron.
  4. 4. Ghiberti  Became famous when he won the 1401 competition for the first set of bronze doors for the Baptistery of the cathedral in Florence. o Sacrifice of Isaac  ”prefiguration” of sacrifice of Christ  A “covenant” or binding agreement  Baptism is an entry into a covenant  Space recedes- more complex, 0verlapping  Emotional complexity (contemplation)  Also cast in one piece  less $$$ o Gates of Paradise  No longer constrained by the “quatrefoil” the relief can  become a “window” of illusion.  Masaccio  Tommaso de ser Giovanni de Mone Cassai  Artistic heir of Giotto, but takes space and light one step further into unexplored territory  Dies at age 27 Tribute Money Mathew 17:24-27 Tax collector meets Jesus and disciples at the entrance of the Roman town of Capernum, Jesus directs St. Peter to shore of lake Galilee to gather a coin from the mouth of a fish. – Linear perspective – Aerial perspective – Classical body types (blend of realism with idealizing the human form) – Chiaroscuro to create a more realistic picture, single light source from the right, modeling the human anatomy to give figures weigh Holy Trinty  First application of linear perspective and mathematics to a depiction of space  Vanishing point is 5 feet above the ground, roughly eye level.  .  Used perspective to construct an illusion of figures in three-dimensional space. o I once was what you are and what I am you also will be. Donatello  Incorporates Greek idealism into Christian context.  Goes beyond Classical Idealism by incorporating the dimension of personal expression.  St. Mark o Commissioned by the Guild of linen makers and tailors. o Contrapposto is evident in weigh shift. o Dignity of the individual
  5. 5. o Intersection of the spiritual and human. o Internal focus/awareness  David o First freestanding nude since Classical antiquity. Nudity usually associated with shame and sin. o David vs Goliath  Sword vs Stone  Milan and Naples vs. Florence  Military might vs. Cultural richness  David represents Florence, the always underdog against the greater powers of Milan(Visconti) and Naples (Ladislaus)  The private sensuality and eroticism are strangely at odds with this public, civic message   Penitent MaryMagdalene o Rejection of the material world for a secluded spiritual life o Sculpture acts as a “moral conscience” for the city of Florence o Similarities to Greek Realism (Old Beggar Woman) o Nanni Di Banco Four Crowned Saints  Four Christian sculptors defy an order from Diocletian (Roman Emperor) to carve a statue of a Roman Deity. They are executed  Commissioned by the Guild of stone and woodworkers.  Shows moment of contemplation and communication.  Honors the power of the “group”. Botticelli  Byzantine influence shown in lyrical use of line.  Decorative and flat space, little illusion of depth.  Strong focus on Classical Mythology. Birth of Venus  Inspired by a love poem written by Humanist scholar Angelo Poliziano.  Zephyr (west wind), and Chloris on left.  Venus in center, her maiden Pomona on right.  Sacred Island of Cyprus.  First female nude since classical antiquity not associated with shame. Accommodating culture made possible by powerful Medici family.  Contemplation of worldly (physical) beauty-in theory leads to contemplation of spiritual and divine beauty.  Primavera  Primavera=springtime  Clothed Venus in center. Cupid above  Zephyr, Chloris and Flora at right.  Three graces to the left, and either Mars or Mercury to the far left.
  6. 6.  The occasion for the painting was probably Lorenzo de Medici’s wedding in May 1482  Another Neo-Platonist allegory on worldly and spiritual love, although difficult to decipher. Perugino  The leading painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance. Raphael was his most famous pupil. Christ Delivering the Keys….  Perugino (Pietro Vanucci- Birthplace is Perugia in Umbria)  1481-83 Pope Sixtus IV summons artists to paint walls of Sistine Chapel.  Papacy bases claim to authority on this biblical event.  Triumphal arches modeled on arch of Constantine (first Christian Emperor) Mantegna  North Italian Renaissance painter, experimented with perspective, e.g., by lowering the horizon in order to create a sense of greater monumentality.  His flinty, metallic landscapes and somewhat stony figures give evidence of a fundamentally sculptural approach to painting. Camera Picta  Painted of Ludovico Gonzaga, the Marquis of Mantua  Depicts scenes of the Marquis greeting guests, and court life.  All the room is painted (trompe l’oel) “fool the eye”  Di sotto in su (from below, upward)  8 fictive reliefs of the first Roman Emperors shows an interest in Rome’s Imperial past (Florence would be more interested in the Republican past) Foreshortened Christ  Reduced the size of Christ’s feet to compensate for unusual (foreshortened angle)  St. John, Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalene  Wounds prominently and realistically displayed Signorelli Damned Cast into Hell  Painted for Pope Alexander VI  Saint Michael and Angels cast the damned into hell.  Horrible consequences of a sinful life graphically depicted. Striking representation of the nude figure.  One part of an “End of Days” Narrative when Christ returns to Judge mankind.  Other scenes included: Deeds of the Antichrist, Resurrection, Elect Being Called to Heaven
  7. 7. Movements and “Schools” Maniera Greca Also called the Italo- Byzantine style. This style, which dominated Italian painting in the tweflth and thirteenth centuries is characterized by shallow space and linear flatness. (see Berlingheri) Renaissance Period in Europe from the late fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries, which was characterized by a renewed interest in human-centered classical art, literature, and learning. Early Renaissance in Italy: Cimabue Giotto Masaccio Donatello Boticelli Perugino Mantegna Northern European Renaissance  Absent the memories and ruins of ancient Rome, Northern Europe had lingering cultural connections to its “pagan” past. A whole pantheon of Norse gods distinct from Greco/Roman existed as did a closer connection to earth based pagan superstitions, and holidays. A stronger connection to nature and the spirit world, as well as a belief in the “immanence” of spirituality persisted even as Northern Europe Christianized. Much of this is expressed as attention to worldly DETAILS in art rather than “transcendent” themes. In other words artists of the European Renaissance saw the spirit immanent in everyday things and therefore lavished great attention to their depiction.  A focus on seasonal changes and ancient activities and festivals associated with them were more present in Northern Europe.  Concerned with depicting life in the real world.  Artists like Jan van Eyck used linseed oil paint to achieve a brilliance and transparency of color that were previously unattainable. Methods and Techniques: Chiaroscuro Italian word meaning “light-dark.” The gradations of light and dark values in two- dimensional imagery; especially the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional form created through gradations of light and shade rather than line. Highly developed by Renaissance painters. Contrapposto
  8. 8. Italian for “counterpose.” The counterpositioning of parts of the human figure about a central vertical axis, as when the weight is placed on one foot causing the hip and shoulder lines to counter balance each other-often in a graceful s- curve. An asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure in which the line of the arms and shoulders contrasts with while balancing those of the hips and legs Fresco Any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Italian word affresco which derives from the Latin word for "fresh". Buon fresco, or true fresco, was much used in Italv from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries. Oil Paint A type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil, commonly linseed oil. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, and varnish may be added to increase the glossiness of the dried film. Oil paints have been used in Europe since the 12th century for simple decoration, but were not widely adopted as an artistic medium until the early 15th century. • Invented by Northern European artists, allowed an unparalleled exactitude of rendering. • Transparent glazes of linseed oil built up luminous, rich, jewel-like colors and an enamel surface. • Perfect for wood panels, triptychs, and alter-pieces. Glazing An oil painting technique by which thin, transparent layers of oil paint are applied over an opaque layer to modify that layer's color. It is sometimes difficult to determine exactly the glazes used by the Old Masters because of previous restoration or cleaning, and also because of the similarity between the appearance of a glazed paint layer and varnish. Tempera A permanent fast drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size).Tempera paintings are very long lasting, and examples from the 1st centuries AD still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. Altarpiece A picture or relief representing a religious subject and suspended in a frame behind the altar of a church. The altarpiece is often made up of two or more separate panels created using a technique known as panel painting. It is then called a diptych, triptych or polyptych for two, three, and multiple panels respectively. Groups of statuary can be placed on the altar. Sometimes the altarpiece is set on the altar itself. Manuscript Painting An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
  9. 9. Linear Perspective A method employed to represent three-dimensional space on a flat surface or in relief sculpture. Objects in linear perspective are systematically foreshortened as they receded into the distance. Orthogonal lines converged on a horizon line to a single vanishing point, which is to correspond to the fixed viewpoint of the spectator. Reflecting the growth of humanism, the spectator played a new role in art, as man was to determine the measurement of all things The Italian artists who experimented with perspective, including Donatello, Masaccio, Uccello, and Piero della Francesca, sometimes diverged from the rules for a greater artistic effect. In general, however, the 15th-century Italian artists tended to work within a geometrical system, whereas the contemporary Flemish painters used more empirical means to achieve a convincing delineation of space. Alberti formalized this system. Memento Mori A visual reminder of human mortality. History/Philosophy/SocialMovements/ETC The Black Death Estimated to have killed 30% – 60% of Europe's population, thus reducing the world’s population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400. This has been seen as creating a series of religious, social and economic upheavals which had profound effects on the course of European History. It took 150 years for Europe's population to recover. Because the plague killed so many of the poor population, wealthy land owners were forced to pay the remaining workers what they asked, in terms of wages. Widespread death caused odd and varied reactions in people…from celebratory nihilism, to extreme piety. All belief in social institutions were weakened. Jews were often persecuted because their hygienic practices meant they did not die in as great numbers. Humanism A cultural and intellectual movement during the Renaissance, following the rediscovery of the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome. A philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests, achievements, and capabilities of human beings rather than with the abstract concepts and problems of theology and science. Humanism changes Culture Italian scholars recovered a large part of Greek and Roman Literature (Cicero) Humanism emulates Roman Civic Virtues: Self- sacrifice to the state, stoic indifference to personal misfortune, participation in
  10. 10. government. Humans can solve their own problems through reason and don’t have to turn to a higher authority. Reward for good deeds is “fame” not “sainthood”. This thought began in Florence, Italy then spread all throughout Marsilio Ficino • Translated Plato into Latin • (from Greek) Niccolò Machiavelli • “The Prince” • “The Prince” A practical manual for young rulers that did not appeal to Christian Morality. “Machiavellian” today refers to someone who is scheming and sometimes unethical. Giordano Bruno • “infinity” Renaissance Humanists • Petrarch • Giovanni Boccaccio Introduced an Italian Vernacular (Decameroc) Neoplatonism A compilation of Platonic, Aristotelian and Stoic ideas that experienced a strong revival during the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Central to the philosophy is the notion that spiritual things are real and that material things are not. The freeing of the spiritual element, the soul, from the material element, the body, should be the ultimate goal of all of mankind and could be achieved through knowledge and contemplation. All sources of inspiration, whether Biblical or Classical (Pagan) mythology, represent a means of ascending earthly existence to a mystical union with “the One”. Mendicant Orders Religious orders which depend directly on the charity of the people for their livelihood. In principle, they do not own property, either individually or collectively (see corporate poverty), believing that this was the most pure way of life to copy followed by Jesus Christ, in order that all their time and energy could be expended on religious work.  Franciscans (Friars Minor, commonly known as the Grey Friars), founded 1209  Dominicans (Order of Preachers, commonly called the Black Friars), founded 1215 Condottieri Mercenary soldier leaders (or warlords) of the professional, military free companies contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance. In Renaissance Italian,
  11. 11. condottiero meant "contractor", and was synonymous with the modern English title Mercenary Captain. Guild An association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel and a secret society. They often depended on grants of letters patent by an authority or monarch to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting places. FLORENCE UNDER ATTACK • Giangaleazzo Visconti (Duke of Milan) attempts to take over Italian peninsula • Florence is surrounded • The theme of personal sacrifice for the common good becomes popular • Luckily Visconti dies suddenly ending invasion threat. • • King Ladislaus of Naples surrounds • Florence. • Ladislaus, on the verge of military success dies suddenly in 1414. Or San Michele Church, granary, town hall, guild headquarters Each guild is assigned a “niche” In which to place a commissioned sculpture Many works stress the importance of sacrifice, civic pride, and “Florentine Spirit” Girolam Savonarola  1490’s Florence undergoes political, cultural, religious upheaval.  Dominican monk Savonarola becomes priest-dictator, banishes the Medici.  Denounces Humanism and Neo-Platonism as heretical, prophesied the downfall of the city unless they undergo large scale repentance. Forces bonfire of secular art, philosophy and literature (Bonfire of the Vanities).  City comes to its senses and executes Savonarola in 1498. Burgundian Flanders  Early stages of European Capitalism. New credit and exchange systems produces a network of commodities and industry.  Flanders, under control of the Duke of Burgundy (Phillip the Bold).  Bruges is the major city o wool trade, banking EXTRA CREDIT The Course of Empire • The Course of Empire is a five-part series of paintings created by Thomas Cole in the years 1833-36. It is notable in part for reflecting popular American
  12. 12. sentiments of the times, when many saw pastoralism as the ideal phase of human civilization, fearing that empire would lead to gluttony and inevitable decay. • The series of paintings depicts the growth and fall of an imaginary city, situated on the lower end of a river valley, near its meeting with a bay of the sea. The valley is distinctly identifiable in each of the paintings, in part because of an unusual landmark: a large boulder is precariously situated atop a crag overlooking the valley. • The Savage State • The Arcadian or Pastoral State • The Consumation of Empire • Destruction • Desolation Powerful Families of Italy Medici, Tornabuoni (Florence) Montefeltro (Urbino) Gonzaga (Mantua) Visconti, Sforza (Milan) Este (Ferrara)