Greece
Part 3
The Late Classical Period
404-338 BCE
Political upheaval: Peloponnesian
War
Defeat of plague weakened
Athens at
Sparta con...
Chaos and Disorder
Greece is much weaker after War
But good for philosophy and art
3
4
Major change in Greek
thought and Art
Greek art began to focus more
on the individual and on the
real world of appearances...
6
PRAXITELES(?), Hermes and the infant Dionysos, from
the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece. Copy of a statue
by Praxiteles ...
7
PRAXITELES(?), Hermes and the infant Dionysos, from
the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece. Copy of a statue
by Praxiteles ...
8+ heads not 7
350 BCE Praxiteles
Hermes and Dionysus
450 BCE Polykleitos
Spear bearer(Doryphoros)
Praxiteles
End to serene idealism
New focus on the individual
Body forms S curve
Dreamy expression
Smooth modeling
No stre...
12
PRAXITELES, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy
of an original of ca. 350–340 BCE. 6’ 8” high. Musei
Vaticani, Rome.
13
PRAXITELES, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy
of an original of ca. 350–340 BCE. 6’ 8” high. Musei
Vaticani, Rome....
14
Female nudity was
considered base
340 BCE530 BCE
16
Venus Pudica
A classic figural pose in Western
art. In this, an unclothed female
(either standing or reclining) keeps
one ...
18
19
Grave stele of a young hunter, found near the
Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330
BCE. Marble, 5’ 6” high. Natio...
20
Grave stele of a young hunter, found near the
Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330
BCE. Marble, 5’ 6” high. Natio...
Emotional bridge to viewer
Sympathy and mourning
High relief
Living vs. dead
22
LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman marble
copy of a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, 6’ 9” high.
Musei Vaticani, Rom...
25
LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman marble
copy of a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, 6’ 9” high.
Musei Vaticani, Rom...
27
LYSIPPOS, Weary Herakles (Farnese Herakles). Roman
marble copy from Rome, Italy, signed by GLYKON OF
ATHENS, of a bronz...
Contradiction?
Attributes?
Exaggerated Musculature
Rejection of stability and
balance
Figure in Space?
Humanization of Gre...
Hubris
The history of Greece is a tale of glory
and folly, of inordinate success and
incalculable waste. Perhaps because o...
The Greeks built their
civilization, a culture outstripping
all previous ones in Western
Europe, from the thin soil of
the...
31
Head of Alexander the Great, from Pella,
Greece, third century BCE. Marble, 1’ high.
Archaeological Museum, Pella.
Hellenistic Period
323 BCE (Death of Alexander)-
30 BCE Roman Annexation
Hellenistic civilization represents a
fusion of t...
Alexander the Great’s Empire
The Antigonid dynasty in Macedon and central Greece;
The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt based at Alexandria;
The Seleucid dyna...
Alexander encouraged inter-cultural marriages.
Cosmopolite: citizen of the world.
35
36
GNOSIS, Stag hunt, from Pella, Greece, ca. 300 BCE. Pebble mosaic, figural panel 10’ 2” high. Archaeological
Museum, Pe...
Hades abducting Persephone, detail
of wall painting from tomb 1, Vergina,
Greece, mid-fourth century BCE, 3’ 3
½ ”
37
41
PHILOXENOS OF ERETRIA, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy (Alexander Mosaic) from the
House of the Faun, Pompeii,...
The Alexander Mosaic
Battle of Issus
Tesserae- tiny stones/glass
Subjective
Psychological Intensity
Looking at the king, n...
49
50
55
POLYKLEITOS THE YOUNGER, Theater, Epidauros, Greece, ca. 350 BCE.
Orchestra “dancing place”
Located on a hill, with a nice
view
Perfect acoustics
Still used today
Plays performed only once...
60
Stoa of Attalos II, Agora, Athens, Greece, ca. 150 BCE (with the Acropolis in the background).
“STOA”
62
Pergamon
Attalid Dynasty
“rump state”
Wealthy and opulent court cities
Altar of Zeus: Defeat of Gauls
Architecture:
large ...
64
Reconstructed west front of the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 175 BCE. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
69
Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail of the gigantomachy frieze, from the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey ca. 175
BCE. Mar...
76
EPIGONOS(?), Gallic chieftain killing himself
and his wife. Roman marble copy of a bronze
original of ca. 230–220 BCE, ...
Facial features of Gauls
Kills wife and himself
Lysippan tradition- must walk
around to appreciate it
Hellenistic Sculptur...
78
EPIGONOS(?), Dying Gaul. Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 230–220 BCE, 3’ 1/2” high. Museo
Capitolino, Rom...
Gaul in defeat
Baroque
Dramatic
Expressive
In the round
Battles fought heroically in the
nude
81
Nike alighting on a warship (Nike of Samothrace), from
Samothrace, Greece, ca. 190 BCE. Marble, figure 8’ 1” high.
Louv...
Theatrical effect
Balance of forward body
and backward wings
Site-combination of art and
nature
Placed on prow of stone
sh...
83
84
86
ALEXANDROS OF ANTIOCH-ON-THE-MEANDER, Aphrodite
(Venus de Milo), from Melos, Greece, ca. 150–125 BCE. Marble,
6’ 7” hig...
90
Sleeping satyr (Barberini Faun),
from Rome, Italy, ca. 230–200 BCE.
Marble, 7’ 1” high. Glyptothek,
Munich.
97
Seated boxer, from Rome, Italy, ca.
100–50 BCE. Bronze, 4’ 2” high. Museo
Nazionale Romano–Palazzo Massimo
alle Terme, ...
Older man from lowest social
strata
Athlete
Battered and defeated
Broken nose, teeth, and
ears
Emotional
98
Aphrodite, Eros, and Pan, from Delos, ca. 100
B.C. Marble, 4' 4" high.
Location: businessman’s
clubhouse
Eroticism and parody
106
Old market woman, ca. 150–100 BCE. Marble, 4’
1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Why would someone want to
look at this?
Social realism
Portrait study
Elegant dress
Untidy hair
Unfocused stare
Dionysis?
...
109
POLYEUKTOS, Demosthenes. Roman marble copy of a
bronze original of ca. 280 BCE. 6’ 7 1/2” high. Ny
Carlsberg Glyptotek...
110
ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, and POLYDOROS OF RHODES, Laocoön and his sons, from Rome, Italy,
early first century CE Marb...
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
AH 1 Greece (3)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

AH 1 Greece (3)

1,757 views

Published on

Published in: Education, News & Politics
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,757
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
648
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
41
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

AH 1 Greece (3)

  1. 1. Greece Part 3
  2. 2. The Late Classical Period 404-338 BCE Political upheaval: Peloponnesian War Defeat of plague weakened Athens at Sparta conquers in 404 BC 338 BC Power to Phillip of Macedonia; father of Alexander the Great Alexander overthrew Persia, Egypt and went as far as India
  3. 3. Chaos and Disorder Greece is much weaker after War But good for philosophy and art 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. Major change in Greek thought and Art Greek art began to focus more on the individual and on the real world of appearances rather than on the community and the ideal world of perfect beings and perfect buildings.
  6. 6. 6 PRAXITELES(?), Hermes and the infant Dionysos, from the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece. Copy of a statue by Praxiteles of ca. 340 BCE or an original work of ca. 330–270 BCE by a son or grandson. Marble, 7’ 1” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia
  7. 7. 7 PRAXITELES(?), Hermes and the infant Dionysos, from the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece. Copy of a statue by Praxiteles of ca. 340 BCE or an original work of ca. 330–270 BCE by a son or grandson. Marble, 7’ 1” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia Notice S-curve of the body (pronounced contrapposto)
  8. 8. 8+ heads not 7 350 BCE Praxiteles Hermes and Dionysus 450 BCE Polykleitos Spear bearer(Doryphoros)
  9. 9. Praxiteles End to serene idealism New focus on the individual Body forms S curve Dreamy expression Smooth modeling No strength and rationality Instead languor and sensuousness
  10. 10. 12 PRAXITELES, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy of an original of ca. 350–340 BCE. 6’ 8” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  11. 11. 13 PRAXITELES, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy of an original of ca. 350–340 BCE. 6’ 8” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. • A big “first” and a bold step to render a goddess in the nude • Sensuous and humanizing qualities – different from the cold, aloof gods and athletes of the High Classical • But not openly erotic, pelvis shielded • “Welcoming look” slight smile • Softness of face and eyes
  12. 12. 14
  13. 13. Female nudity was considered base 340 BCE530 BCE
  14. 14. 16
  15. 15. Venus Pudica A classic figural pose in Western art. In this, an unclothed female (either standing or reclining) keeps one hand covering her private parts. (She is a modest lass, this Venus.) The resultant pose - which is not, incidentally, applicable to the male nude - is somewhat asymmetrical and often serves to draw one's eye to the very spot being hidden. The word "pudica" comes to us by way of the Latin "pudendus", which can mean either external genitalia or shame, or both simultaneously. 17
  16. 16. 18
  17. 17. 19 Grave stele of a young hunter, found near the Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330 BCE. Marble, 5’ 6” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  18. 18. 20 Grave stele of a young hunter, found near the Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330 BCE. Marble, 5’ 6” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Grave stele influenced by the work of Skopas of Paros (sculptor) Known for including intense emotionalism in his work
  19. 19. Emotional bridge to viewer Sympathy and mourning High relief Living vs. dead
  20. 20. 22 LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, 6’ 9” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  21. 21. 25 LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, 6’ 9” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. Out of the box Into the viewers space New canon Smaller head Thinner body Front not dominant Nervous energy Fig leaf?? (Catholic addition)
  22. 22. 27 LYSIPPOS, Weary Herakles (Farnese Herakles). Roman marble copy from Rome, Italy, signed by GLYKON OF ATHENS, of a bronze original of ca. 320 BCE. 10 ‘ 5” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale,Naples.
  23. 23. Contradiction? Attributes? Exaggerated Musculature Rejection of stability and balance Figure in Space? Humanization of Greek god
  24. 24. Hubris The history of Greece is a tale of glory and folly, of inordinate success and incalculable waste. Perhaps because our strengths as humans almost invariably come from the same sources as our weaknesses—to wit, the blindness that leads many to be taken in by others also makes them brave in the face of overwhelming danger—the same things that had fostered the civilization of the ancient Greeks precipitated its fall, their unwavering belief in themselves and the conviction that their ways were the right ways, the best ways, and finally the only ways. In particular, the greed that drove the Peloponnesian War and fomented all its disasters for Athens and Greece alike was part and parcel of the Athenians' determination to improve themselves and their way of life. That is, the fire that sparked the Classical Age also incinerated it. 29
  25. 25. The Greeks built their civilization, a culture outstripping all previous ones in Western Europe, from the thin soil of their homeland, and then threw it all away fighting among themselves over those same dusty stones. In the end, their sense of self-worth was both their triumph and their downfall. It makes sense, then, that tragedy is one of their most enduring achievements. Below- ill fated Sicilian Expedition 30
  26. 26. 31 Head of Alexander the Great, from Pella, Greece, third century BCE. Marble, 1’ high. Archaeological Museum, Pella.
  27. 27. Hellenistic Period 323 BCE (Death of Alexander)- 30 BCE Roman Annexation Hellenistic civilization represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East and Southwest Asia, and a departure from earlier Greek attitudes towards "barbarian" cultures. The extent to which genuinely hybrid Greco-Asian cultures emerged is contentious; consensus tends to point towards pragmatic cultural adaptation by the elites of society, but for much of the populations, life would probably have continued much as it had before. 32
  28. 28. Alexander the Great’s Empire
  29. 29. The Antigonid dynasty in Macedon and central Greece; The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt based at Alexandria; The Seleucid dynasty in Syria and Mesopotamia based at Antioch; The Attalid dynasty in Anatolia based at Pergamum. 34
  30. 30. Alexander encouraged inter-cultural marriages. Cosmopolite: citizen of the world. 35
  31. 31. 36 GNOSIS, Stag hunt, from Pella, Greece, ca. 300 BCE. Pebble mosaic, figural panel 10’ 2” high. Archaeological Museum, Pella.
  32. 32. Hades abducting Persephone, detail of wall painting from tomb 1, Vergina, Greece, mid-fourth century BCE, 3’ 3 ½ ” 37
  33. 33. 41 PHILOXENOS OF ERETRIA, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy (Alexander Mosaic) from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first century BCE. Tessera mosaic, approx. 8’ 10” X 16’ 9”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
  34. 34. The Alexander Mosaic Battle of Issus Tesserae- tiny stones/glass Subjective Psychological Intensity Looking at the king, not who he killed Darius in retreat Objective ¾ view of horse Foreshortening Reflection on the shield
  35. 35. 49
  36. 36. 50
  37. 37. 55 POLYKLEITOS THE YOUNGER, Theater, Epidauros, Greece, ca. 350 BCE.
  38. 38. Orchestra “dancing place” Located on a hill, with a nice view Perfect acoustics Still used today Plays performed only once Tragedies in verse Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides Vehicle of communal expression of religious belief
  39. 39. 60 Stoa of Attalos II, Agora, Athens, Greece, ca. 150 BCE (with the Acropolis in the background).
  40. 40. “STOA”
  41. 41. 62
  42. 42. Pergamon Attalid Dynasty “rump state” Wealthy and opulent court cities Altar of Zeus: Defeat of Gauls Architecture: large scale and diversity theatrical break the rules development of the interior, instead of the focus on the building as a refined and perfect sculpture
  43. 43. 64 Reconstructed west front of the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 175 BCE. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
  44. 44. 69 Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail of the gigantomachy frieze, from the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey ca. 175 BCE. Marble, 7’ 6” high. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
  45. 45. 76 EPIGONOS(?), Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife. Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 230–220 BCE, 6’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale Romano–Palazzo Altemps, Rome.
  46. 46. Facial features of Gauls Kills wife and himself Lysippan tradition- must walk around to appreciate it Hellenistic Sculpture: Theatrical, twisting body, exaggerated musculature Individual, specific Melodramatic Theatrical, multi-media Realism, caricature
  47. 47. 78 EPIGONOS(?), Dying Gaul. Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 230–220 BCE, 3’ 1/2” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome.
  48. 48. Gaul in defeat Baroque Dramatic Expressive In the round Battles fought heroically in the nude
  49. 49. 81 Nike alighting on a warship (Nike of Samothrace), from Samothrace, Greece, ca. 190 BCE. Marble, figure 8’ 1” high. Louvre, Paris.
  50. 50. Theatrical effect Balance of forward body and backward wings Site-combination of art and nature Placed on prow of stone ship high on a hill spray of the fountain Visual and auditory drama
  51. 51. 83
  52. 52. 84
  53. 53. 86 ALEXANDROS OF ANTIOCH-ON-THE-MEANDER, Aphrodite (Venus de Milo), from Melos, Greece, ca. 150–125 BCE. Marble, 6’ 7” high. Louvre, Paris.
  54. 54. 90 Sleeping satyr (Barberini Faun), from Rome, Italy, ca. 230–200 BCE. Marble, 7’ 1” high. Glyptothek, Munich.
  55. 55. 97 Seated boxer, from Rome, Italy, ca. 100–50 BCE. Bronze, 4’ 2” high. Museo Nazionale Romano–Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome.
  56. 56. Older man from lowest social strata Athlete Battered and defeated Broken nose, teeth, and ears Emotional 98
  57. 57. Aphrodite, Eros, and Pan, from Delos, ca. 100 B.C. Marble, 4' 4" high.
  58. 58. Location: businessman’s clubhouse Eroticism and parody
  59. 59. 106 Old market woman, ca. 150–100 BCE. Marble, 4’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  60. 60. Why would someone want to look at this? Social realism Portrait study Elegant dress Untidy hair Unfocused stare Dionysis? EXPRESSIONISTIC Into viewers space Demand emotional response from viewer Technical virtuosity in form and texture 107
  61. 61. 109 POLYEUKTOS, Demosthenes. Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 280 BCE. 6’ 7 1/2” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.
  62. 62. 110 ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, and POLYDOROS OF RHODES, Laocoön and his sons, from Rome, Italy, early first century CE Marble, 7’ 10 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.

×