AH 1 Greece (3)

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  • 1. GreecePart 3
  • 2. The Late Classical Period404-338 BCEPolitical upheaval: PeloponnesianWar Defeat of plague weakened Athens at Sparta conquers in 404 BC 338 BC Power to Phillip of Macedonia; father of Alexander the Great Alexander overthrew Persia, Egypt and went as far as India
  • 3. Chaos and DisorderGreece is much weaker after WarBut good for philosophy and art 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. Major change in Greekthought and ArtGreek art began to focus moreon the individual and on thereal world of appearancesrather than on the communityand the ideal world of perfectbeings and perfect buildings.
  • 6. PRAXITELES(?), Hermes and the infant Dionysos, fromthe Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece. Copy of a statue by Praxiteles of ca. 340 BCE or an original work of ca.330–270 BCE by a son or grandson. Marble, 7‘ 1‖ high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia 6
  • 7. Notice S-curve of the body (pronounced contrapposto)PRAXITELES(?), Hermes and the infant Dionysos, fromthe Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece. Copy of a statue by Praxiteles of ca. 340 BCE or an original work of ca.330–270 BCE by a son or grandson. Marble, 7‘ 1‖ high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia 7
  • 8. 8+ heads not 7450 BCE PolykleitosSpear bearer(Doryphoros) 350 BCE Praxiteles Hermes and Dionysus
  • 9. PraxitelesEnd to serene idealismNew focus on the individual Body forms S curve Dreamy expression Smooth modeling No strength and rationality Instead languor and sensuousness
  • 10. PRAXITELES, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy of an original of ca. 350–340 BCE. 6‘ 8‖ high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 11
  • 11. • A big ―first‖ and a bold step to render a goddess in the nude • Sensuous and humanizing qualities – different from the cold, aloof gods and athletes of the High Classical • But not openly erotic, pelvis shielded • ―Welcoming look‖ slight smile • Softness of face and eyesPRAXITELES, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy of an original of ca. 350–340 BCE. 6‘ 8‖ high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 12
  • 12. 13
  • 13. Female nudity was considered base530 BCE 340 BCE
  • 14. 15
  • 15. Venus PudicaA classic figural pose in Westernart. In this, an unclothed female(either standing or reclining) keepsone hand covering her privateparts. (She is a modest lass, thisVenus.) The resultant pose - whichis not, incidentally, applicable to themale nude - is somewhatasymmetrical and often serves todraw ones eye to the very spotbeing hidden.The word "pudica" comes to us byway of the Latin "pudendus", whichcan mean either external genitaliaor shame, or both simultaneously. 16
  • 16. 17
  • 17. Grave stele of a young hunter, found near the Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330 BCE. Marble, 5‘ 6‖ high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. 18
  • 18. Grave stele influenced by the work of Skopas of Paros (sculptor) Known for including intense emotionalism in his workGrave stele of a young hunter, found near the Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330 BCE. Marble, 5‘ 6‖ high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. 19
  • 19. Emotional bridge to viewerSympathy and mourningHigh reliefLiving vs. dead
  • 20. LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, 6‘ 9‖ high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 21
  • 21. Out of the box Into the viewers space New canon Smaller head Thinner body Front not dominant Nervous energy Fig leaf?? (Catholic addition)LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, 6‘ 9‖ high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 23
  • 22. LYSIPPOS, Weary Herakles (Farnese Herakles). Roman marble copy from Rome, Italy, signed by GLYKON OF ATHENS, of a bronze original of ca. 320 BCE. 10 ‗ 5‖ high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale,Naples. 24
  • 23. Contradiction? Attributes?Exaggerated MusculatureRejection of stability andbalanceFigure in Space?Humanization of Greekgod
  • 24. HubrisThe history of Greece is a tale of gloryand folly, of inordinate success andincalculable waste. Perhaps because ourstrengths as humans almost invariablycome from the same sources as ourweaknesses—to wit, the blindness thatleads many to be taken in by others alsomakes them brave in the face ofoverwhelming danger—the same thingsthat had fostered the civilization of theancient Greeks precipitated its fall, theirunwavering belief in themselves and theconviction that their ways were the rightways, the best ways, and finally the onlyways. In particular, the greed that drovethe Peloponnesian War and fomented allits disasters for Athens and Greece alikewas part and parcel of the Atheniansdetermination to improve themselves andtheir way of life. That is, the fire thatsparked the Classical Age alsoincinerated it. 27
  • 25. The Greeks built theircivilization, a culture outstrippingall previous ones in WesternEurope, from the thin soil oftheir homeland, and then threwit all away fighting amongthemselves over those samedusty stones. In the end, theirsense of self-worth was boththeir triumph and their downfall.It makes sense, then, thattragedy is one of their mostenduring achievements.Below- ill fated SicilianExpedition 28
  • 26. Hellenistic Period323 BCE (Death of Alexander)-30 BCE Roman AnnexationHellenistic civilization represents afusion of the Ancient Greek worldwith that of the Near East, MiddleEast and Southwest Asia, and adeparture from earlier Greekattitudes towards "barbarian"cultures. The extent to whichgenuinely hybrid Greco-Asiancultures emerged is contentious;consensus tends to point towardspragmatic cultural adaptation by theelites of society, but for much of thepopulations, life would probablyhave continued much as it hadbefore. 29
  • 27. Head of Alexander the Great, fromPella, Greece, third century BCE. Marble, 1‘ high. Archaeological Museum, Pella. 30
  • 28. Alexander the Great‘s Empire
  • 29. The Antigonid dynasty in Macedon and central Greece;The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt based at Alexandria;The Seleucid dynasty in Syria and Mesopotamia based at Antioch;The Attalid dynasty in Anatolia based at Pergamum. 32
  • 30. Alexander encouraged inter-cultural marriages.Cosmopolite: citizen of the world. 33
  • 31. GNOSIS, Stag hunt, from Pella, Greece, ca. 300 BCE. Pebble mosaic, figural panel 10‘ 2‖ high. Archaeological Museum, Pella. 34
  • 32. Hades abducting Persephone, detail of wall painting from tomb1, Vergina, Greece, mid-fourth century BCE, 3‘ 3 ½ ‖ 35
  • 33. PHILOXENOS OF ERETRIA, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy (Alexander Mosaic) from theHouse of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first century BCE. Tessera mosaic, approx. 8‘ 10‖ X 16‘ 9‖. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. 36
  • 34. The Alexander MosaicBattle of IssusTesserae- tiny stones/glassSubjective Psychological Intensity Looking at the king, not who he killed Darius in retreatObjective ¾ view of horse Foreshortening Reflection on the shield
  • 35. 39
  • 36. 40
  • 37. POLYKLEITOS THE YOUNGER, Theater, Epidauros, Greece, ca. 350 BCE. 43
  • 38. Orchestra ―dancing place‖Located on a hill, with a niceview Perfect acoustics Still used todayPlays performed only once Tragedies in verse Aeschylus, Sophocles, Eu ripidesVehicle of communalexpression of religious belief
  • 39. Stoa of Attalos II, Agora, Athens, Greece, ca. 150 BCE (with the Acropolis in the background). 48
  • 40. ―STOA‖
  • 41. 50
  • 42. PergamonAttalid Dynasty ―rump state‖Wealthy and opulent court citiesAltar of Zeus: Defeat of GaulsArchitecture: large scale and diversity theatrical break the rules development of the interior, instead of the focus on the building as a refined and perfect sculpture
  • 43. Reconstructed west front of the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 175 BCE. Staatliche Museen, Berlin. 52
  • 44. Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail of the gigantomachy frieze, from the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey ca. 175 BCE. Marble, 7‘ 6‖ high. Staatliche Museen, Berlin. 56
  • 45. EPIGONOS(?), Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife. Roman marble copy of a bronzeoriginal of ca. 230–220 BCE, 6‘ 11‖ high. Museo Nazionale Romano–Palazzo Altemps, Rome. 61
  • 46. Facial features of GaulsKills wife and himselfLysippan tradition- must walkaround to appreciate itHellenistic Sculpture: Theatrical, twisting body, exaggerated musculature Individual, specific Melodramatic Theatrical, multi-media Realism, caricature
  • 47. EPIGONOS(?), Dying Gaul. Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 230–220 BCE, 3‘ 1/2‖ high. Museo Capitolino, Rome. 63
  • 48. Gaul in defeatBaroqueDramaticExpressiveIn the roundBattles fought heroically in thenude
  • 49. Nike alighting on a warship (Nike of Samothrace), fromSamothrace, Greece, ca. 190 BCE. Marble, figure 8‘ 1‖ high. Louvre, Paris. 66
  • 50. Theatrical effect Balance of forward body and backward wingsSite-combination of art andnature Placed on prow of stone ship high on a hill spray of the fountain Visual and auditory drama
  • 51. 68
  • 52. 69
  • 53. ALEXANDROS OF ANTIOCH-ON-THE-MEANDER, Aphrodite (Venus de Milo), from Melos, Greece, ca. 150–125 BCE. Marble, 6‘ 7‖ high. Louvre, Paris. 71
  • 54. Sleeping satyr (BarberiniFaun), from Rome, Italy, ca. 230– 200 BCE. Marble, 7‘ 1‖ high. Glyptothek, Munich. 75
  • 55. Seated boxer, from Rome, Italy, ca.100–50 BCE. Bronze, 4‘ 2‖ high. Museo Nazionale Romano–Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome. 80
  • 56. Older man from lowest socialstrataAthlete Battered and defeated Broken nose, teeth, and ears Emotional 81
  • 57. Aphrodite, Eros, and Pan, from Delos, ca. 100 B.C. Marble, 4 4" high.
  • 58. Location: businessman‘sclubhouseEroticism and parody
  • 59. Old market woman, ca. 150–100 BCE. Marble, 4‘1/2‖ high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 85
  • 60. Why would someone want tolook at this? Social realism Portrait study Elegant dress Untidy hair Unfocused stare Dionysis? EXPRESSIONISTIC Into viewers space Demand emotional response from viewer Technical virtuosity in form and texture 86
  • 61. POLYEUKTOS, Demosthenes. Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 280 BCE. 6‘ 7 1/2‖ high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen. 88
  • 62. ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, and POLYDOROS OF RHODES, Laocoön and his sons, from Rome, Italy, early first century CE Marble, 7‘ 10 1/2‖ high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 89