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The Roman Empire (part 2)
Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace looking northeast), Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE.
Ara Pacis  13-9 BCE The Altar of Augustan peace: Documents a specific event <ul><li>Commemorates Augustus ’ return after t...
Virgil ’s Aeneid <ul><li>Others will cast more tenderly in bronze, </li></ul><ul><li>Their breathing figures, I can well b...
God Aeneas making a sacrifice <ul><li>Aeneas: son of Venus </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus ’ forefather </li></ul>
 
Female personification (Tellus?), panel from the east facade of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. Marble, 5 ’...
Allegory of peace, prosperity, and fertility <ul><li>Goddess Pax( peace) Ceres( grain) or Venus( love)? </li></ul><ul><li>...
Ara Pacis Procession of the Imperial family Rome 13-19 BCE <ul><li>Decline in birth rate-Emperor Augustus encouraged marri...
Procession of the imperial family, detail of the south frieze of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. Marble, 5 ...
Similar to Greek Parthenon frieze <ul><li>Except: the procession is of actual individuals, a specific event at a known tim...
Model of a typical sixth-century BCE Etruscan temple, as described by Vitruvius. Istituto di Etruscologia e di Antichità I...
Maison Carree, 1-10 AD <ul><li>Classicizing  “Augustan” style </li></ul><ul><li>pseudoperipteral </li></ul><ul><li>Rome is...
Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France, ca. 1–10 CE.
Pont du Gard  Nimes, France Largest span 82 ’
The Fruits of  Pax Augustus Early Empire <ul><li>Pont-du-Gard, 16 BCE Nimes Frances  </li></ul><ul><li>Function:  Bridge a...
Pont-du-Gard, Nîmes, France, ca. 16 BCE.
Porta Maggiore, Rome, Italy, ca. 50 CE.
SEVERUS and CELER, section ( left ) and plan ( right ) of the octagonal hall of the Domus Aurea (Golden House) of Nero, Ro...
The Flavian Dynasty 69-96 CE General Vespasian and his sons  Titus and Domitian ruled for 25 years <ul><ul><li>STRUCTURES:...
Portrait of Vespasian, ca. 75–79 CE. Marble, 1 ’ 4” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.
Portrait bust of a Flavian woman, from Rome, Italy, ca. 90 CE. Marble, 2 ’ 1” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome.
Portrait bust of Flavian woman, 90 AD <ul><li>Portraits of people of all ages </li></ul><ul><li>Elegant and delicate figur...
Coliseum:  Flavian Amphitheater  70-80 CE <ul><li>Former site of Nero ’s  Domus Aurea </li></ul><ul><li>Held 50,000 specta...
Colosseum:  Flavian Amphitheater  70-80 CE <ul><li>Exterior travertine marble, interior concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Unifica...
Ground level First level 2 nd  level 3 rd  level <ul><ul><li>Sequence based on the proportion of the orders </li></ul></ul...
Aerial view of the Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Italy, ca. 70–80 CE.
<ul><li>Interior  </li></ul><ul><li>barrel and groin  </li></ul><ul><li>vaults </li></ul>
Arch of Titus, 81 CE <ul><li>Triumphal Arch: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commemorative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>celebrate mili...
Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE.
Spandrels; Arch Titus <ul><li>Spandrels:  area between the curve of the arch and the frame </li></ul><ul><li>Personified  ...
Spoils of Jerusalem, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, 7 ’ 10” high.
Triumph of Titus, relief panel from Arch of Titus, 81 AD  Allegorical <ul><li>First incident of divine and human interact ...
Triumph of Titus, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, 7 ’ 10” high.
Aerial view of Timgad (Thamugadi), Algeria, founded 100 CE.
Trajan: The First Spanish Emperor 98CE  <ul><li>He became all things to all people: popular </li></ul><ul><li>Instituted S...
The Forum of Trajan;  Architect Apollodorus of DamascusRome 112 CE <ul><li>Rome ’s greatest forum to glorify  Emperor Traj...
APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE. (James E. Packer and  John Burge). 1) Temple of T...
Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE.
APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, aerial view of the Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. 100–112 CE.
Trajan ’s Markets, Reconstruction
APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, interior of the great hall, Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. 100–112 CE.
Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy, ca. 114–118 CE.
<ul><li>Relief panels </li></ul><ul><li>Billboard function </li></ul><ul><li>Advertise Emperors achievements </li></ul>
Trajan granting land
Arch Relief: Trajan distributing largess to the poor
Funerary Relief of a Circus Official, Ostia, Italy 110-130 CE Marble 1 ’8” <ul><li>Handshake=marriage Statue: not living  ...
Hadrian as General,  Israel 130-138  AD 2 ’11” high, bronze <ul><li>Successor to Trajan; also Spaniard </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118 – 125 CE.
<ul><li>Interior: Revolutionary use of space </li></ul>
Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE.
<ul><li>Metamorphis from real to virtual -earth  to heavens </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheon: all the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Int...
 
Al-Khazneh ( “Treasury”), Petra, Jordan, second century CE.
Al- Khazneh  “Treasury”  Petra, Jordan, 2 nd  cent. CE <ul><ul><li>Classical architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disre...
Funerary relief of a vegetable vendor, from Ostia, Italy, second half of second century CE. Painted terracotta, 1 ’ 5” hig...
Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. 161 CE. Marble, 8 ’ ...
Decursio, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. 161 CE. Marble, 8 ’ 1 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, from Rome, Italy, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, 11 ’ 6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome.
The Antonines 138-192 CE <ul><li>Peaceful Succession: from Hadrian Antoninus Pius, 23 yrs, Marcus Aurelius </li></ul><ul><...
Marcus Aurelius  <ul><li>Emperor /Philosopher </li></ul>
Marcus Aurelius <ul><li>Turning point in art history </li></ul><ul><li>Classical style being challenged </li></ul><ul><li>...
End of Antonine Dynasty Commodus as Hercules  191-192 CE marble <ul><li>Commodus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Son of Marcus Aurel...
Portrait of Caracalla, ca. 211–217 CE. Marble, 1 ’ 2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Painted portrait of Septimius Severus and his family, from Egypt, ca. 200 CE. Tempera on wood, 1 ’ 2” diameter. Staatliche...
Baths of Caracalla Rome Italy 212 AD-216 <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture halls </li></ul><ul><li>libraries </li...
Plan of the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Italy, 212–216 CE.  1) natatio, 2) frigidarium, 3) tepidarium, 4) caldarium, 5) pala...
Roman Portraiture  Augustus – 27 BC-14 AD – A more idealized portrait. Caracalla – 217 AD – A highly realistic portrait.
Chariot procession of Septimius Severus, relief from the Arch of Septimius Severus, Lepcis Magna, Libya, 203 CE. Marble, 5...
The Third Century: Soldier Emperors 235-284CE <ul><li>Soldier emperors for the next 70 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trouble...
 
Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, Italy, 251–253 CE. Bronze, 7 ’ 11” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New...
Emperor Trebonianus Gallus, Rome , Italy 251-253 7 ’-11” <ul><li>How does it reflect the art of the  “soldier emperors”? <...
Battle of Romans and barbarians ( Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus ), from Rome, Italy, ca. 250–260 CE. Marble, 5 ’ high. Museo...
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus, 250-260, marble 5 ’ tall  What aspects would define this as Late Roman Empire art? Battle sce...
Sarcophagus of a philosopher, ca. 270–280 CE. Marble, 4 ’ 11” high. Vaticani, Rome.
Restored view ( top ) and plan ( bottom ) of the Temple of Venus, Baalbek, Lebanon, third century CE.
The Four Tetrachs 305 CE porphyry, 4 ’3” high Saint Marks Venice <ul><li>Characteristics of Roman sculpture in 4 th  centu...
Diocletian and the Tetrarchy 284-306 CE <ul><li>Division of the Roman Empire into West and East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dioc...
Portraits of the four tetrarchs, from Constantinople, ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, 4 ’ 3” high. Saint Mark’s, Venice.
Restored view of the palace of Diocletian, Split, Croatia, ca. 298-306.
Arch of Constantine 312-315 CE Rome <ul><li>Reuse of statues and reliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Trajan, Hadrian, Marcu...
Arch of Constantine (south side), Rome, Italy, 312–315 CE.
<ul><li>Commemorates defeat of Maxentius  </li></ul>
 
Constantine (in center without head) addressing the people. What stylistic changes do you see?
Distribution of largess, detail of the north frieze of the Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy, 312–315 CE. Marble, 3 ’ 4” hi...
Portrait of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy, ca. 315–330 CE. Marble, 8 ’ 6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome.
Constantine 306-337 <ul><li>313:Issued  Edict of Milan-  no persecution of Christians </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning of t...
 
Late Antique Style – c.284 - 325 AD  <ul><li>Emperor Constantine the Great  </li></ul><ul><li>(306-337 AD)  </li></ul><ul>...
Coins with portraits of Constantine. Nummus ( left ), 307 CE. Billon, diameter 1 ”. American Numismatic Society, New York....
The Late Empire 192-337CE  The Fall of Rome <ul><ul><li>Lack of order and challenges to authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Rome: Date of Its Decline and Fall <ul><li>Edward Gibbon fixes the date of the fall in 476 CE, when Odoacer, a Germanic of...
Rome: Decline and Fall <ul><li>This is a complex issue </li></ul><ul><li>The Edict of Milan of 313 CE allowed Christians f...
Factors Involved in the Fall of Rome <ul><li>Christianity: Rome proved unable to resist the spread of Christianity despite...
Conclusion <ul><li>Romans were imperialists first and republicans second </li></ul><ul><li>Even the Republican era was one...
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 2
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 2
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 2
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 2
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 2
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Transcript of "AH 1 Ancient Rome part 2"

  1. 1. The Roman Empire (part 2)
  2. 2. Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace looking northeast), Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE.
  3. 3. Ara Pacis 13-9 BCE The Altar of Augustan peace: Documents a specific event <ul><li>Commemorates Augustus ’ return after the conquer of Gaul </li></ul><ul><li>Union of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>portraiture and allegory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>religion and politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>private and public message </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Virgil ’s Aeneid <ul><li>Others will cast more tenderly in bronze, </li></ul><ul><li>Their breathing figures, I can well believe, </li></ul><ul><li>And bring more lifelike portraits out of marble; </li></ul><ul><li>Argue more eloquently, use the pointer </li></ul><ul><li>To trace the paths of heaven accurately </li></ul><ul><li>And accurately foretell the rising stars. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman, remember by your strength to rule </li></ul><ul><li>Earth ’s peoples-for your arts are to be these: </li></ul><ul><li>To pacify, to impose the rule of law, </li></ul><ul><li>to spare the conquered, battle down the proud. </li></ul>
  5. 5. God Aeneas making a sacrifice <ul><li>Aeneas: son of Venus </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus ’ forefather </li></ul>
  6. 7. Female personification (Tellus?), panel from the east facade of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. Marble, 5 ’ 3” high.
  7. 8. Allegory of peace, prosperity, and fertility <ul><li>Goddess Pax( peace) Ceres( grain) or Venus( love)? </li></ul><ul><li>Goddess Pax-mother earth-nurtures the Roman people-babies </li></ul><ul><li>Women with billowing veils= </li></ul><ul><li>sea wind & land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fertility of Roman farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>domination over the Mediterranean </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Ara Pacis Procession of the Imperial family Rome 13-19 BCE <ul><li>Decline in birth rate-Emperor Augustus encouraged marriage, marital fidelity, tax relief and large families </li></ul>
  9. 10. Procession of the imperial family, detail of the south frieze of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. Marble, 5 ’ 3” high.
  10. 11. Similar to Greek Parthenon frieze <ul><li>Except: the procession is of actual individuals, a specific event at a known time, includes children, Roman senators, Imperial family, crowded, not classical </li></ul>
  11. 12. Model of a typical sixth-century BCE Etruscan temple, as described by Vitruvius. Istituto di Etruscologia e di Antichità Italiche, Università di Roma, Rome.
  12. 13. Maison Carree, 1-10 AD <ul><li>Classicizing “Augustan” style </li></ul><ul><li>pseudoperipteral </li></ul><ul><li>Rome is transformed into a city of Carrera marble </li></ul>
  13. 14. Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France, ca. 1–10 CE.
  14. 15. Pont du Gard Nimes, France Largest span 82 ’
  15. 16. The Fruits of Pax Augustus Early Empire <ul><li>Pont-du-Gard, 16 BCE Nimes Frances </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Bridge and aqueduct </li></ul><ul><li>Each person had 100 gallons of water per day </li></ul>
  16. 17. Pont-du-Gard, Nîmes, France, ca. 16 BCE.
  17. 18. Porta Maggiore, Rome, Italy, ca. 50 CE.
  18. 19. SEVERUS and CELER, section ( left ) and plan ( right ) of the octagonal hall of the Domus Aurea (Golden House) of Nero, Rome, Italy, 64–68 CE.
  19. 20. The Flavian Dynasty 69-96 CE General Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian ruled for 25 years <ul><ul><li>STRUCTURES: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colosseum 70-80 CE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arch of Titus, Rome 81 CE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoils of Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triumph of Titus </li></ul></ul>Vespasian 69-79 AD Good Character: simple, honest, able
  20. 21. Portrait of Vespasian, ca. 75–79 CE. Marble, 1 ’ 4” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.
  21. 22. Portrait bust of a Flavian woman, from Rome, Italy, ca. 90 CE. Marble, 2 ’ 1” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome.
  22. 23. Portrait bust of Flavian woman, 90 AD <ul><li>Portraits of people of all ages </li></ul><ul><li>Elegant and delicate figure </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast between hair and skin. </li></ul><ul><li>How different than republic? </li></ul><ul><li>Change from verism to idealism </li></ul>
  23. 24.
  24. 25. Coliseum: Flavian Amphitheater 70-80 CE <ul><li>Former site of Nero ’s Domus Aurea </li></ul><ul><li>Held 50,000 spectators </li></ul><ul><li>Games for 100 days running </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiators, animal combats, dead Christians </li></ul>
  25. 26. Colosseum: Flavian Amphitheater 70-80 CE <ul><li>Exterior travertine marble, interior concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Unification of the multistoried façade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCH COLUMN construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used 3 orders of architecture: Tuscan Doric, Ionic and Corinthian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalent to 16 stories tall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>76 entrances </li></ul><ul><li>Elliptical shape, concentric circles, banked seats with valerium </li></ul>
  26. 27. Ground level First level 2 nd level 3 rd level <ul><ul><li>Sequence based on the proportion of the orders </li></ul></ul>Roman Doric Ionic Corinthian
  27. 28. Aerial view of the Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Italy, ca. 70–80 CE.
  28. 29. <ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><li>barrel and groin </li></ul><ul><li>vaults </li></ul>
  29. 30. Arch of Titus, 81 CE <ul><li>Triumphal Arch: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commemorative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>celebrate military victories, propaganda for ruler </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engaged columns </li></ul><ul><li>Composite capitals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corinthian and Ionic mixed </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE.
  31. 32. Spandrels; Arch Titus <ul><li>Spandrels: area between the curve of the arch and the frame </li></ul><ul><li>Personified Victories: (Nike)winged women as in Greek art </li></ul>
  32. 33. Spoils of Jerusalem, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, 7 ’ 10” high.
  33. 34. Triumph of Titus, relief panel from Arch of Titus, 81 AD Allegorical <ul><li>First incident of divine and human interact on an official Roman relief. </li></ul><ul><li>Titus in the chariot with Victory </li></ul><ul><li>Personifications of Honor and Valor below- mixture of divine and human figures on an official governmental relief </li></ul>
  34. 35. Triumph of Titus, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, 7 ’ 10” high.
  35. 36. Aerial view of Timgad (Thamugadi), Algeria, founded 100 CE.
  36. 37. Trajan: The First Spanish Emperor 98CE <ul><li>He became all things to all people: popular </li></ul><ul><li>Instituted Social Programs </li></ul><ul><li>He and Augustus became the yardsticks for success </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of all Emperors: Felicior Augusto, Melior Traiano </li></ul><ul><li>luckier than Augustus, better than Trajan </li></ul>
  37. 38. The Forum of Trajan; Architect Apollodorus of DamascusRome 112 CE <ul><li>Rome ’s greatest forum to glorify Emperor Trajan </li></ul><ul><li>Huge Basilica rather than temple dominates the colonnaded square. </li></ul><ul><li>Celebration of victory over the Dacians </li></ul>
  38. 39. APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE. (James E. Packer and John Burge). 1) Temple of Trajan, 2) Column of Trajan, 3) libraries, 4) Basilica Ulpia, 5) forum, 6) equestrian statue of Trajan. 1 2 3 3 4 6 5
  39. 40. Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE.
  40. 41.
  41. 42.
  42. 43.
  43. 44. APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, aerial view of the Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. 100–112 CE.
  44. 45.
  45. 46. Trajan ’s Markets, Reconstruction
  46. 47. APOLLODORUS OF DAMASCUS, interior of the great hall, Markets of Trajan, Rome, Italy, ca. 100–112 CE.
  47. 48. Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy, ca. 114–118 CE.
  48. 49. <ul><li>Relief panels </li></ul><ul><li>Billboard function </li></ul><ul><li>Advertise Emperors achievements </li></ul>
  49. 50. Trajan granting land
  50. 51. Arch Relief: Trajan distributing largess to the poor
  51. 52. Funerary Relief of a Circus Official, Ostia, Italy 110-130 CE Marble 1 ’8” <ul><li>Handshake=marriage Statue: not living Continuous narration </li></ul><ul><li>How were the rules of classical design ignored? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorted perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common ground line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of proportion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unnatural movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crowded </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Hadrian as General, Israel 130-138 AD 2 ’11” high, bronze <ul><li>Successor to Trajan; also Spaniard </li></ul><ul><li>Age 49 forever </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of the real and the ideal </li></ul><ul><li>Power restrained </li></ul>
  53. 54. Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118 – 125 CE.
  54. 55.
  55. 56. <ul><li>Interior: Revolutionary use of space </li></ul>
  56. 57. Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE.
  57. 58. <ul><li>Metamorphis from real to virtual -earth to heavens </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheon: all the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Interior orb of the earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 planets: seven niches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dome: vault of the heavens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>27 ’d. oculus-the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stars in the coffers </li></ul></ul>
  58. 60. Al-Khazneh ( “Treasury”), Petra, Jordan, second century CE.
  59. 61. Al- Khazneh “Treasury” Petra, Jordan, 2 nd cent. CE <ul><ul><li>Classical architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disregard for rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uneven spacing on columns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pediment? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Split entablature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic patterns of light and shade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Baroque” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 62. Funerary relief of a vegetable vendor, from Ostia, Italy, second half of second century CE. Painted terracotta, 1 ’ 5” high, respectively. Museo Ostiense, Ostia.
  61. 63. Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. 161 CE. Marble, 8 ’ 1 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  62. 64. Decursio, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, Italy, ca. 161 CE. Marble, 8 ’ 1 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  63. 65. Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, from Rome, Italy, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, 11 ’ 6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome.
  64. 66. The Antonines 138-192 CE <ul><li>Peaceful Succession: from Hadrian Antoninus Pius, 23 yrs, Marcus Aurelius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>138-Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius (age 51) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antoninus adopted Marcus Aurelius </li></ul></ul>
  65. 67. Marcus Aurelius <ul><li>Emperor /Philosopher </li></ul>
  66. 68. Marcus Aurelius <ul><li>Turning point in art history </li></ul><ul><li>Classical style being challenged </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond Republican verism- exposure of the soul </li></ul><ul><li>His personality appears </li></ul>
  67. 69. End of Antonine Dynasty Commodus as Hercules 191-192 CE marble <ul><li>Commodus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Son of Marcus Aurelius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decadent and insane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assassinated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Septimius Severus takes power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Born General </li></ul></ul>
  68. 70. Portrait of Caracalla, ca. 211–217 CE. Marble, 1 ’ 2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  69. 71. Painted portrait of Septimius Severus and his family, from Egypt, ca. 200 CE. Tempera on wood, 1 ’ 2” diameter. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
  70. 72. Baths of Caracalla Rome Italy 212 AD-216 <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture halls </li></ul><ul><li>libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct Business </li></ul><ul><li>Opera performances </li></ul>
  71. 73.
  72. 74. Plan of the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Italy, 212–216 CE. 1) natatio, 2) frigidarium, 3) tepidarium, 4) caldarium, 5) palaestra.
  73. 75. Roman Portraiture Augustus – 27 BC-14 AD – A more idealized portrait. Caracalla – 217 AD – A highly realistic portrait.
  74. 76. Chariot procession of Septimius Severus, relief from the Arch of Septimius Severus, Lepcis Magna, Libya, 203 CE. Marble, 5 ’ 6” high. Castle Museum, Tripoli.
  75. 77. The Third Century: Soldier Emperors 235-284CE <ul><li>Soldier emperors for the next 70 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubled times-out of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death by assassination- frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Little building activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art expressed general/symbolic qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified and geometric forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased demand for engravers & sculptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing coins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Busts of ever changing emperors </li></ul></ul>
  76. 79. Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, Italy, 251–253 CE. Bronze, 7 ’ 11” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  77. 80. Emperor Trebonianus Gallus, Rome , Italy 251-253 7 ’-11” <ul><li>How does it reflect the art of the “soldier emperors”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heroic Nudity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrestlers body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Greek Idealism- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image of brute force </li></ul></ul>
  78. 81. Battle of Romans and barbarians ( Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus ), from Rome, Italy, ca. 250–260 CE. Marble, 5 ’ high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Altemps, Rome.
  79. 82. Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus, 250-260, marble 5 ’ tall What aspects would define this as Late Roman Empire art? Battle scene between Roman and Goths
  80. 83. Sarcophagus of a philosopher, ca. 270–280 CE. Marble, 4 ’ 11” high. Vaticani, Rome.
  81. 84. Restored view ( top ) and plan ( bottom ) of the Temple of Venus, Baalbek, Lebanon, third century CE.
  82. 85. The Four Tetrachs 305 CE porphyry, 4 ’3” high Saint Marks Venice <ul><li>Characteristics of Roman sculpture in 4 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cubic heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squat bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schematic drapery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shapeless bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotionless masks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICONIC </li></ul></ul>
  83. 86. Diocletian and the Tetrarchy 284-306 CE <ul><li>Division of the Roman Empire into West and East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diocletian: Augustus of the East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power sharing “rule by four” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Division continued throughout the Middle Ages; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantine (Greek)East </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do these statues tell us about the rule of the four tetrachs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No indiv. identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embracing each other </li></ul></ul>
  84. 87. Portraits of the four tetrarchs, from Constantinople, ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, 4 ’ 3” high. Saint Mark’s, Venice.
  85. 88. Restored view of the palace of Diocletian, Split, Croatia, ca. 298-306.
  86. 89. Arch of Constantine 312-315 CE Rome <ul><li>Reuse of statues and reliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in creativity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Association with “good” emperors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuity of the empire </li></ul></ul></ul>
  87. 90. Arch of Constantine (south side), Rome, Italy, 312–315 CE.
  88. 91. <ul><li>Commemorates defeat of Maxentius </li></ul>
  89. 93. Constantine (in center without head) addressing the people. What stylistic changes do you see?
  90. 94. Distribution of largess, detail of the north frieze of the Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy, 312–315 CE. Marble, 3 ’ 4” high.
  91. 95. Portrait of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy, ca. 315–330 CE. Marble, 8 ’ 6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome.
  92. 96. Constantine 306-337 <ul><li>313:Issued Edict of Milan- no persecution of Christians </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning of the Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>324: Founded New Rome: Constantinople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>325: Christianity becomes the official religion </li></ul></ul>
  93. 98. Late Antique Style – c.284 - 325 AD <ul><li>Emperor Constantine the Great </li></ul><ul><li>(306-337 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Initiates many major changes: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes the new religion of Christianity. Gives freedom for Christians to worship. </li></ul><ul><li>Moves away from the classical style. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes the scale and materials of some sculpture. </li></ul><ul><li>Borrows reliefs from previous “good” Emperors. These are called ‘ Spolia ’ </li></ul>
  94. 99. Coins with portraits of Constantine. Nummus ( left ), 307 CE. Billon, diameter 1 ”. American Numismatic Society, New York. Medallion ( right ), ca. 315 CE. Silver, diameter 1”. Staatliche Munzsammlung, Munich.
  95. 100. The Late Empire 192-337CE The Fall of Rome <ul><ul><li>Lack of order and challenges to authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under attack on all fronts-military important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy in decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy disintegrating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline of state religion :moving from a pagan to a Christian world </li></ul></ul>
  96. 101. Rome: Date of Its Decline and Fall <ul><li>Edward Gibbon fixes the date of the fall in 476 CE, when Odoacer, a Germanic officer in the Roman army overthrew the last emperor Romulus Augustulus </li></ul><ul><li>Odoacer leads the “Barbarians at the Gates” </li></ul><ul><li>Others fix the date at 410 CE with the First Sack of Rome, a siege led by another Germanic officer Alaric; lack of food induced Alaric ’s army induced it to leave </li></ul><ul><li>Alaric died in 411, after his forces left </li></ul><ul><li>Dates vary from 410 CE to as recent as 1453, when Constantinople fell to the Turks; clearly this is a matter of definition </li></ul>
  97. 102. Rome: Decline and Fall <ul><li>This is a complex issue </li></ul><ul><li>The Edict of Milan of 313 CE allowed Christians freedom of worship and toleration became official policy </li></ul><ul><li>The state religion of the empire itself was Christianity by the end of the fourth century </li></ul><ul><li>When the fall finally came, Christianity was established in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Rome was divided into the West and the East in 286 as an administrative convenience, but set the stage for the Eastern and Western churches. </li></ul>Thomas Couture, Romans in the Decadence of the Empire (1847).
  98. 103.
  99. 104. Factors Involved in the Fall of Rome <ul><li>Christianity: Rome proved unable to resist the spread of Christianity despite persecution, partly because of its widespread appeal (details in the next presentation on roots of Christianity) </li></ul><ul><li>Bread and circuses (including gladiator contests at the coliseum) were used to support and entertain the returning soldiers after the conquests ended </li></ul><ul><li>Moral and political decline: The emperor as office became a source of wealth, corruption, and an object of contention between armed factions </li></ul><ul><li>Social conditions: most Romans lived in poverty as the urban infrastructure declined </li></ul><ul><li>Division of the empire: the empire was divided into east (Greek) and west (Latin) by Diocletan in 296 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Several explanations, not just one, satisfactorily explain the decline. </li></ul>
  100. 105. Conclusion <ul><li>Romans were imperialists first and republicans second </li></ul><ul><li>Even the Republican era was one of conquests in the Italian peninsula—much like manifest destiny in the United States during the 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the themes emphasize war and conquest </li></ul><ul><li>The arts mostly had a practical side </li></ul><ul><li>Toward the end of the era, wealth mattered more than duty that had marked Rome ’s earlier years </li></ul><ul><li>The insecurity of the latter years also opened the populace to new ideologies: mystical cults, revivals of older beliefs from Egypt—and Christianity </li></ul>
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