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AH 2 The High Renaissance and Mannerism

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  • 1. The High Renaissance and Mannerism
  • 2. B. Rabbit: Hey Sol, do you ever wonder at what point you just got to say fuck it man? Like when you gotta stop living up here, and start living down here? Sol: It's 7.30 in the morning dawg.
  • 3. “Humanities”
  • 4. Renaissance Man Specialization vs. Generalism
  • 5. “Renaissance” not for everyone
  • 6. Rome with Renaissance and Baroque Monuments 12
  • 7. Leonardo Da Vinci • Studied under Verrocchio • Painters should paint “man and the intention of his soul” • The definition of Renaissance Man – An expert an many areas • Left behind 10,000+ pages of drawings, ideas, and notes – All written in mirror image, left handed • Motivated by intense curiosity and an optimistic belief in the human ability to understand the world.
  • 8. LEONARDO DA VINCI, Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks, from San Francesco Grande, Milan, Italy, begun 1483. Oil on wood (transferred to canvas), 6’ 6 1/2” x 4’. Louvre, Paris. 14
  • 9. • Pyramidal composition • Sfumato • Emotionally compelling, visually unified, & convincing spatial depth • Mysterious background and figurations
  • 10. LEONARDO DA VINCI, cartoon for Madonna and Child with Saint Anne and the Infant Saint John, ca. 1505–1507. Charcoal heightened with white on brown paper, 4’ 6” x 3’ 3”. National Gallery, London. 16
  • 11. 17
  • 12. LEONARDO DA VINCI, The Fetus and Lining of the Uterus, ca. 1511–1513. wash, over red chalk and traces of black chalk on paper, 1’ 8 5/8”. Royal Library, Windsor Castle. 18
  • 13. LEONARDO DA VINCI, Vitruvian Man, ca. 1485–1490. Pen and ink on paper, 1’ 1 1/2" X 9 5/8”. Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice. 19
  • 14. LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper, ca. 1495–1498. Oil and tempera on plaster, 13’ 9” x 29’ 10”. Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. 24
  • 15. 25 LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper, ca. 1495–1498. Oil and tempera on plaster, 13’ 9” x 29’ 10”. Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
  • 16. 33
  • 17. LEONARDO DA VINCI, Mona Lisa, ca. 1503–1505. Oil on wood, 2’ 6 1/4” x 1’ 9”. Louvre, Paris. 34
  • 18. sfumato A painting technique using an imperceptable, subtle transition from light to dark, without any clear break or line. The theory was developed and mastered by Leonardo da Vinci, and the term derives from the Italian word fumo, meaning vapor, or smoke. 35
  • 19. • Sfumato & chiaroscuro • Atmospheric perspective • Relaxed • Engages the viewer directly (unusal for a woman) • Pyramid composition • Psychological intensity • Mysterious landscape
  • 20. Lisa di Antonio Maria Gherardini ? 37
  • 21. Raphael • His style combines the sculptural aspect of Michelangelo and the feeling of Leonardo and the detail and light of his teacher (Perugino). • Won a commission to paint frescoes in the papal apartments. • Stanza della Segnatura: Theology (Disputà), Law (Justice), Poetry (Parnassus), and Philosophy (School of Athens) – Paintings symbolize and sum up Western learning during the Renaissance • Talented, popular, and beloved artist who died young (entombed in the Pantheon) • Master of balance and harmony
  • 22. 41
  • 23. RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy, 1509–1511. Fresco, 19’ x 27’. 42
  • 24. • Unification of mathematics and pictorial science for a masterful depiction of space – Combination of Roman Architecture, pagan gods, and St. Peter’s new building • Psychological element to figures and groups – Like Leonardo, gestures and glances – Elliptical movement
  • 25. Plato vs. Aristotle • Aristotle differed from his teacher, Plato, in his emphasis on the supremacy of observation and on concrete reality. He sought to learn all that was possible about the reality perceivable by the senses, and the logic he developed was an effort directed at this end. He sought to develop a universal method of reasoning in order to learn everything possible about reality, and in his Categories he sets out a scheme to describe particular things by identifying them in terms of their properties, states, and activities. • Plato approached the issue of knowledge and found that ideas, as he used the term, are not only something in human consciousness but something outside it as well. Platonic Ideas are subjective and do not depend on human thought but exist entirely in their own right. They are perfect patterns that exist in the very nature of things. Such an idea is not just a human idea but the idea of the universe itself, so that the universe can express itself externally in concrete form or internally as a concept in the human mind at one and the same time. The Idea is the foundation of reality itself.
  • 26. 45
  • 27. 46
  • 28. Michelangelo “Il Divino” Human beings are unique, almost godlike, empowered with superhuman strength In an artists hands, “life” could be created through inspiration from God. “Terribilita” 49
  • 29. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Pieta, ca. 1498-1500. Marble, 5’ 8 ½” high. Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome. 50
  • 30. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David, from Piazza della Signoria, Florence, Italy, 1501–1504. Marble, 17’ high. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence. 51
  • 31. helangelo Buonarroti, head of David (detail of Fig. 22-13) 1501-1504. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence. 53
  • 32. • First colossal nude since ancient times . • Embodies Humanist ideas. • Carved from an abandoned eighteen foot block or marble. • Symbol of freedom from tyranny for Florence which had just become a Republic. • Career making piece for a 26 year old Michelangelo.
  • 33. Pope Julius II The Warrior Pope Chose the name Julius after Julius Ceasar Referred to as “warrior-pope” Taste for the colossal Huge art patron Used the visual imagery for propaganda Immediately commissioned work to represent his authoritative image and reinforce the primacy of the Catholic Church Sistine Chapel ceiling, his tomb, decorating of papal apartments 62
  • 34. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Moses, from the tomb of Pope Julius II, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1515 Marble, 7’ 8 1/2” high. San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome. 69
  • 35. The horns have elicited various interpretations. The likeliest explanation is that Michelangelo relied on Jerome's vulgate translation of the Old Testament. In this commonly available version, the "rays of light" that were seen around Moses' face after his meeting with God on Mt Sinai were expressed as horns. Some people believe that Jerome's intention was to express a metaphor for the glory of God reflected from Moses's face. Seated “contrapposto” 73
  • 36. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Moses, San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513– 1515. Marble, approx. 8’ 4” high.
  • 37. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Bound Slave (Rebellious Captive), from the tomb of Pope Julius II, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1516. Marble, 7’ 5/8” high. Louvre, Paris. 76
  • 38. 78
  • 39. “Platonic Form”
  • 40. 81
  • 41. Interior of the Sistine Chapel (looking east), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, built 1473. 85
  • 42. Michelangelo Buonarroti, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1508-1512. Fresco, 128’ X 45’. 86
  • 43. 87
  • 44. 90
  • 45. 93
  • 46. 94
  • 47. Detail of the Azor-Sadoch lunette over one of the Sistine Chapel windows at the beginning (left) and final stage (right) of the restoration process. 95
  • 48. 98
  • 49. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Fall of Man, detail of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, ca. 1510. Fresco, 9’ 2” X 18’ 8”. 100
  • 50. 101
  • 51. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Creation of Adam detail of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1511–1512. Fresco, 9’ 2” x 18’ 8”. 102
  • 52. Creation of Adam Expresses the Humanist concept of God: an idealized, rational man who actively tends every aspect of human creation and has a special interest in humans. 103
  • 53. Last Judgment Commissioned by Pope Paul III A response to the Reformation of the Protestants The Counter-Reformation One of the first commissions was the Last Judgment fresco Christ as Judge Raised arm damning souls to hell
  • 54. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Last Judgment, altar wall of the Sistine Chapel (FIG. 22-18), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1536–1541. Fresco, 48’ x 44’. 106
  • 55. MICHELANGELO 1534–1541 • Signorelli, Damned Cast in to Hell, 1500 • Michelangelo, Last Judgment, 1540
  • 56. 112
  • 57. King Minos or Biagio da Cesena ? 122
  • 58. 126 Self-portrait ?
  • 59. Venetian School • In the sixteenth century, artists such as Giorgione and Titian preferred a gentler, more sensuous approach to oil painting than had been adopted by the Florentine School. The Venetians used warm atmospheric tones. • Distant from the influence of the Papacy, Venetian artists did not shy away from controversial (erotic/pagan) themes. • Poetic (poesia) • Both Classical and Renaissance poetry inspired Venetian artists • This makes understanding the subject matter difficult 129
  • 60. GIOVANNI BELLINI, Saint Francis in the Desert, ca. 1470–1480. Oil and tempera on wood, 4’ 1” X 4’ 7 7/8”. Frick Collection, New York (Henry Clay Frick Bequest). 130
  • 61. GIOVANNI BELLINI and TITIAN, Feast of the Gods, from the Camerino d’Alabastro, Palazzo Ducale, Ferrara, Italy, 1529. Oil on canvas, 5’ 7” x 6’ 2”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (Widener Collection). 132
  • 62. Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, 1510.
  • 63. GIORGIONE DA CASTELFRANCO (and/or TITIAN?), Pastoral Symphony, ca. 1508–1510. Oil on canvas, 3’ 7 1/4” x 4’ 6 1/4”. Louvre, Paris. 136
  • 64. GIORGIONE DA CASTELFRANCO, The Tempest, ca. 1510. Oil on canvas, 2’ 8 1/4” x 2’ 4 3/4”. Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice. 137
  • 65. Titian • Extraordinarily prolific painter and a supreme colorist • Establishes oil on canvas rather than wood panel as the norm. • Believed color and mood were more important than line (design) and science • Would paint entire canvas red first – Using brushstrokes to create a textured surface
  • 66. TITIAN, Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne, from the Camerino d’Alabastro, Palazzo Ducale, Ferrara, Italy, 1522–1523. Oil on canvas, 5’ 9” x 6’ 3”. National Gallery, London. 140
  • 67. TITIAN, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil on canvas, 3’ 11” x 5’ 5”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 142
  • 68. 145
  • 69. 146
  • 70. TITIAN and PALMA IL GIOVANE, Pietà, ca. 1570–1576. Oil on canvas, 11’ 6” X 12’ 9”. Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice. 147
  • 71. 148
  • 72. 149
  • 73. Venice – Poetry of senses – Nature’s beauty – Pleasures of Humanity (Eros) Florence & Rome – Esoteric, intellectual themes – Conceptions of religion – Grandeur of the ideal
  • 74. Mannerism 1525-1600 A style that developed in the sixteenth century as a reaction to the classical rationality and balanced harmony of the high Renaissance; characterized by dramatic use of space and light; exaggerated color, elongation of figures, and distortions of perspective, scale, and proportion. 151
  • 75. Mannerist Painting All problems of representing reality had been solved and art had reached a peak of perfection and harmony – Now what? Answer: replace harmony with dissonance, reason with emotion, and reality with imagination Highly subjective, arbitrary light Unusual color Dramatic composition – often with vacant centers Writhing/twisting/elongated bodies: Figura Serpentinata Less emphasis on balance, symmetry, and rational composition (values of High Renaissance) 152
  • 76. Rosso Fiorentino, Deposition. Unnatural colors Composition is mainly around the edges Figures seem frozen in time
  • 77. 154
  • 78. JACOPO DA PONTORMO, Entombment of Christ, Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicità, Florence, Italy, 1525–1528. Oil on wood, 10’ 3” x 6’ 4”. 155
  • 79. JACOPO DA PONTORMO, Entombment of Christ, Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicità, Florence, Italy, 1525–1528. Oil on wood, 10’ 3” x 6’ 4”. 156
  • 80. 157
  • 81. 158
  • 82. PARMIGIANINO, Madonna with the Long Neck, from the Baiardi Chapel, Santa Maria dei Servi, Parma,Italy, 1534–1540. Oil on wood, 7’ 1” x 4’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 159
  • 83. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Pieta, ca. 1498-1500. Marble, 5’ 8 ½” high. Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome. 163
  • 84. BRONZINO, Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, ca. 1546. Oil on wood, 5’ 1” x 4’ 8 1/4”. National Gallery, London. 164
  • 85. BRONZINO, Portrait of a Young Man, ca. 1530–1545. Oil on wood, 3’ 1 1/2” x 2’ 5 1/2”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (H. O. Havemeyer Collection, bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929). 165
  • 86. Allesandro Allori, Susanna and the Elders.
  • 87. TINTORETTO, Last Supper, 1594. Oil on canvas, 12’ x 18’ 8”. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. 167
  • 88. Tintoretto, FINDING OF THE BODY OF ST. MARK, 1548
  • 89. Tintoretto, THE REMOVAL OF THE BODY OF ST. MARK, 1548
  • 90. PAOLO VERONESE, Christ in the House of Levi, from the refectory of Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, Italy, 1573. Oil on canvas, 18’ 3” x 42’. Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice. 170
  • 91. Hans Baldung Grien The Three Graces c. 1544
  • 92. Albrecht Dürer: Der Tod und der Landsknecht, 1510 Death and the Landsknecht
  • 93. 179 PIETER AERTSEN, Butcher’s Stall, 1551. Oil on wood, 4’ 3/8” x 6’ 5 3/4”. Uppsala University Art Collection, Uppsala.
  • 94. 180 JOACHIM PATINIR, Landscape with Saint Jerome, ca. 1520–1524. Oil on wood, 2’ 5 1/8” x 2’ 11 7/8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  • 95. 181PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559. Oil on wood, 3’ 10” x 5’ 4 1/8”. Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
  • 96. 182 PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, Hunters in the Snow, 1565. Oil on wood, approx. 3’ 10 1/8” x 5’ 3 3/4”. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
  • 97. 183