AH1- Egypt (part2)

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AH1- Egypt (part2)

  1. 1. Egypt Part 2 1
  2. 2. COLLAPSE OF THE OLD KINGDOM After the reigns of Userkaf and Sahure, civil wars arose as the powerful nomarchs (regional governors) no longer belonged to the royal family. The worsening civil conflict undermined unity and energetic government and also caused famines. Additionally, massive building projects of the Fourth Dynasty had exceeded the capacity of the treasury and populace. The final blow was a severe drought in the region that resulted in a drastic drop in precipitation between 2200 and 2150 BCE, which in turn prevented the normal flooding of the Nile The result was the collapse of the Old Kingdom followed by decades of famine and strife. The images depict the “Famine Stele” Describing a 7 year famine. 2
  3. 3. FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD The First Intermediate Period, often described as a “dark period” in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred years after the end of the Old Kingdom from ca. 2181-2055 BCE. The end of the First Intermediate Period is placed at the time when Mentuhotep II of the eleventh dynasty defeats the Heracleopolitan kings of Lower Egypt and reunites Egypt under a single ruler. This act helps usher in a period of great wealth and prosperity, known as the Middle Kingdom. 3
  4. 4. MIDDLE KINGDOM 2055-1650 BCE •Thebes of Upper Egypt rises in prominence •Pharaohs made fewer claims to divinity, more “approachable” than past pharaohs and less despotic •Increased efficiency •Expanded irrigation systems •Stockpiled granaries •Expanded overseas trade •Secured Egypt’s borders •Effectiveness of leadership still relied on personal attributes •Also no more Pyramids Mentuhotep II
  5. 5. Fragmentary head of Senuret III, 12th Dynasty, ca. 1860 BCE. Red quartzite, 6 ½” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 5
  6. 6. Senusret constantly fighting off Nubians Unprecedented realism-heavy eyes and brooding expression Large ears in other works show a king who is “listening to the people” 6
  7. 7. 7 Beni Hasan
  8. 8. Beni Hasan There are 39 ancient tombs here of Middle Kingdom nomarchs Two distinct cemeteries here: the upper range and the lower necropolis- each associated with the different levels of resources available to the deceased. 8
  9. 9. Rock-cut tombs BH 3-5, Beni Hasan, Egypt, 12th Dynasty, ca. 1950 – 1900 BCE. 9
  10. 10. Rock Cut Tomb of Beni Hasan 1900-1950BCE
  11. 11. Interior hall of the rock-cut tomb of Amenemhet (tomb BH 2), Beni Hasan, Egypt, 12th Dynasty, ca. 1950–1900 BCE.
  12. 12. Note the “fluted” columns.
  13. 13. SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (1640-1530 BCE) Succession disputes erupted Thousands of Asians (HYKSOS) invaded Lower Egypt Divided again into Upper and Lower Egypt Lower Egypt under traditional pharaohs Upper Egypt under Hyksos Hyksos introduced new technology : Bronze Horse-drawn chariots New weapons
  14. 14. THE NEW KINGDOM Ahmose the Liberator created militaristic state. Egypt attempts to create a buffer between the Levant and Egypt, and attained its greatest territorial extent. They also expanded far south into Nubia and hold wide territories in the Near East where Egyptian armies fought Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.
  15. 15. Hatshepsut From Regent for Thutmose III (too young) to Pharaoh. Thutmose III never forgave. “Foremost of Noble Ladies” was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs. 15
  16. 16. Punt Hatshepsut re-established the trade networks that had been disrupted during the Hyksos occupation of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period and oversaw the preparations and funding for a mission to the Land of Punt. Egyptians returned from the voyage bearing thirty-one live myrrh trees, the roots of which were carefully kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage. This was the first recorded attempt to transplant foreign trees. It is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex. 16
  17. 17. The expedition commemorated in relief at Deir el-Bahri, which also is famous for its realistic depiction of the Queen of the Land of Punt, Queen Iti, who appears to have had a genetic trait called steatopygia. 17
  18. 18. Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut (with the Middle Kingdom mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II at left), Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1473–1458 BCE.
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  22. 22. Morturary Temple Designed by Senemut (possible lover), the building is an example of perfect symmetry that predates the Parthenon, and it was the first complex built on the site she chose, which would become the Valley of the Kings. Hatshepsut was one of the most prolific builders in ancient Egypt, commissioning hundreds of construction projects throughout both Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, that were grander and more numerous than those of any of her Middle Kingdom predecessors. Later pharaohs attempted to claim some of her projects as theirs. 22
  23. 23. Pharaoh as Woman/Man To deal with the problem of being a female king, she emphasized that she was daughter of Thutmose I. She also traced her lineage to Mut, a primal mother goddess of the Egyptian pantheon, which gave her another ancestor who was a deity as well as her father and grandfathers. While Hatshepsut was depicted in official art wearing regalia of a pharaoh, such as the false beard that male pharaohs also wore, it is most unlikely that she ever wore such ceremonial decorations, just as it is unlikely that the male pharaohs did. Statues depicting her seated wearing a tight-fitting dress and the nemes crown, are thought to be a more accurate representation of how she would have presented herself at court. 23
  24. 24. 24 Hatshepsut with offering jars, from the upper court of her mortuary temple, Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1473–1458 BCE. Red granite, 8’ 6” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. Likely appearance 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. 30 Senmut with Princess Nefrua, from Thebes, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1470–1460 BCE. Granite, 3’ 1/2” high. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin.
  31. 31. Erased by Thutmose III Toward the end of the reign of Thutmose III and into the reign of his son, an attempt was made to remove Hatshepsut from certain historical and pharaonic records. This elimination was carried out in the most literal way possible. Her cartouches and images were chiselled off some stone walls, leaving very obvious Hatshepsut-shaped gaps in the artwork. 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. Ramses II (1279 – 1213 BCE) Warrior pharaoh 1,500 years after the Old Kingdom “Ozymandias”-Percy Bysshe Shelley-also could be the Pharaoh of Exodus He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire 66 year rule Very tall (for Egyptian) Lived to age 90 Celebrated 14 sed festivals (every 3 years) New Kingdom ends only 150 years after Ramses
  34. 34. Battle of Kadesh Ramses sought to recover territories in the Levant that had been held by the 18th Dynasty. His campaigns of re-conquest culminated in the Battle of Kadesh (in modern Syria), where he led Egyptian armies against those of the Hittite king Muwatalli II and was caught in history's first recorded military ambush but Ramses was able to rally his troops and turn the tide of battle against the Hittites thanks to the arrival of the re- enforcements. The outcome of the battle was undecided with both sides claiming victory at their home front, ultimately resulting in a peace treaty between the two nations. 34
  35. 35. Battle of Kadesh Largest chariot battle ever fought 6,000 chariots involved 35
  36. 36. 36 The Shasu (nomads) spies shown being beaten by the Egyptians
  37. 37. The Ramasseum Mortuary temple in the Theban Necropolis across the Nile from Luxor 37
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. Relief from the Ramasseum shwoing the siege of Dapur (jn Syria) 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. Abu Simbel Twin Temples carved directly out of the rock This far south (Nubia) Ramses did not hesitate to deify himself unabashedly Shows himself as equal to Ra, Ptah, and Amun Ramses x 4 65 feet high Queen Nefertari and other family members at his feet Commemorate battle of Kadesh and intimidate the Nubians Burckhardt discovered 1813, Belzoni excavated 1817 41
  42. 42. 42 Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, Egypt, 19th Dynasty, ca. 1290–1224 BCE. Sandstone, colossi 65’ high.
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. 44 Nefertari’s Temple in the foreground (dedicated to Hathor) First time in Egyptian history a temple is dedicated to a Queen.
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. 1968 re-located 700 feet (UNESCO World Heritage Site) Now rests on an artificial hill beneath a domed structure 46
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. Flooding caused by the Aswan high damn 48
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. 50 Interior of the temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, Egypt, 19th Dynasty, ca. 1290– 1224 BCE. Sandstone, pillar statues 32’ high.
  51. 51. INTERIOR TEMPLE OF RAMSES Ramses as Osiris Unusual Solar phenomenon: 1st day of summer rays of light enter the deepest part of the tomb and illuminate the gods except for Ptah Atlantid: Male statue used as a column No load-bearing function 32 feet tall
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. 53Ramses killing a Hittite
  54. 54. Set and Horus in adoration of Ramses 54
  55. 55. Thebes Luxor and Karnak 55
  56. 56. Karnak Temple of Amen Re (right is largest) The Theban Triad: Amun Re (Creator) Mut (Mother God) Khonsu (Moon) Sacred lake where the primordial waters (Nun) receded to create Egypt 30 Pharaos contributed to the 56
  57. 57. 57
  58. 58. New Kingdom Pylon Temples Pylon=gateway Entrance to Karnak Temple (above right) Entrance to Temple of luxor, first Pylon by Ramses II (below right) Always made from SANDSTONE
  59. 59. 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. Temple of Amun-Re “axial” plan 61
  62. 62. 62
  63. 63. 63 Luxor Temple, Thebes
  64. 64. 64
  65. 65. 65Gods face out, Pharaohs face in…
  66. 66. 66OK, back to Karnak….
  67. 67. Great Hypostyle Hall Part of precinct of Amun-Re Started by Seti I, Finished by Ramses II 50,000 square feet 134 columns in 16 rows “Hypo”= many “Style”=pillar 67
  68. 68. 68
  69. 69. Model of the hypostyle hall, temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt, 19th Dynasty, ca. 1290 – 1224 BCE. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 69
  70. 70. 70 Hypostyle hall, temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt, 19th Dynasty, ca. 1290–1224 BCE.
  71. 71. 71 View of the “clerestory”
  72. 72. 72
  73. 73. Originally painted 73
  74. 74. 74
  75. 75. Nebamun Scribe and Counter of Grain Paintings removed from Tomb (now lost) and brought to British Museum Fresco Secco “Dry Fresco” 75
  76. 76. 76 Fowling scene, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1400–1350 BCE. Fresco on dry plaster,. 2’ 8” high. British Museum, London.
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  78. 78. 78
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  80. 80. 80 Musicians and dancers, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1400–1350 BCE. Fresco on dry plaster, 1’ X 2’ 3”. British Museum, London.
  81. 81. 81
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  86. 86. 86 Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt, relief in the mastaba of Ti, Saqqara, Egypt, Fifth Dynasty, ca. 2450–2350 BCE. Painted limestone, 4’ high.
  87. 87. 87 2450–2350 BCE 1400–1350 BCE
  88. 88. 88Ramses killing a Hittite
  89. 89. Akhenaten Formerly Amenhotep IV Starts new religion with ONE god Moves capital to Amarna, builds brand new city (Akhetaten) 89
  90. 90. 90 Amenhotep IV Before he becomes Akhenaten
  91. 91. The Amarna Period 1353- 1335 BCE During the New Kingdom the priesthood of Amen had become more powerful than the Pharaoh A religious revolution Monotheism: Aton the sun God represented as a sun disk not human or animal form Akhenaton forms new religious order, he is the sun and sole prophet of God Changes in politics were reflected by changes in artistic style
  92. 92. Akhetaten Aka “Tell-el-Amarna” 92
  93. 93. 93 Akhenaton, from the temple of Aton, Karnak, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Sandstone, 13’ high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  94. 94. 94 Khafre enthroned, from Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2520–2494 BCE. Diorite, 5’ 6” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  95. 95. Akhenaton and Art Androgynous: (having male and female qualities) Sexless sun disk-a manifestation of ATON OR a product of geneology? Frontal pose Curving contours Long face, full lips, heavy eyelids, dreamy expression Misshapen body Narrow waist Protruding belly Wide hips fat thighs
  96. 96. 96
  97. 97. 97
  98. 98. 98
  99. 99. 99 THUTMOSE, Nefertiti, from Amarna, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Painted limestone, approx. 1’ 8” high. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin.
  100. 100. 100
  101. 101. 101
  102. 102. 102 Tiye, from Ghurab, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Wood, with gold, silver, alabaster, and lapis lazuli, 3 3/4” high. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin.
  103. 103. 103 Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters, from Amarna, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Limestone, 1’ 1/4” high. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin.
  104. 104. Unusual familial intimacy Wind is blowing Cushions are “cushioning” 104
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  112. 112. 112
  113. 113. 113
  114. 114. 114
  115. 115. 115
  116. 116. 116
  117. 117. 117
  118. 118. Beautiful downtown Amarna (Akhetaten) 118
  119. 119. 119
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  121. 121. 121
  122. 122. 122
  123. 123. 123
  124. 124. 124
  125. 125. 125 Death mask of Tutankhamen, from the innermost coffin in his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1323 BCE. Gold with inlay of semiprecious stones, 1’ 9 1/4” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  126. 126. 126
  127. 127. 127 Painted chest, from the Tomb of Tutankhamen, Thebes, Egypt, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1333–1323 BCE. Wood, 1’ 8” long. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  128. 128. 128 Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, 19th Dynasty, ca. 1290–1280 BCE. Painted papyrus scroll, 1’ 6” high. British Museum, London.
  129. 129. Late Period (1070 BC-30 BC) A period of political weakness Attacks from Nubians to south (controlled Egypt during 8th Century BC Invasions by Assyrians and Persians Alexander the Great takes over Egypt in 332 BC—rule by Ptolemy I and his successors Roman conquest in 30 BC
  130. 130. Temple of Horus, Edfu, Egypt, ca. 237 – 47 BCE. 130
  131. 131. • Old Kingdom characteristics? • New Kingdom? – Double wig – Facial realism Mentuemhet, from Karnak 650 BCE Granite 4’5” The Late Period

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