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Northern Europe, 1400 to 1500
The Black Forest
2
3
Odin
4
Der Ring des Nibelungen
5
Immanence and
Transendence
6
7
8
Immanence
9
Immanence
10
“Katrina”
Act of God?
11
OR…….
12
Immanence
13
Supernatural forces that are
“immanental” are usually “bad”
14
Paradise Lost
15
16
17
Transendence 18
According to deists, the creator does not
intervene in human affairs or suspend the
natural laws of the universe.
19
20
TRANSCENDENCE
21
IMMANENCE
22
23
Europe in the 15th Century
MASTER OF MARY OF BURGUNDY, Mary of Burgundy at Prayer, folios 14 verso and 15 recto of the Hours of
Mary of Burgundy, ca....
25
LIMBOURG BROTHERS (POL, JEAN, HERMAN),
January, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de
Berry, 1413–1416. Ink on vellum, ...
26
LIMBOURG BROTHERS (POL, JEAN, HERMAN),
October, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de
Berry, 1413–1416. Ink on vellum, ...
30
31
32
33
34
Altarpiece
35
ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece (open), ca. 1425-1428. Oil on
wood, center panel 2’ 1 3/8” X 2’ 7/8”...
37
detail
40
42
detail
detail
46
Linseed Oil Paint
47
Oil “glazing” technique
48
JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (closed),
Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium,
completed 1432. Oil on wood, 11’ 6" X 7’...
49
50
51
52
53
JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (closed),
Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium,
completed 1432. Oil on wood, 11’ 6" X 7’...
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
63
65
JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (open), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, completed 1432. Oil on wood,
11’ 5" X 15’ ...
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
DIRK BOUTS, Last Supper central
panel of the Altarpiece of the Holy
Sacrament, Saint Peter’s, Louvain,
Belgium, 1464–14...
89
JAN VAN EYCK, Giovanni Arnolfini and His
Bride, 1434. Oil on wood, approx. 2’ 9" X 1’
10 1/2". National Gallery, London.
90
91
92
93
94
96
99
100
101
JAN VAN EYCK, Man in a Red Turban,
1433. Oil on wood, 1’ 1 1/8” X 10 1/4".
National Gallery, London.
102
103
ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Portrait of a
Lady, ca. 1460. Oil on panel, 1’ 1 3/8" X 10
1/16". National Gallery, Washington,...
HIERONYMUS BOSCH, Garden of Earthly Delights, 1505-1510. Oil on wood, center panel 7’ 2
5/8” X 6’ 4 ¾”, each wing 7’ 2 5/8...
105
106
107
The impression of a life
lived without consequence,
or what art historian Hans
Belting describes as
"unspoilt and immoral
...
109
Mystery man
The woman below him lies within a
semi-cylindrical transparent shield,
while her mouth is sealed, devices
impl...
One woman carries a cherry on her
head, a common symbol of pride at
the time, as can be deduced from
the contemporaneous s...
According to the second and third
chapters of Genesis, Adam and Eve's
children were born after they were
expelled from Ede...
Detail showing nudes
cavorting within a transparent
sphere. What appear to be
cracks in the sphere, may
forecast the fragi...
Symbolism in Bosch Paintings…
• Pigs = false priests; gluttony
• Fruit = carnal pleasure
• Rats = lies against the
Church;...
“Adamites”
115
• Wilhelm Fraenger argued that the
triptych's center panel portrays a joyous
world when humanity will experience a
rebirth...
117
PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559. Oil on wood, 3’ 10” x 5’ 4 1/8”.
Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Mu...
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
AH2 Chapter 20
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Transcript of "AH2 Chapter 20"

  1. 1. Northern Europe, 1400 to 1500
  2. 2. The Black Forest 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Odin 4
  5. 5. Der Ring des Nibelungen 5
  6. 6. Immanence and Transendence 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. Immanence 9
  10. 10. Immanence 10 “Katrina”
  11. 11. Act of God? 11
  12. 12. OR……. 12
  13. 13. Immanence 13 Supernatural forces that are “immanental” are usually “bad”
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. Paradise Lost 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. Transendence 18
  19. 19. According to deists, the creator does not intervene in human affairs or suspend the natural laws of the universe. 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. TRANSCENDENCE 21
  22. 22. IMMANENCE 22
  23. 23. 23 Europe in the 15th Century
  24. 24. MASTER OF MARY OF BURGUNDY, Mary of Burgundy at Prayer, folios 14 verso and 15 recto of the Hours of Mary of Burgundy, ca. 1480. Colors and ink on parchment, illumination on left page 7 3/8” X 5 1/8”. Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna. 24
  25. 25. 25 LIMBOURG BROTHERS (POL, JEAN, HERMAN), January, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413–1416. Ink on vellum, approx. 8 7/8" X 5 3/8". Musée Condé, Chantilly.
  26. 26. 26 LIMBOURG BROTHERS (POL, JEAN, HERMAN), October, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413–1416. Ink on vellum, 8 7/8" X 5 3/8”. Musée Condé, Chantilly.
  27. 27. 30
  28. 28. 31
  29. 29. 32
  30. 30. 33
  31. 31. 34
  32. 32. Altarpiece 35
  33. 33. ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece (open), ca. 1425-1428. Oil on wood, center panel 2’ 1 3/8” X 2’ 7/8”, each wing 2’ 1 3/8” X 10 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (The Cloisters Collection, 1956). 36
  34. 34. 37
  35. 35. detail
  36. 36. 40
  37. 37. 42
  38. 38. detail
  39. 39. detail
  40. 40. 46
  41. 41. Linseed Oil Paint 47 Oil “glazing” technique
  42. 42. 48 JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (closed), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, completed 1432. Oil on wood, 11’ 6" X 7’ 6".
  43. 43. 49
  44. 44. 50
  45. 45. 51
  46. 46. 52
  47. 47. 53 JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (closed), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, completed 1432. Oil on wood, 11’ 6" X 7’ 6".
  48. 48. 54
  49. 49. 55
  50. 50. 56
  51. 51. 57
  52. 52. 58
  53. 53. 59
  54. 54. 60
  55. 55. 61
  56. 56. 63
  57. 57. 65 JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (open), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, completed 1432. Oil on wood, 11’ 5" X 15’ 1”.
  58. 58. 66
  59. 59. 67
  60. 60. 68
  61. 61. 69
  62. 62. 70
  63. 63. 71
  64. 64. 72
  65. 65. 73
  66. 66. 74
  67. 67. 75
  68. 68. 77
  69. 69. 78
  70. 70. 79
  71. 71. 80
  72. 72. 81
  73. 73. 82
  74. 74. 83
  75. 75. 84
  76. 76. 85
  77. 77. 86
  78. 78. 87 DIRK BOUTS, Last Supper central panel of the Altarpiece of the Holy Sacrament, Saint Peter’s, Louvain, Belgium, 1464–1468. Oil on wood, 6’ X 5’.
  79. 79. 89 JAN VAN EYCK, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434. Oil on wood, approx. 2’ 9" X 1’ 10 1/2". National Gallery, London.
  80. 80. 90
  81. 81. 91
  82. 82. 92
  83. 83. 93
  84. 84. 94
  85. 85. 96
  86. 86. 99
  87. 87. 100
  88. 88. 101 JAN VAN EYCK, Man in a Red Turban, 1433. Oil on wood, 1’ 1 1/8” X 10 1/4". National Gallery, London.
  89. 89. 102
  90. 90. 103 ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Portrait of a Lady, ca. 1460. Oil on panel, 1’ 1 3/8" X 10 1/16". National Gallery, Washington, D.C. (Andrew W. Mellon Collection).
  91. 91. HIERONYMUS BOSCH, Garden of Earthly Delights, 1505-1510. Oil on wood, center panel 7’ 2 5/8” X 6’ 4 ¾”, each wing 7’ 2 5/8” X 3’ 2 ¼”. Museo del Prado, Madrid. 104
  92. 92. 105
  93. 93. 106
  94. 94. 107
  95. 95. The impression of a life lived without consequence, or what art historian Hans Belting describes as "unspoilt and immoral existence", is underscored by the absence of children and old people.
  96. 96. 109
  97. 97. Mystery man The woman below him lies within a semi-cylindrical transparent shield, while her mouth is sealed, devices implying that she bears a secret. 110
  98. 98. One woman carries a cherry on her head, a common symbol of pride at the time, as can be deduced from the contemporaneous saying: "Don't eat cherries with great lords– they'll throw the pits in your face." 111
  99. 99. According to the second and third chapters of Genesis, Adam and Eve's children were born after they were expelled from Eden. This has led some commentators, in particular Belting, to theorise that the panel represents the world if the two had not been driven out "among the thorns and thistles of the world". In Fränger's view, the scene illustrates: a Utopia, a garden of divine delight before the Fall, or—since Bosch could not deny the existence of the dogma of Original Sin—a millennial condition that would arise if, after expiation of Original Sin, humanity were permitted to return to Paradise and to a state of tranquil harmony embracing all Creation. 112
  100. 100. Detail showing nudes cavorting within a transparent sphere. What appear to be cracks in the sphere, may forecast the fragility of joyful passion. The figures' arms are entwined, while the female's head bends towards the male's attentive mouth. Their innocence contrasts with the atmosphere of the right-hand panel, where human figures are depicted in shame of their nakedness.[ 113
  101. 101. Symbolism in Bosch Paintings… • Pigs = false priests; gluttony • Fruit = carnal pleasure • Rats = lies against the Church; filth; sex • Fish = false prophets; lewdness • Closed Books = futility of knowledge in dealing with human stupidity • Keys = knowledge • Lutes and Harps = instruments for praise of God and pursuit of earthly love • Ears = gossip • Mussel Shells = infidelity • Black Birds = unbelievers • Knives = punishment of evil • Rabbits = multiplication of the race • Eggs = sexual creation • Funnels = deceit and intemperance • Strawberries = fleeting joys of life, love • Owls = great learning/knowledge
  102. 102. “Adamites” 115
  103. 103. • Wilhelm Fraenger argued that the triptych's center panel portrays a joyous world when humanity will experience a rebirth of the innocence enjoyed by Adam and Eve before their fall. In his book The Millennium of Hieronymus Bosch, Fraenger wrote that Bosch was a member of the heretical sect known as the Adamites — who were also known as the Homines intelligentia and Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit. This radical group, active in the area of the Rhine and the Netherlands, strove for a form of spirituality immune from sin even in the flesh and imbued the concept of lust with a paradisical innocence. • Fraenger believed The Garden of Earthly Delights was commissioned by the order's Grand Master. Later critics have agreed that, because of their obscure complexity, Bosch's "altarpieces" may well have been commissioned for non-devotional purposes. The Homines intelligentia cult sought to regain the innocent sexuality enjoyed by Adam and Eve before the Fall. Fraenger writes that the figures in Bosch's work "are peacefully frolicking about the tranquil garden in vegetative innocence, at one with animals and plants and the sexuality that inspires them seems to be pure joy, pure bliss." 116
  104. 104. 117 PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559. Oil on wood, 3’ 10” x 5’ 4 1/8”. Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
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