Art History 1TEST 1 REVIEW de BeauortChapter 1Art Before HistoryWORKS:Waterworn pebble resembling a human face, from Makapansgat, South Africa.Human with feline head, from Hohlenstein-Stadel, Germany.Nude woman (Venus of Willendorf), from Willendorf, Austria.Woman holding a bison horn, Laussel, France.Bison, detail of a painted ceiling in the cave at Altamira, Spain.Bison with turned head, fragmentary spearthrower, La Madeleine, France.Spotted horses and negative hand imprints, wall painting in the cave at Pech-Merle, France.Hall of the Bulls (left wall) in the cave at Lascaux, France.Rhinoceros, wounded man, and disemboweled bison, painting in the well of the cave at Lascaux, France.Aurochs, horses, and rhinoceroses, wall painting in Chauvet Cave.Great stone tower built into the settlement wall, Jericho.Human figure, from Ain Ghazal, Jordan.Landscape with volcanic eruption (?), watercolor copy of a wall painting from Level VII, Çatal Höyük, Turkey.PERIODSPALEOLITHIC- Old Stone Age 30,000-9,000 BCE Food gathering Hunting Stone tools Bands of people 25-100 Egalitarian Social Order
PALEOLITHIC ART Recognition vs. Representation “Pareidolia” Cave Paintings Paintings were in remote, inaccessible areas. Humans were painted infrequently and men almost never. Characteristic of Representation Profile view Descriptive (Conceptual Clarity) No variety No originality Overlapping Forms Floating Forms (no ground line) Natural features guide representation Repetition Strategies of Representation Idea vs. Observation “Twisted Perspective” Lascaux “Strict Profile” Chauvet Subjects Animals Bison, horses, rhino, auroch, mammoth Red Deer How did they create the images? Using bone, sticks, brush made with animal hair, hands/fingers, and sharpened rocks. Dark caverns were lit with torches and prehistoric lamps: made with animal fat, etc etc In Lascaux, scaffolds and ladders were built to get to the high points. Pigments Paints came from earth minerals and organic material - crushed and mixed with cave water to create color Red, yellow ochre-charcoal. Important Sites: Chauvet Oldest Strict profile Lascaux Twisted perspective Altamira First Discovered Theories Successful Hunt Continuation of species Other…
Shamanism An anthropological term referencing a range of beliefs and practices regarding communication with the spiritual world. Shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds and are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul. The shaman also enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community.“Venus” Figurines • Small, portable, frontal • Emphasis on breasts, protruding stomach and pubic triangle-anatomical exaggeration • fertility and nursing survival of the species • Lack of facial features shows the individual is not important.Sympathetic Magic The idea that one can influence something based on its relationship or resemblance to another thing. This include beliefs that certain herbs with yellow sap can cure jaundice, that walnuts could strengthen the brain because of the nuts resemblance to brain, that red beet-juice is good for the blood, that phallic-shaped roots will cure male impotence.Animism Animism encompasses the beliefs that there is no separation between the spiritual and physical (or material) worlds, and souls or spirits exist, not only in humans, but also in all other animals, plants, rocks, natural phenomena such as thunder, geographic features such as mountains or rivers, or other entities of the natural environment. “Fluidity” “Permeability”MESOLITHIC Middle Stone Age 9,000-4,500 BCE Last phase of Paleolithic age Intensified food gathering Taming of the dog Tribes and bands of 100-2000 Humans begin to control their environment Transition from Hunter gatherer to farmer-herder The Mesolithic is not well defined except for the lack of domesticated plants or animals (Dogs for hunting is an exception.)
NEOLITHIC 8,000-2,000 BCE Herding/domesticated animals cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and camels) Farming wheat (Near East), corn (Mesoamerica) and rice (Central China or Southeast Asia) Development of permanent settlements and towns New Technologies Stones for grinding grains Pottery for cooking and storage Metallurgy for making agricultural implements Trade Roads and trade routes Seagoing vessels Exchange of ideas Simple to complex social structure Socioeconomic differentiation Economic specialization (nonfarm) and trade Rise of money Political institutions: chiefdom to state Legal institutions and codified law Rise of ART A more leisured society because high productivity allows freedom for some from subsistence activities. Full-time artisans produce of luxury goods which include sculpture, painting, drawing They also include more intangible pursuits, such as music, drama, dance, and even philosophyTassili, Algeria Rock painting suggests transition between foraging and herding to domestication of animals Other rock art show war scenes, herdsmen warding off lion attacks, and dancing, usually with both human and animal figures.Jericho- Jordan River, Palestine The Oldest Fortified City Pop: 2,000 8,000-6,000 BCE Jordan River, Palestine Mud brick houses Fortified monumental city wallÇatal Höyük, Turkey 7250-5900 BCE Precursor to the first “civilization” in Iraq Pop. 8,000 Manufacturing village:pottery, metallurgy, textiles. obsidian No streets; enter and exit through chimney Houses form one continuous wall to the outside 6000-5900BCE 12 levels over 800 years
Trade: obsidian and manufactured goods( arts, crafts, weaving, smelting copper and lead) No streets, no doors Enter through chimneyAin Ghazal Ain Ghazal= “Spring of the Gazelle” 32 figures found Fairly large compared to Paleolithic objectsStonehenge Stonehenge is the best-known megalithic (large-stone) structures in the European Neolithic located on the plains of Salisbury in S. England Structure is a post-and-lintel type of construction Menhirs are vertical columns of massive stone (post) Dolmens are the stone “tables” placed on the dolmens (lintels) Together they create a trilithon The trilithons are arranged in a circle, or chromlechs Stonehenge: Aubrey Holes Outside the circle are 56 Aubrey holes, named after their discoverer John Aubrey These are 3-foot holes filled with chalk A ditch surrounds the outer perimeter The holes are said to be calibrated to track the eclipse of the moon over 56 years Other Parts of Stonehenge Outside the structure is the Heel Stone, placed northeast (upper left) Within the cromtech is the Altar Stone, partly surrounded by five inner trilithons, made of bluestone Viewed from the Altar stone, it is said that the sun rises directly over the heel stone in summer solstice Questions Raised by Stonehenge How were such heavy stones moved from their sources no less than 26 miles away and as far away as Wales? How were these structures built without pulleys and other modern technologies? What were these sites for? Religion? Predictions? Is there anything to archaeological astronomy, such as claims of the Aubrey holes forecasting lunar eclipses? How about the claim that the sun rises directly above the Heel Stone when viewed from the Altar Stone? Methods of construction Construction took place in three phases, over 25 generations. (3,000 BCE to 1,400 BCE, a 2000 year period.) Most of it was the result of human muscle and a system of ropes and wooden levers used to transport the massive stones. Primitive tools, such as red deer antlers, were used to dig up the chalky countryside of Salisbury Plain, which was then taken away on ox shoulder blades. The Builders No one can say for sure who built the monument. Seventeenth century, English antiquarian, John Aubrey, implicated the Druids, a religious sect known to worship at modern day Stonehenge. But this theory is now considered implausible. The modern Druid, possibly formed from a Celtic priesthood, is believed to have come along 2,000 years after the stone monument had been built and perhaps was in ruin.