AH 1 Greece (2)
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AH 1 Greece (2) AH 1 Greece (2) Presentation Transcript

  • Ancient Greece Part 2
  • Greek defeat of the Persians
    • Battle of Salamis 480 BCE
    • Xerxes retreats.
    • Saved from the threat of external rule and changed the course of Western Civilization
      • HUMANISM vs.
      • “ Barbarians”
      • Democracy vs. Monarchy
  • Classical Period
    • Begins:
      • 480 BCE defeat of the Persian Empire
    • Ends
      • 323 BCE Death of Alexander the Great
    • Distinction between Asian and European Civilizations
      • Asian (Middle East): barbaric and inhuman
      • Greek-reason and law, humanism
    • Intellectual and Artistic:
      • Rationality: human beings impose order
      • Idealism: perfect beings and buildings
  • Classical Age
    • Athens emerged from the Persian Wars triumphant. Using their navy and merchant marine, the Athenians took control of the seas around Greece. With renewed prosperity and a keen sense of their own importance in international affairs, they set about repairing the damage incurred during the wars and extending the traditions established prior to the Persian invasion, in particular, drama, painting and architecture.
    • Part of the reason for this surge in the arts was the confidence born of victory and independence. In antiquity, to win a war was to gain the assurance that one's gods were pleased, which meant that the ceremonies and celebrations performed in their honor must be to their liking. From that vantage point, it only makes sense to continue and even extend them.
  • Classical Age
    • Thus, the Classical Age was scion and heir of a sense of righteous vigor. Led by Pericles , a man who had to be re-elected to office every year but who was nonetheless firmly in control of Athens for much of his life, the Athenians set about expanding their commercial interests. Wealth soon poured into the city from an alliance called the Delian League which they had formed after the war for the benefit of all Greece, but their own mostly.
    • Delian Leaugue= Athens collects “tribute” money from other poleis.
    • Eventually they get angry, this leads to the Peloponnesian War and the downfall of Athens.
    • DON’ T GET GREEDY!
  • KRESILAS, Pericles. Roman marble herm copy of a bronze original of ca. 429 BCE. Full herm 6 ’ high; detail 4’ 6 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  • KRESILAS, Pericles. Roman marble herm copy of a bronze original of ca. 429 BCE. Full herm 6 ’ high; detail 4’ 6 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
    • Pericles:
    • Elected stratego , general of Athens 15X
    • Instrumental in rebuilding and beautifying Athens after second Persian invasion
    • Notice his idealized appearance
    • Herm - a bust on a square pillar
  • Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6 ’ 6” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Reggio Calabria.
  • Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6 ’ 6” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Reggio Calabria. This Riace Warrior, like most Classical Greek statues, was sculpted in bronze. Most Classical bronzes have not survived as they were melted down in the Dark Ages for weapons. Most of the Classical Greek sculptures we have today are Roman marble copies.
  • Zeus (or Poseidon?), from the sea off Cape Artemision, Greece, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6 ’ 10” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • MYRON, Diskobolos ( Discus Thrower ). Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 450 BCE, 5 ’ 1” high. Museo Nazionale Romano—Palazzo Massimo alle Terme.
  • Gaze away from the viewer Inward not outward
  • POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) . Roman marble copy from Pompeii, Italy, after a bronze original of ca. 450–440 BCE, 6 ’ 11” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
  • POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) . Roman marble copy from Pompeii, Italy, after a bronze original of ca. 450–440 BCE, 6 ’ 11” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
    • “ Ideal” male warrior (Platonic influence)
    • Originally titled Canon
    • Established Polykleitos ’ canon of proportions, setting ideal correlations among body parts
    • Contrapposto
    • Polykleitan Style
      • Dynamic asymmetrical balance
      • Motion at rest
      • Harmony of opposites- chiastic
      • Impose human order on a natural form
  • Pythagoras
    • Order is embedded in all of nature
  • Aerial view of the Acropolis looking southeast, Athens, Greece.
  • IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES, Parthenon, (Temple of Athena Parthenos, looking southeast), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447–438 BCE.
  • The Parthenon Iktinos and Kallikrates Sculptor: Phidias 447-438 BCE
    • Paid for with embezzled funds from the Delian Leaugue
    • Site: Highest point of the city-the Acropolis-Mount Olympus- birthplace of Athena.
    • Structure: Mixture of Doric and Ionic: Athens is the ruler of all Hellenes.
    • Parthenos=Virgin
  • Panathenaic Procession
    • Held every four years Glorify Athens and Athenians Remember victory over the Persians
  • Symmetria: Ideal of harmony and mathematical proportion
    • The Golden Mean
    • X=2Y+1
  • Entasis
    • The application of a convex curve to a surface for aesthetic purposes
  • Entasis
  • Plan of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, with diagram of sculptural program (after Andrew Stewart), 447–432 BCE.
  • Exterior Interior
  • PHIDIAS, Athena Parthenos , in the cella of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438 BCE. Model of the lost chryselephantine statue. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
  • Athena Parthenos: the Virgin by Phidias
    • Holding Nike (victory) in right hand (victory over Persians)
    • Chryselephantine: gold and ivory
    • Shield:
    • Amazonomachy and Gigantomachy
    • (order over Chaos)
    • Height = 38 ft In the Cella.
    • Peplos
    • Chiton
    • Himation
  • metopes
    • Centauromachy
    • Gigantomachy
    • Amazonomachy
    • Trojan War
    Lapiths vs. Centaurs
  • metopes Lapiths vs. Centaurs
  • Battle of Centaurs and Lapiths, by Piero di Cosimo (notice the female centaur with a male centaur in the foreground).
  • pediments
  • Pediments: The Athenians
    • East-birth of the Goddess
    • West- contest between Athena and Poseidon to be patron God of Athens (arrogance?)
    • Athenians are always in the position of judgement.
  • Helios and his horses, and Dionysos (Herakles?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height 4 ’ 3”. British Museum, London.
  • Helios and his horses, and Dionysos (Herakles?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height 4 ’ 3”. British Museum, London. Notice how horses rise from below the ground line. On the other side they sink below.
  • Three goddesses (Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height 4 ’ 5”. British Museum, London.
  • Three goddesses (Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height 4 ’ 5”. British Museum, London. Phidian school establishes mastery of clothed forms.
  • Three goddesses (Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height 4 ’ 5”. British Museum, London. “ wet drapery”
  • Parthenon: Ionic Frieze
  • Parthenon: Ionic Frieze
  • Details of the Panathenaic Festival procession frieze, from the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 447–438 BCE. Marble, 3 ’ 6” high. Horsemen of north frieze ( top ), British Museum, London; seated gods and goddesses (Poseidon, Apollo, and Artemis) of east frieze ( center ), Acropolis Museum, Athens; and elders and maidens of east frieze ( bottom ), Louvre, Paris.
    • Deities as spectators:
    • Gods watching the Athenians because they are so important
    • Upper part of the relief higher for better visibility
  • Erechtheion (looking northwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE.
  • Erechtheus=early king of Athens
  • Caryatid from the south porch of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE. Marble, 7 ’ 7” high. British Museum, London.
  • KALLIKRATES, Temple of Athena Nike (looking southwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 427–424 BCE.
  • Nike adjusting her sandal, from the south side of the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 410 BCE. Marble, 3 ’ 6” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
  • Nike adjusting her sandal, from the south side of the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 410 BCE. Marble, 3 ’ 6” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens. Nike=Victory Over……. Persians!@!!!
  • Grave stele of Hegeso, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 400 BCE. Marble, 5 ’ 2” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • Grave stele of Hegeso, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 400 BCE. Marble, 5 ’ 2” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Enclosed composition Servant is possession, like the jewel box, and just as woman is possession of her husband.
  • ACHILLES PAINTER, Warrior taking leave of his wife (Athenian white-ground lekythos), from Eretria, Greece, ca. 440 BCE. Approx. 1 ’ 5” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • ACHILLES PAINTER, Warrior taking leave of his wife (Athenian white-ground lekythos), from Eretria, Greece, ca. 440 BCE. Approx. 1 ’ 5” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. White-ground technique
  • NIOBID PAINTER, Artemis and Apollo slaying the children of Niobe (Athenian red-figure calyx krater), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 450 BCE. 1 ’ 9” high. Louvre, Paris.
  • No ground-line
  • PHIALE PAINTER, Hermes bringing the infant Dionysos to Papposilenos (Athenian white-ground calyx krater), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 440–435 BCE. 1 ’ 2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  • Youth diving, painted ceiling of the Tomb of the Diver, Paestum, Italy, ca. 480 BCE. 3 ’ 4” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Paestum.
  • Very rare Greek mural painting. Plunge=plunge into death.