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AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1
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AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1

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  • 1. The Roman Empire
  • 2. The Roman World
  • 3. Capitoline Wolf , from Rome, Italy, ca. 500–480 BCE. Bronze, 2 ’ 7 1/2” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome.
  • 4. “ The Feral Kid” from Mad Max: Return of the Road Warrior
  • 5. "The Rape of the Sabine Women" (1637-1638) by Nicolas Poussin
  • 6. Rise of Rome <ul><li>Latins invaded the peninsula in 1000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>By 800 BCE, founded Rome at the lower valley of the Tiber River, central locus for control of the rest of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Other ethnicities migrated to the region: Etruscans, Phoenicians, Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the other villages, Rome encouraged other ethnic groups to migrate there </li></ul>
  • 7. Chronology <ul><li>Romulus founded Rome: 753 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Period: 509-27 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Early Empire: 27 BC - 96 AD </li></ul><ul><li>High Empire: 96 - 192 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Late Empire: 192-337 AD </li></ul>
  • 8. ROMAN EMPIRE: “MERIT” <ul><li>M onuments </li></ul><ul><li>E ngineering </li></ul><ul><li>R ealism </li></ul><ul><li>I nterior Space </li></ul><ul><li>T emples— play a part in Roman contributions to the West. </li></ul><ul><li>MERIT is also a term connected to the idea of virtue and praise, which allows us to discuss the Roman use of sculpture and architecture for propagandistic purposes. </li></ul>
  • 9. Multiethnic Contributions to Rome <ul><li>Phoenicians contributed maritime and commercial skills and phonetic alphabet </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscans brought urban planning, chariot racing, the toga, bronze and gold crafting—and the arch </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks: the pantheon of gods and goddesses, linguistic and literary principles, and aesthetic </li></ul>
  • 10. The Centrality of the Roman State <ul><li>Expectations of the citizen: </li></ul><ul><li>Obedience to the state </li></ul><ul><li>Service in the military—which could be profitable The soldier had to finance his own spear, shield, armor and helmet </li></ul><ul><li>Both were essential to the rise of the Roman emporium, the empire </li></ul>
  • 11. The Roman Empire: Unification of the Ancient World <ul><li>Government: ruled from Mesopotamia to England </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure: all led to Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Domination: law and order Pax Romana </li></ul>
  • 12. Roman influences on the Western World <ul><li>Legacy: Rome lives on in our government, law, architecture and language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our coins are like Roman coins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian churches borrowed form the Roman Basilica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aqueducts continue to supply water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ships dock in Roman ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman roads are still used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Roman use of art as propaganda </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Differences from Greece <ul><li>The artists are unimportant, no names survive(servants of the patron) </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks were interested in philosophy, art and science. The Romans were interested in conquest and administration. </li></ul>“ verism ”
  • 14. Roman Technical Developments <ul><li>Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>The Arch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrel vaults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groin vaults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dome: architecture of light and space </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Roman Invention of Concrete <ul><li>Cheap and strong; can be molded to any form </li></ul><ul><li>Placed in wooden frames, then dried </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture of space rather than mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman genius: many materials in the same building </li></ul>
  • 16. Roman concrete construction. (a) barrel vault, (b) groin vault, (c) fenestrated sequence of groin vaults, (d) hemispherical dome with oculus (John Burge).
  • 17. Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia Palestrina, Italy 110 BC Goddess of fate and chance <ul><li>7 vaulted terraces, tholos at peak of triangle </li></ul><ul><li>innovative use of concrete; barrel vaults </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of Roman will & rational order over nature </li></ul>
  • 18. Restored view of the Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Palestrina, Italy, late second century BCE (John Burge).
  • 19. The Arch <ul><li>Rome built on the arch, contributed by the Etruscans </li></ul><ul><li>Weight is evenly distributed from the keystone to the sides </li></ul><ul><li>It could provide so much strength that other structures could be built above it </li></ul>
  • 20. Roman Engineering Feats: The Vault <ul><li>Barrel Vault (Tunnel); a series of connected arches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>needs buttressing dark and gloomy </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. <ul><li>Groin Vault: barrel vaults intersect at right angles over a square area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrust is concentrated at four corners, eliminating walls, allows clerestory windows </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. The Dome <ul><li>Third form of rooftop architecture in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Created by rotating a round arch through 180 degrees on its axis </li></ul><ul><li>Must be buttressed from all sides </li></ul><ul><li>The weight must be evenly distributed at all sides </li></ul><ul><li>The dome included a circular skylight </li></ul>
  • 23.
  • 24. Domestic Architecture <ul><li>Entrance to a home was an atrium, a large hall entered through a corridor from the street, </li></ul><ul><li>An open compluvium (skylight) which let in rainwater and sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Rainwater was collected in a sunken basin in the floor (impluvium) and channeled off into a cistern </li></ul>
  • 25. Equestrian Statues <ul><li>Equestrian statues were a Roman invention reproduced throughout history </li></ul><ul><li>This statue of Marcus Aurelius is typical-it depicts both horse and rider in Grecian naturalistic design </li></ul><ul><li>The veins and muscles of the horse are visible as it raises its foreleg, a triumphal pose </li></ul>
  • 26. Roman Sculpture <ul><li>Emphasized Roman victories: triumphal arches and victory columns (obelisks redesigned in Roman style) </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures of Roman emperors, in realistically detailed Roman breastplate and idealized faces and proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Equestrian statues were added in the 2 nd Century BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on realism was evident in balding senators and matronly women </li></ul><ul><li>Fig leafs in nude male statues such as Mercury were a Roman invention after conversion to Christianity </li></ul>
  • 27. Roman Roads <ul><li>“ All roads lead to Rome” is an apt description of Roman roads </li></ul><ul><li>The network on this map show how the Roman army could go anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Later, it also indirectly contributed to the spread of Christianity throughout the empire </li></ul><ul><li>The paving was basic to the rapids transport of troops </li></ul>
  • 28. Public Architecture: The Forum <ul><li>A rectangular open space, usually with a temple at one end </li></ul><ul><li>Bounded on three sides by colonnades (rows of columns) </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth side by a basilica </li></ul><ul><li>Best known: Forum Romanum and Forum Julium </li></ul>
  • 29. Architectural and Engineering Professions <ul><li>Roman architecture and engineering were considered to be one discipline </li></ul><ul><li>The most influential manuals were Vitruvius ’s Ten Books on Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Function to the Roman architecture determined design </li></ul><ul><li>Classic architecture emphasized size to accommodate 1 million people of Rome: the coliseum, the amphitheaters, all designed for entertainment, whether gladiators, drama, or circuses </li></ul>
  • 30. The Republican Period 509-27 BCE <ul><li>509 BCE Expulsion of Etruscans from Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of constitutional government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power in senate and consuls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two social classes: Patrician and Plebian </li></ul>Dancing Warriors, late Republican period, Vatican museum
  • 31.
  • 32. Roman Republic: Roots <ul><li>Etruscans ruled the Latins but were overthrown in 509 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually, monarchy gave way to government by the people ( res publica ) </li></ul><ul><li>Predominately comprised the patricians (aristocrats) and the plebians (farmers, artisans, and other common folk. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves formed a third category as the empire expanded </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the republic was a slow process </li></ul>
  • 33. Structure of the Roman Republic <ul><li>Patricians through the Senate controlled the lawmaking process </li></ul><ul><li>However, plebians filled the ranks of the Roman army and exercised veto power over the decisions of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, through their leaders, the tribunes, acquired the right to hold executive office and lawmaking power </li></ul>
  • 34. The Romans took over their neighbors one by one <ul><li>27 BC Republic becomes Roman Empire </li></ul>
  • 35. <ul><li>211 BC: Romans conquered the Greek city of Syracuse, Sicily-plundered Greek art </li></ul><ul><li>146 BCE Greece becomes a Roman Province </li></ul>
  • 36. Military Organization <ul><li>The army was the tool of imperial expansion </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman army was a highly disciplined force and the backbone of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, all free men served two-years </li></ul><ul><li>Later, professional soldiers filled the ranks </li></ul><ul><li>As the empire expanded, non-Romans joined to gain Roman citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>The phalanx was the basic unit (Later it would be divided into smaller units </li></ul><ul><li>These units could combine to form a legion if necessary. </li></ul>
  • 37. Roman Law <ul><li>Formed the model of legal systems throughout European countries except England, which relied on common law </li></ul><ul><li>The term jus meant both the law and justice </li></ul><ul><li>The system of customary law ( ius ) was written down as codes ( lex ) </li></ul><ul><li>These were displayed as the Twelve Tables of Law at the Forum. </li></ul>
  • 38. Roman Philosophy <ul><li>Much of philosophy was derived from the Stoics of the Hellenistic empire, who saw life as adversity to be endured </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness lies in acceptance of things as they are </li></ul><ul><li>Seneca was a leading proponent of Stoicism </li></ul><ul><li>Lucretius in The Nature of Things saw the world in a purely materialistic light and denied the existence of gods or a spiritual dimension </li></ul><ul><li>This belief system encouraged the sense of duty and also the equality of all, which had a humanizing effect on Roman law </li></ul><ul><li>This world view anticipated the beliefs of the early Christians, emphasizing personal responsibility and the equality of all </li></ul>
  • 39. Roman Literature: Epic Poetry <ul><li>Under sponsorship of Octavian, produced a golden age of poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Virgil (Publius Vergilius Mato) wrote the epic poem Aeneid , on Aeneas, the mythical Trojan founder of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Virgil accompanies Dante in the Purgatorio and Inferno in the Divine Comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Catullus, a Sicilian, wrote lyric poetry, some of it inspired by his adulterous affair with Clodia, wife of a Roman consul, and the collapse of the affair </li></ul><ul><li>Publius Ovidus Naso (Ovid) covers the art of seduction, work which earned him exile </li></ul><ul><li>Horace was the master of satire that addresses Stoic themes, such as Carpe Diem (Seize the Day) </li></ul>
  • 40. Roman Literature <ul><li>Best known for prose, writing as a vehicle for providing information </li></ul><ul><li>Provided the first geographies and encyclopedias </li></ul><ul><li>Other media: instruction manuals, histories, and biographies </li></ul><ul><li>Livy provided a detailed history of Rome from the 8 th century BCE to his own day (1 st century BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Also masters of oratory, exemplified by Tullius Cicero (106-41 BCE) </li></ul>
  • 41. Architecture <ul><li>Greek: religious artistry; the building as sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Roman: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure and engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invention of concrete and use of the arch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eclectic; borrowed from Etruscan and Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greek: the temple is a shrine to a deity </li></ul><ul><li>Roman : the temple is a monument to an empire </li></ul>
  • 42. Temple of Portunus (Temple of “Fortuna Virilis”), Rome, Italy, ca. 75 BCE.
  • 43. Temple of Fortuna Virilis (Portunus: Roman god of harbors) Rome, 75 BCE <ul><li>Etruscan </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High podium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>entry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic columns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stucco used as faux marble over stone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudoperipteral: engaged columns </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 44. Head of an old man, from Osimo, mid-first century BCE. Marble, life-size. Palazzo del Municipio, Osimo.
  • 45. Head of a Roman Patrician 75-50 BCE marble <ul><li>Function: show elevated class status through genealogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waxed death masks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bust of ancestors kept in the home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman coins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different from Greek: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not full figure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of verism , not idealism </li></ul></ul>
  • 46. Portrait of a Roman general, from the Sanctuary of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy, ca. 75-50 BCE. Marble, 6 ’ 2” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome.
  • 47. Portrait of a Roman General, From Sanctuary of Hercules 75-50 BCE Marble 6 ’2” <ul><li>What ’s wrong with this picture? </li></ul><ul><li>Cuirass(breastplate): military general </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body: Hero (Idealized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face: portrait (verism) </li></ul></ul>
  • 48. Funerary relief with portraits of the Gessii, from Rome(?), Italy, ca. 30 BCE. Marble, approx. 2 ’ 1 1/2” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  • 49. <ul><li>Plebian Relief Sculpture Slavery was common Stylistic tastes tied to social and political status </li></ul><ul><li>Funeral portraits of deceased freedmen. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal members of society-thus the portraits </li></ul>
  • 50. Relief with funerary procession, from Amiternum, Italy, second half of first century BCE. Limestone, 2 ’ 2” high. Museo Nazionale d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila.
  • 51. Aerial view of the forum (looking northeast), Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE and later. (1) forum, (2) Temple of Jupiter (Capitolium), (3) basilica.
  • 52. Aerial view of the amphitheater, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70 BCE.
  • 53. Pompeii and the cities of Vesuvius <ul><li>Buried by a volcano 79 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Excavated mid 1700 ’s </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Revival 1760 ’s- ( Neo Classic period) </li></ul><ul><li>Forum: Public square </li></ul><ul><li>Basilica: city hall </li></ul><ul><li>Amphitheater: gladiators </li></ul>
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59.
  • 60. Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings in Room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–50 BCE. Fresco, frieze 5 ’ 4” high.
  • 61. Villa of Mysteries <ul><li>Scene from the Villa of the Mysteries </li></ul><ul><li>An initiate is flagellated (by a winged woman out of view) </li></ul><ul><li>Another women plays cymbals while in a frenzied dance </li></ul><ul><li>The technique give a three-dimensional image on a two dimensional surface </li></ul><ul><li>Portraits were common, as seen in Young Woman With a Stylus </li></ul><ul><li>This was probably the Lesbian poet Sappho—from the Isle of Lesbos, but not necessarily homosexual </li></ul>
  • 62. 2nd style Dionysiac Mystery frieze, Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy 60-50 BCE 5 ’ 4” high <ul><li>Celebrate rites of the god of Bacchus </li></ul><ul><li>Women emulate Ariadne </li></ul><ul><li>Figures interact across the room </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting, alcohol, physical abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial devices: Modeling of figures- illusion of a ledge </li></ul>
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65. Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater, wall painting from House I,3,23, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–79 CE. Fresco, 5 ’ 7” x 6’ 1”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
  • 66. Restored view and plan of a typical Roman house of the Late Republic and Early Empire (John Burge). (1) fauces, (2) atrium, (3) impluvium, (4) cubiculum, (5) ala, (6) tablinum, (7) triclinium, (8) peristyle.
  • 67. Atrium of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE, rebuilt 62–79 CE.
  • 68. First Style wall painting in the fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy, late second century BCE.
  • 69. First Style Wall Painting; Masonry style Samnite House Herculaneum late 2nd cent BCE <ul><li>Trompe l ’oeil </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete covered with plaster </li></ul><ul><li>Imitates slabs of colored marble </li></ul><ul><li>Modeled in relief </li></ul>
  • 70. Second Style <ul><li>Realistic architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion of windows and porticos, looked out to scenes </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Perspective: using a vanishing point </li></ul>
  • 71. Second Style wall paintings (general view left , and detail of tholos right ) from cubiculum M of the Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale, Italy, ca. 50–40 BCE. Fresco, 8 ’ 9” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  • 72. Gardenscape, 2nd style Villa of Livia. Primaporta, Italy 30-20 BCE <ul><li>Illusion of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Perspective: blurring of colors further away </li></ul><ul><li>no framing element </li></ul>
  • 73. Gardenscape, Second Style wall painting, from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy, ca. 30–20 BCE. Fresco, 6 ’ 7” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome.
  • 74. 3rd Style: ornamental end of 1st cent BCE Villa of Agrippa Postumus Boscotrecase, Italy 10 BCE <ul><li>Tiny floating landscape </li></ul><ul><li>no illusionism </li></ul><ul><li>Picture gallery </li></ul><ul><li>Candelabra replaced columns </li></ul><ul><li>Wall is painted to support framed paintings as in a gallery </li></ul>
  • 75. Detail of a Third Style wall painting, from cubiculum 15 of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus, Boscotrecase, Italy, ca. 10 BCE. Fresco, 7 ’ 8” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  • 76. Fourth Style Wall Painting <ul><li>Return to Illusionism </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture of 2nd and 3rd styles </li></ul><ul><li>fragmented architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Walls divided into panels; may be chaotic and overfilled </li></ul>Domus Aurea of Nero, Rome Italy 64-68 CE
  • 77. Fourth Style wall paintings in Room 78 of the Domus Aurea (Golden House) of Nero, Rome, Italy, 64–68 CE.
  • 78. Fourth Style Ixion Room, House of the Vetti Pompeii, Italy AD 70-79 <ul><li>Crowded, confused </li></ul><ul><li>Garish color </li></ul><ul><li>Eclectic </li></ul><ul><li>Faux marble </li></ul>
  • 79. Fourth Style wall paintings in the Ixion Room (triclinium P) of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70–79 CE.
  • 80. Neptune and Amphitrite, wall mosaic in the summer triclinium of the House of Neptune and Amphitrite, Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62–79 CE.
  • 81.  
  • 82. Portrait of a husband and wife, wall painting from House VII,2,6, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70–79 CE. Fresco, 1 ’ 11” X 1’ 8 1/2”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
  • 83. Mummy Portraits <ul><li>Fayum portrait: Egyptian 160-170 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Encaustic on wood </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced portrait masks </li></ul>
  • 84.
  • 85.
  • 86.
  • 87.
  • 88. Still Life with Peaches , detail of 4th style wall painting Herculaneum, Italy CE 62-79 <ul><li>Illusionistic </li></ul><ul><li>light and shadow </li></ul><ul><li>Still Life </li></ul>
  • 89. Still life with peaches, detail of a Fourth Style wall painting, from Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62–79 CE. Fresco, 1 ’ 2” x 1’ 1 1/2”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
  • 90.
  • 91. From Republic to Empire <ul><li>Rome then began to build an empire </li></ul><ul><li>Conquest of the known world was the extension of conquest of the Italian peninsula by the Latins </li></ul><ul><li>War with the Phoenicians of Carthage (Punic Wars) was the first phase of Roman expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Other expeditions led to Roman control of the entire Mediterranean ( Mare Nostrum, “Our Sea”) and much of Europe: Hispania (now Spain), Gallia (France) Britannia (England) and part of Germania (Germany) </li></ul>
  • 92. From Republic to Empire <ul><li>Led by military dictators, of which Julius Caesar was the best known </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar expanded the empire to include western and central Europe </li></ul><ul><li>He directed the construction of a wooden bridge to enable the troop to invade and conquer Germania (central Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>Under Caesar Augustus (Octavian), the empire entered into a pax romana (peace under Rome) </li></ul><ul><li>This, which brought in a long era of high culture and stability </li></ul>
  • 93. What is Propaganda? <ul><li>In Rome- presentation of absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>Creation, manipulation, and display of imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion of those who are subjugated to accept it </li></ul>44 BCE Dictator perpetuus JULIUS CAESAR- Hellenistic portrait
  • 94. 44BC Julius Caesar Murdered! The Ides of March <ul><li>Rome: Civil war for 13 years </li></ul><ul><li>32 BC Octavian (Augustus), the grandnephew and adopted son of Caesar, crushes Anthony and Cleopatra-they commit suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt becomes a Roman province 30 BC </li></ul>
  • 95. THE EARLY EMPIRE 27BC-96AD <ul><li>Senate confers the title of Augustus on Octavian-27 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls himself the son of god </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls all aspects of Roman public life </li></ul></ul>
  • 96. Portrait of Augustus as general, from Primaporta, Italy, early-first-century CE copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6 ’ 8” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  • 97. Portrait of Augustus as general <ul><li>Idealized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was 76 when this was made </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffusion? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polykletian style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A god and a man </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iconography: </li></ul><ul><li>Every part carries a political message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cupid- descended from gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero- bare feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuirass: military power </li></ul></ul>
  • 98. Aule Metele ( Arringatore) , from Cortona, near Lake Trasimeno, Italy, early first century BCE. Bronze, 5 ’ 7” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Florence.
  • 99.  
  • 100. Oratorical pose
  • 101. Cuirass: current events-the return of the captured Roman military standards by the Parthians
  • 102. Early Empire Pax Augusta, PAX ROMANA <ul><li>Peace reigns for 200 years </li></ul><ul><li>Huge number of public works projects </li></ul><ul><li>Art and architecture become a tool of propaganda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical style after the Athenians </li></ul></ul>
  • 103. Portrait bust of Livia <ul><li>Wife of Augustus </li></ul><ul><li>Not veristic, peak of youth and health </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Greek Goddess </li></ul>
  • 104. Portrait bust of Livia, from Arsinoe, Egypt, early first century CE. Marble, 1 ’ 1 1/2” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.

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