AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1


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AH 1 Ancient Rome part 1

  1. 1. The Roman Empire
  2. 2. The Roman World
  3. 3. Capitoline Wolf , from Rome, Italy, ca. 500–480 BCE. Bronze, 2 ’ 7 1/2” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome.
  4. 4. “ The Feral Kid” from Mad Max: Return of the Road Warrior
  5. 5. "The Rape of the Sabine Women" (1637-1638) by Nicolas Poussin
  6. 6. Rise of Rome <ul><li>Latins invaded the peninsula in 1000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>By 800 BCE, founded Rome at the lower valley of the Tiber River, central locus for control of the rest of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Other ethnicities migrated to the region: Etruscans, Phoenicians, Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the other villages, Rome encouraged other ethnic groups to migrate there </li></ul>
  7. 7. Chronology <ul><li>Romulus founded Rome: 753 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Period: 509-27 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Early Empire: 27 BC - 96 AD </li></ul><ul><li>High Empire: 96 - 192 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Late Empire: 192-337 AD </li></ul>
  8. 8. ROMAN EMPIRE: “MERIT” <ul><li>M onuments </li></ul><ul><li>E ngineering </li></ul><ul><li>R ealism </li></ul><ul><li>I nterior Space </li></ul><ul><li>T emples— play a part in Roman contributions to the West. </li></ul><ul><li>MERIT is also a term connected to the idea of virtue and praise, which allows us to discuss the Roman use of sculpture and architecture for propagandistic purposes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Multiethnic Contributions to Rome <ul><li>Phoenicians contributed maritime and commercial skills and phonetic alphabet </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscans brought urban planning, chariot racing, the toga, bronze and gold crafting—and the arch </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks: the pantheon of gods and goddesses, linguistic and literary principles, and aesthetic </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Centrality of the Roman State <ul><li>Expectations of the citizen: </li></ul><ul><li>Obedience to the state </li></ul><ul><li>Service in the military—which could be profitable The soldier had to finance his own spear, shield, armor and helmet </li></ul><ul><li>Both were essential to the rise of the Roman emporium, the empire </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Roman Empire: Unification of the Ancient World <ul><li>Government: ruled from Mesopotamia to England </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure: all led to Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Domination: law and order Pax Romana </li></ul>
  12. 12. Roman influences on the Western World <ul><li>Legacy: Rome lives on in our government, law, architecture and language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our coins are like Roman coins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian churches borrowed form the Roman Basilica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aqueducts continue to supply water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ships dock in Roman ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman roads are still used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Roman use of art as propaganda </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Differences from Greece <ul><li>The artists are unimportant, no names survive(servants of the patron) </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks were interested in philosophy, art and science. The Romans were interested in conquest and administration. </li></ul>“ verism ”
  14. 14. Roman Technical Developments <ul><li>Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>The Arch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrel vaults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groin vaults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dome: architecture of light and space </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Roman Invention of Concrete <ul><li>Cheap and strong; can be molded to any form </li></ul><ul><li>Placed in wooden frames, then dried </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture of space rather than mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman genius: many materials in the same building </li></ul>
  16. 16. Roman concrete construction. (a) barrel vault, (b) groin vault, (c) fenestrated sequence of groin vaults, (d) hemispherical dome with oculus (John Burge).
  17. 17. Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia Palestrina, Italy 110 BC Goddess of fate and chance <ul><li>7 vaulted terraces, tholos at peak of triangle </li></ul><ul><li>innovative use of concrete; barrel vaults </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of Roman will & rational order over nature </li></ul>
  18. 18. Restored view of the Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Palestrina, Italy, late second century BCE (John Burge).
  19. 19. The Arch <ul><li>Rome built on the arch, contributed by the Etruscans </li></ul><ul><li>Weight is evenly distributed from the keystone to the sides </li></ul><ul><li>It could provide so much strength that other structures could be built above it </li></ul>
  20. 20. Roman Engineering Feats: The Vault <ul><li>Barrel Vault (Tunnel); a series of connected arches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>needs buttressing dark and gloomy </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Groin Vault: barrel vaults intersect at right angles over a square area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrust is concentrated at four corners, eliminating walls, allows clerestory windows </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Dome <ul><li>Third form of rooftop architecture in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Created by rotating a round arch through 180 degrees on its axis </li></ul><ul><li>Must be buttressed from all sides </li></ul><ul><li>The weight must be evenly distributed at all sides </li></ul><ul><li>The dome included a circular skylight </li></ul>
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Domestic Architecture <ul><li>Entrance to a home was an atrium, a large hall entered through a corridor from the street, </li></ul><ul><li>An open compluvium (skylight) which let in rainwater and sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Rainwater was collected in a sunken basin in the floor (impluvium) and channeled off into a cistern </li></ul>
  25. 25. Equestrian Statues <ul><li>Equestrian statues were a Roman invention reproduced throughout history </li></ul><ul><li>This statue of Marcus Aurelius is typical-it depicts both horse and rider in Grecian naturalistic design </li></ul><ul><li>The veins and muscles of the horse are visible as it raises its foreleg, a triumphal pose </li></ul>
  26. 26. Roman Sculpture <ul><li>Emphasized Roman victories: triumphal arches and victory columns (obelisks redesigned in Roman style) </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures of Roman emperors, in realistically detailed Roman breastplate and idealized faces and proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Equestrian statues were added in the 2 nd Century BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on realism was evident in balding senators and matronly women </li></ul><ul><li>Fig leafs in nude male statues such as Mercury were a Roman invention after conversion to Christianity </li></ul>
  27. 27. Roman Roads <ul><li>“ All roads lead to Rome” is an apt description of Roman roads </li></ul><ul><li>The network on this map show how the Roman army could go anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Later, it also indirectly contributed to the spread of Christianity throughout the empire </li></ul><ul><li>The paving was basic to the rapids transport of troops </li></ul>
  28. 28. Public Architecture: The Forum <ul><li>A rectangular open space, usually with a temple at one end </li></ul><ul><li>Bounded on three sides by colonnades (rows of columns) </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth side by a basilica </li></ul><ul><li>Best known: Forum Romanum and Forum Julium </li></ul>
  29. 29. Architectural and Engineering Professions <ul><li>Roman architecture and engineering were considered to be one discipline </li></ul><ul><li>The most influential manuals were Vitruvius ’s Ten Books on Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Function to the Roman architecture determined design </li></ul><ul><li>Classic architecture emphasized size to accommodate 1 million people of Rome: the coliseum, the amphitheaters, all designed for entertainment, whether gladiators, drama, or circuses </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Republican Period 509-27 BCE <ul><li>509 BCE Expulsion of Etruscans from Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of constitutional government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power in senate and consuls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two social classes: Patrician and Plebian </li></ul>Dancing Warriors, late Republican period, Vatican museum
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Roman Republic: Roots <ul><li>Etruscans ruled the Latins but were overthrown in 509 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually, monarchy gave way to government by the people ( res publica ) </li></ul><ul><li>Predominately comprised the patricians (aristocrats) and the plebians (farmers, artisans, and other common folk. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves formed a third category as the empire expanded </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the republic was a slow process </li></ul>
  33. 33. Structure of the Roman Republic <ul><li>Patricians through the Senate controlled the lawmaking process </li></ul><ul><li>However, plebians filled the ranks of the Roman army and exercised veto power over the decisions of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, through their leaders, the tribunes, acquired the right to hold executive office and lawmaking power </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Romans took over their neighbors one by one <ul><li>27 BC Republic becomes Roman Empire </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>211 BC: Romans conquered the Greek city of Syracuse, Sicily-plundered Greek art </li></ul><ul><li>146 BCE Greece becomes a Roman Province </li></ul>
  36. 36. Military Organization <ul><li>The army was the tool of imperial expansion </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman army was a highly disciplined force and the backbone of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, all free men served two-years </li></ul><ul><li>Later, professional soldiers filled the ranks </li></ul><ul><li>As the empire expanded, non-Romans joined to gain Roman citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>The phalanx was the basic unit (Later it would be divided into smaller units </li></ul><ul><li>These units could combine to form a legion if necessary. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Roman Law <ul><li>Formed the model of legal systems throughout European countries except England, which relied on common law </li></ul><ul><li>The term jus meant both the law and justice </li></ul><ul><li>The system of customary law ( ius ) was written down as codes ( lex ) </li></ul><ul><li>These were displayed as the Twelve Tables of Law at the Forum. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Roman Philosophy <ul><li>Much of philosophy was derived from the Stoics of the Hellenistic empire, who saw life as adversity to be endured </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness lies in acceptance of things as they are </li></ul><ul><li>Seneca was a leading proponent of Stoicism </li></ul><ul><li>Lucretius in The Nature of Things saw the world in a purely materialistic light and denied the existence of gods or a spiritual dimension </li></ul><ul><li>This belief system encouraged the sense of duty and also the equality of all, which had a humanizing effect on Roman law </li></ul><ul><li>This world view anticipated the beliefs of the early Christians, emphasizing personal responsibility and the equality of all </li></ul>
  39. 39. Roman Literature: Epic Poetry <ul><li>Under sponsorship of Octavian, produced a golden age of poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Virgil (Publius Vergilius Mato) wrote the epic poem Aeneid , on Aeneas, the mythical Trojan founder of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Virgil accompanies Dante in the Purgatorio and Inferno in the Divine Comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Catullus, a Sicilian, wrote lyric poetry, some of it inspired by his adulterous affair with Clodia, wife of a Roman consul, and the collapse of the affair </li></ul><ul><li>Publius Ovidus Naso (Ovid) covers the art of seduction, work which earned him exile </li></ul><ul><li>Horace was the master of satire that addresses Stoic themes, such as Carpe Diem (Seize the Day) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Roman Literature <ul><li>Best known for prose, writing as a vehicle for providing information </li></ul><ul><li>Provided the first geographies and encyclopedias </li></ul><ul><li>Other media: instruction manuals, histories, and biographies </li></ul><ul><li>Livy provided a detailed history of Rome from the 8 th century BCE to his own day (1 st century BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Also masters of oratory, exemplified by Tullius Cicero (106-41 BCE) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Architecture <ul><li>Greek: religious artistry; the building as sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Roman: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure and engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invention of concrete and use of the arch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eclectic; borrowed from Etruscan and Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greek: the temple is a shrine to a deity </li></ul><ul><li>Roman : the temple is a monument to an empire </li></ul>
  42. 42. Temple of Portunus (Temple of “Fortuna Virilis”), Rome, Italy, ca. 75 BCE.
  43. 43. Temple of Fortuna Virilis (Portunus: Roman god of harbors) Rome, 75 BCE <ul><li>Etruscan </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High podium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>entry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic columns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stucco used as faux marble over stone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudoperipteral: engaged columns </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Head of an old man, from Osimo, mid-first century BCE. Marble, life-size. Palazzo del Municipio, Osimo.
  45. 45. Head of a Roman Patrician 75-50 BCE marble <ul><li>Function: show elevated class status through genealogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waxed death masks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bust of ancestors kept in the home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman coins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different from Greek: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not full figure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of verism , not idealism </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Portrait of a Roman general, from the Sanctuary of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy, ca. 75-50 BCE. Marble, 6 ’ 2” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome.
  47. 47. Portrait of a Roman General, From Sanctuary of Hercules 75-50 BCE Marble 6 ’2” <ul><li>What ’s wrong with this picture? </li></ul><ul><li>Cuirass(breastplate): military general </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body: Hero (Idealized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face: portrait (verism) </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Funerary relief with portraits of the Gessii, from Rome(?), Italy, ca. 30 BCE. Marble, approx. 2 ’ 1 1/2” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  49. 49. <ul><li>Plebian Relief Sculpture Slavery was common Stylistic tastes tied to social and political status </li></ul><ul><li>Funeral portraits of deceased freedmen. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal members of society-thus the portraits </li></ul>
  50. 50. Relief with funerary procession, from Amiternum, Italy, second half of first century BCE. Limestone, 2 ’ 2” high. Museo Nazionale d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila.
  51. 51. Aerial view of the forum (looking northeast), Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE and later. (1) forum, (2) Temple of Jupiter (Capitolium), (3) basilica.
  52. 52. Aerial view of the amphitheater, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70 BCE.
  53. 53. Pompeii and the cities of Vesuvius <ul><li>Buried by a volcano 79 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Excavated mid 1700 ’s </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Revival 1760 ’s- ( Neo Classic period) </li></ul><ul><li>Forum: Public square </li></ul><ul><li>Basilica: city hall </li></ul><ul><li>Amphitheater: gladiators </li></ul>
  54. 54.
  55. 55.
  56. 56.
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
  59. 59.
  60. 60. Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings in Room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–50 BCE. Fresco, frieze 5 ’ 4” high.
  61. 61. Villa of Mysteries <ul><li>Scene from the Villa of the Mysteries </li></ul><ul><li>An initiate is flagellated (by a winged woman out of view) </li></ul><ul><li>Another women plays cymbals while in a frenzied dance </li></ul><ul><li>The technique give a three-dimensional image on a two dimensional surface </li></ul><ul><li>Portraits were common, as seen in Young Woman With a Stylus </li></ul><ul><li>This was probably the Lesbian poet Sappho—from the Isle of Lesbos, but not necessarily homosexual </li></ul>
  62. 62. 2nd style Dionysiac Mystery frieze, Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy 60-50 BCE 5 ’ 4” high <ul><li>Celebrate rites of the god of Bacchus </li></ul><ul><li>Women emulate Ariadne </li></ul><ul><li>Figures interact across the room </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting, alcohol, physical abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial devices: Modeling of figures- illusion of a ledge </li></ul>
  63. 63.
  64. 64.
  65. 65. Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater, wall painting from House I,3,23, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–79 CE. Fresco, 5 ’ 7” x 6’ 1”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
  66. 66. Restored view and plan of a typical Roman house of the Late Republic and Early Empire (John Burge). (1) fauces, (2) atrium, (3) impluvium, (4) cubiculum, (5) ala, (6) tablinum, (7) triclinium, (8) peristyle.
  67. 67. Atrium of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE, rebuilt 62–79 CE.
  68. 68. First Style wall painting in the fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy, late second century BCE.
  69. 69. First Style Wall Painting; Masonry style Samnite House Herculaneum late 2nd cent BCE <ul><li>Trompe l ’oeil </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete covered with plaster </li></ul><ul><li>Imitates slabs of colored marble </li></ul><ul><li>Modeled in relief </li></ul>
  70. 70. Second Style <ul><li>Realistic architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Illusion of windows and porticos, looked out to scenes </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Perspective: using a vanishing point </li></ul>
  71. 71. Second Style wall paintings (general view left , and detail of tholos right ) from cubiculum M of the Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale, Italy, ca. 50–40 BCE. Fresco, 8 ’ 9” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  72. 72. Gardenscape, 2nd style Villa of Livia. Primaporta, Italy 30-20 BCE <ul><li>Illusion of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Perspective: blurring of colors further away </li></ul><ul><li>no framing element </li></ul>
  73. 73. Gardenscape, Second Style wall painting, from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy, ca. 30–20 BCE. Fresco, 6 ’ 7” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome.
  74. 74. 3rd Style: ornamental end of 1st cent BCE Villa of Agrippa Postumus Boscotrecase, Italy 10 BCE <ul><li>Tiny floating landscape </li></ul><ul><li>no illusionism </li></ul><ul><li>Picture gallery </li></ul><ul><li>Candelabra replaced columns </li></ul><ul><li>Wall is painted to support framed paintings as in a gallery </li></ul>
  75. 75. Detail of a Third Style wall painting, from cubiculum 15 of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus, Boscotrecase, Italy, ca. 10 BCE. Fresco, 7 ’ 8” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  76. 76. Fourth Style Wall Painting <ul><li>Return to Illusionism </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture of 2nd and 3rd styles </li></ul><ul><li>fragmented architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Walls divided into panels; may be chaotic and overfilled </li></ul>Domus Aurea of Nero, Rome Italy 64-68 CE
  77. 77. Fourth Style wall paintings in Room 78 of the Domus Aurea (Golden House) of Nero, Rome, Italy, 64–68 CE.
  78. 78. Fourth Style Ixion Room, House of the Vetti Pompeii, Italy AD 70-79 <ul><li>Crowded, confused </li></ul><ul><li>Garish color </li></ul><ul><li>Eclectic </li></ul><ul><li>Faux marble </li></ul>
  79. 79. Fourth Style wall paintings in the Ixion Room (triclinium P) of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70–79 CE.
  80. 80. Neptune and Amphitrite, wall mosaic in the summer triclinium of the House of Neptune and Amphitrite, Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62–79 CE.
  81. 82. Portrait of a husband and wife, wall painting from House VII,2,6, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70–79 CE. Fresco, 1 ’ 11” X 1’ 8 1/2”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
  82. 83. Mummy Portraits <ul><li>Fayum portrait: Egyptian 160-170 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Encaustic on wood </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced portrait masks </li></ul>
  83. 84.
  84. 85.
  85. 86.
  86. 87.
  87. 88. Still Life with Peaches , detail of 4th style wall painting Herculaneum, Italy CE 62-79 <ul><li>Illusionistic </li></ul><ul><li>light and shadow </li></ul><ul><li>Still Life </li></ul>
  88. 89. Still life with peaches, detail of a Fourth Style wall painting, from Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62–79 CE. Fresco, 1 ’ 2” x 1’ 1 1/2”. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples.
  89. 90.
  90. 91. From Republic to Empire <ul><li>Rome then began to build an empire </li></ul><ul><li>Conquest of the known world was the extension of conquest of the Italian peninsula by the Latins </li></ul><ul><li>War with the Phoenicians of Carthage (Punic Wars) was the first phase of Roman expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Other expeditions led to Roman control of the entire Mediterranean ( Mare Nostrum, “Our Sea”) and much of Europe: Hispania (now Spain), Gallia (France) Britannia (England) and part of Germania (Germany) </li></ul>
  91. 92. From Republic to Empire <ul><li>Led by military dictators, of which Julius Caesar was the best known </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar expanded the empire to include western and central Europe </li></ul><ul><li>He directed the construction of a wooden bridge to enable the troop to invade and conquer Germania (central Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>Under Caesar Augustus (Octavian), the empire entered into a pax romana (peace under Rome) </li></ul><ul><li>This, which brought in a long era of high culture and stability </li></ul>
  92. 93. What is Propaganda? <ul><li>In Rome- presentation of absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>Creation, manipulation, and display of imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion of those who are subjugated to accept it </li></ul>44 BCE Dictator perpetuus JULIUS CAESAR- Hellenistic portrait
  93. 94. 44BC Julius Caesar Murdered! The Ides of March <ul><li>Rome: Civil war for 13 years </li></ul><ul><li>32 BC Octavian (Augustus), the grandnephew and adopted son of Caesar, crushes Anthony and Cleopatra-they commit suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt becomes a Roman province 30 BC </li></ul>
  94. 95. THE EARLY EMPIRE 27BC-96AD <ul><li>Senate confers the title of Augustus on Octavian-27 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls himself the son of god </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls all aspects of Roman public life </li></ul></ul>
  95. 96. Portrait of Augustus as general, from Primaporta, Italy, early-first-century CE copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6 ’ 8” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  96. 97. Portrait of Augustus as general <ul><li>Idealized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was 76 when this was made </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffusion? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polykletian style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A god and a man </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iconography: </li></ul><ul><li>Every part carries a political message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cupid- descended from gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero- bare feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuirass: military power </li></ul></ul>
  97. 98. Aule Metele ( Arringatore) , from Cortona, near Lake Trasimeno, Italy, early first century BCE. Bronze, 5 ’ 7” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Florence.
  98. 100. Oratorical pose
  99. 101. Cuirass: current events-the return of the captured Roman military standards by the Parthians
  100. 102. Early Empire Pax Augusta, PAX ROMANA <ul><li>Peace reigns for 200 years </li></ul><ul><li>Huge number of public works projects </li></ul><ul><li>Art and architecture become a tool of propaganda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical style after the Athenians </li></ul></ul>
  101. 103. Portrait bust of Livia <ul><li>Wife of Augustus </li></ul><ul><li>Not veristic, peak of youth and health </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Greek Goddess </li></ul>
  102. 104. Portrait bust of Livia, from Arsinoe, Egypt, early first century CE. Marble, 1 ’ 1 1/2” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.