Ancient Greece
Part 1
1
2
3
4
The Greek World
Ethnē
There were four major ethnē into
which the Ancient Greeks, or
Hellenes, of the Classical period
considered themselve...
Polis
The poleis were not like other primordial ancient
city-states which were ruled by a king or a small
oligarchy, but r...
Olympiad
776 BCE
Greek history begins.
The historian Ephorus, is believed to
have established the use of Olympiads
to coun...
Athens vs. Sparta
Sparta:
•Individual stripped of Individuality
•Garrison State
•Enslaved population (Helots)
•Autarchy (n...
9
Trade=middle class
Athens vs. Persia
Democracy vs. Authority
Political involvement was a
personal responsibility.
Pericles:
Just because you ...
Arete
"The most articulated value in Greek
culture is Areté. Translated as
"virtue," the word actually means
something clo...
Greek Society
Patriarchal
PATRI ( Father) dominates
Society is Homo “Social”
Men did not marry until 30, and
then their wi...
Symposium
All-Male party
Except for…..
Hetaerae
“companians”
13
Hetaera
Men did not marry until they were thirty
or so and with such little opportunity to
see let alone chat with respect...
Democracy
Cleisthenes, Father of
Athenian Democracy
New Concept of Citizens however…
Democracy for citizens only
Slavery w...
Titans
A race of powerful deities,
descendants of Gaia and Uranus,
that ruled during the legendary
Golden Age.
The Titans ...
Gigantomachy
Olympians vs. Progenitors (Chaos)
17
Animism is Over
Centaur (right)
Satyr (below)
Animals are seen as without reason,
Acting on impulse, instinct. Usually
sex...
Animism is Over
Theseus slaying the Minotaur.
19
Homer
Gods have formed a “Council”
Tries to create a “Unified Theory” in
the actions of the Gods
20
Olympians
The principal deities of the Greek
pantheon, residing atop Mount
Olympus.
The Olympians gained their
supremacy i...
Zeus
King of the gods and ruler of Mount
Olympus; god of the sky and
thunder.
Symbols include the thunderbolt,
eagle, oak ...
Hera
Queen of the gods and the
goddess of marriage and family.
Symbols include the peacock,
pomegranate, crown, cuckoo, li...
Poseidon
Lord of the seas, earthquakes and
horses.
Symbols include the horse, bull,
dolphin and trident.
Brother of Zeus a...
Demeter
Goddess of fertility, agriculture,
nature, and the seasons.
Symbols include the poppy, wheat,
torch, and pig.
Her ...
Ares
God of war, violence and
bloodshed.
Symbols include the boar, serpent,
dog, vulture, spear and shield.
Son of Zeus an...
Athena
Virgin goddess of wisdom,
handicrafts, defense and strategic
warfare.
Symbols include the owl and the
olive tree.
D...
Apollo
God of light, knowledge, music,
poetry, prophecy and archery.
Symbols include the sun, lyre, bow
and arrow, raven, ...
Artemis
Virgin goddess of the hunt,
virginity, childbirth, archery and all
animals.
Symbols include the moon, deer,
hound,...
Dionysus
God of wine, celebrations and
ecstasy. Patron god of the art of
theatre.
Symbols include the grapevine, ivy,
cup,...
Aphrodite
Goddess of love, beauty, and
desire.
Symbols include the dove, bird,
apple, bee, swan, myrtle and rose.
Daughter...
Hephaistos
Master blacksmith and craftsman of
the gods; god of fire and the forge.
Symbols include fire, anvil, ax,
donkey...
Hermes
Messenger of the gods; god of
commerce and thieves.
Symbols include the caduceus
(staff entwined with two snakes),
...
Speculative
Philosophy
Eventually Myths become less
important (Classical Age), only
believed by the underclass.
Skepticism...
Forces exist in
OPPOSITION to MAN
Fate
Natural Chaos
Humans more orderly than Nature
In a Human centered world, matter is
...
What is the ORDER of
Nature?
What is Reality and What is
Appearance?
36
What is Real in a World that
is Constantly Changing?
Heraclitus:
Can you step in the same river
twice?
37
IS ANYTHING REALLY
UNIVERSAL AND
UNCHANGING?
Can I be SURE of ANYTHING????
38
Socrates
Credited as one of the founders of
Western philosophy, he is an
enigmatic figure known chiefly
through the accoun...
Socrates
Elenchus
A commonly used tool in a wide
range of discussions, and is a type
of pedagogy in which a series of
ques...
“Critical Thinking” is
Dangerous
Rather than upholding a status quo
and accepting the development of
what he perceived as ...
42
Plato
Socrates's idea that reality is
unavailable to those who use their
senses is what puts him at odds
with the common m...
Allegory of the Cave
According to Socrates, physical
objects and physical events are
"shadows" of their ideal or perfect
f...
45
Aristotle
Aristotle disagreed with Plato,
arguing that all universals are
instantiated. For Aristotle, there are
no univer...
Great chain of being
The central concept of the chain of
being is that everything imaginable
fits into it somewhere, givin...
Plato=Universals
Aristotle=Particulars
48
Pythagoreanism
Mathematics is the “Realest”
Reality
49
Protagoras
“Man is the Measure of All Things”
50
Pottery
Pottery was made of terra cotta
(earthenware material) which
may or may not be glazed
Black-figure pottery was
pop...
Hydria: water jug with 3
handles: two for lifting and the
top for pouring
Lekythos: flask for pouring oil
Krater: bowl for...
53
Geometric krater, from the Dipylon
cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 740
BCE. 3’ 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan
Museum of Art, N...
Geometric Style
The main scene, which occupies the widest
portion of the vase, shows the prothesis, a
ritual in ancient Gr...
55
Emphasis on surviving mourners.
Death is mysterious-no real afterlife.
56
57
Lady of Auxerre, ca. 650–625 BCE. Limestone, 2’ 1 1/2”
high. Louvre, Paris.
Daedalic Period
Daedalus “the skillful one”
58
59
60
Archaic Period
Close ties to Egypt are evident
Kouros=male youth
Grave markers
61
62
63
Kouros, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, 6’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York.
64
65
66
Kouros, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, 6’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York.
Frontal
Left foot advancing
Arms are h...
67
68
69
70
71
Calf Bearer, dedicated by Rhonbos on the
Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 560 BCE. Marble,
restored height 5’ 5”; fragmen...
72
notice the big X
..and the smile
73
The “Archaic Smile”
74
75
Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble,
6’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Kroisos 530 BC Marble 6’ 4”
Not a portrait
Grave marker
“Archaic Smile”
More naturalistic
Orig. painted in encaustic
"stay...
77
78
79
NUDITY
Ancient Greece had a particular
fascination for aesthetics, which was
also reflected in clothing or lack
thereof. S...
81
82
Peplos Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece,
ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 4’ high. Acropolis Museum,
Athens.
83
84
Peplos Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece,
ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 4’ high. Acropolis Museum,
Athens.
Notice traces ...
85
86
87
88
Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca.
520–510 BCE. Marble, 1’ 9” high. Acropolis
Museum, Athens.
Sanctuary
Sacred space
Natural setting is integrated in
overall design
89
Plan of a typical peripteral Greek temple.
Peripteral: having a single row of pillars on all sides
90
Peripteral Greek Tem...
91
Temple of Hera I (“Basilica”), Paestum, Italy, ca. 550 BCE.
The Cult Figure
The cult figure occupies the
temple center
93
Parts of a Temple: The Doric
Order as Example
The main column is known as
a shaft, with 20 flutes running
lengthwise
The f...
The Three Orders of Columns
Comparing the Three Orders
The Doric is the simplest, with
no decoration at the top
The Ionic contains volutes
(scroll sha...
97
Geometric krater, from the Dipylon
cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 740
BCE. 3’ 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan
Museum of Art, N...
Orientalizing Style
Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian, Persian
influences
98
Black-Figure Pottery
100
EXEKIAS, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (detail from an Athenian black-figure amphora),
from Vulci, Italy, ca. ...
101
ANDOKIDES PAINTER, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (Athenian bilingual amphora), from
Orvieto, Italy, ca. 525–52...
102
EUTHYMIDES, Three revelers (Athenian
red-figure amphora), from Vulci, Italy, ca.
510 BCE. 2’ high. Staatliche
Antikens...
Transition to Classical
Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece,
ca. 500–490 BCE.
Local Goddess of fertility
103
104
Plan (left) and GUILLAUME-ABEL BLOUET’S 1828 restored view of the façade
(right) of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Gree...
105
106
Dying warrior, from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500–490
BCE. Marble, 5’ 2 1/2” long...
107
Dying warrior, from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 480 BCE.
Marble, 6’ 1” long. Glypto...
108
Dying Warriors
(Temple of Aphaia)
Fake smile vs. real pain
outward vs. inward
a classical revolution
110
East pediment from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, 87’ wide.
Archaeological Museum, Olym...
E Pediment (Temple of Zeus) 470-456 BCE
• Chariot race btw Pelops and King Oinomaos
• Center Zeus, Oino and wife, Pelops a...
112
Seer, from the east pediment of
the Temple of Zeus, Olympia,
Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE.
Marble, full figure 4’ 6” high;
d...
Seer
Keeping it “REAL”
Old age
Wrinkled
Saggy
Gray hair
Emotional
Horrified expression
114
Athena, Herakles, and Atlas
with the apples of the
Hesperides, metope from
the Temple of Zeus,
Olympia, Greece, ca. 47...
115
Early Classical :Severe
Style; no emotion
116
Kritios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480
BCE. Marble, 2’ 10” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
118
Kritios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480
BCE. Marble, 2’ 10” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
Kritios B...
AH 1 Ancient Greece (part 1)
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AH 1 Ancient Greece (part 1)

  1. 1. Ancient Greece Part 1 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 4 The Greek World
  5. 5. Ethnē There were four major ethnē into which the Ancient Greeks, or Hellenes, of the Classical period considered themselves divided. NEVER A CENTRALIZED EMPIRE 5
  6. 6. Polis The poleis were not like other primordial ancient city-states which were ruled by a king or a small oligarchy, but rather a political entity ruled by its body of citizens. The term polis which in archaic Greece meant city, changed with the development of the governance center in the city to indicate state (which included its surrounding villages), and finally with the emergence of a citizenship notion between the land owners it came to describe the entire body of citizens. The body of citizens came to be the most important meaning of the term polis in ancient Greece as a polis. 6
  7. 7. Olympiad 776 BCE Greek history begins. The historian Ephorus, is believed to have established the use of Olympiads to count years. The Olympic Games were held at four- year intervals, and later, the Greek method of counting the years even referred to these Games, using the term Olympiad for the period between two Games. Previously, every Greek state used its own dating system, something that continued for local events, which led to confusion when trying to determine dates. Banned 394 CE (pagan festivity) Reinstituted in 1894 7
  8. 8. Athens vs. Sparta Sparta: •Individual stripped of Individuality •Garrison State •Enslaved population (Helots) •Autarchy (no trade) •Whoever shouts the loudest wins Athens •Port city=Trade •Active political involvement for Citizens •Slaves, but not as brutal as Spartan (more like domestic servants) 8
  9. 9. 9 Trade=middle class
  10. 10. Athens vs. Persia Democracy vs. Authority Political involvement was a personal responsibility. Pericles: Just because you do not take an interest in politics doesn't mean politics won't take an interest in you. Battle of Salamis- 10
  11. 11. Arete "The most articulated value in Greek culture is Areté. Translated as "virtue," the word actually means something closer to "being the best you can be," or "reaching your highest human potential.” The man or woman of Areté is a person of the highest effectiveness; they use all their faculties: strength, bravery, wit, and deceptiveness, to achieve real results. In the Homeric world, then, Areté involves all of the abilities and potentialities available to humans. The concept implies a human- centered universe in which human actions are of paramount importance; the world is a place of conflict and difficulty, and human value and meaning is measured against individual effectiveness in the world. 11
  12. 12. Greek Society Patriarchal PATRI ( Father) dominates Society is Homo “Social” Men did not marry until 30, and then their wives were 12-16 years old Women seldom left the house.
  13. 13. Symposium All-Male party Except for….. Hetaerae “companians” 13
  14. 14. Hetaera Men did not marry until they were thirty or so and with such little opportunity to see let alone chat with respectable citizen women outside their immediate family, it is perhaps understandable that prostitution was an important part of their life, and the many men who came without families from the various Greek colonies to seek employment in prosperous Athens helped to make the sex trade a major industry. Prostitution was legal and morally acceptable. In an age and society where “respectable” women were entirely dependent on the men in their life, a talented hetaera was able to live on her own terms and accumulate enough money to live in style and comfort. http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/prostitutesandhetaeraeinancientathens.htm 14
  15. 15. Democracy Cleisthenes, Father of Athenian Democracy New Concept of Citizens however… Democracy for citizens only Slavery was common and acceptable Athens: 30,000 citizens 10,000 foreigners (metics) 200,000 other ( women, slaves, children)
  16. 16. Titans A race of powerful deities, descendants of Gaia and Uranus, that ruled during the legendary Golden Age. The Titans were overthrown by a race of younger gods, the Olympians, in the Titanomachy ("War of the Titans") which effected a mythological paradigm shift that the Greeks may have borrowed from the Ancient Near East. 16
  17. 17. Gigantomachy Olympians vs. Progenitors (Chaos) 17
  18. 18. Animism is Over Centaur (right) Satyr (below) Animals are seen as without reason, Acting on impulse, instinct. Usually sexual and violent. 18
  19. 19. Animism is Over Theseus slaying the Minotaur. 19
  20. 20. Homer Gods have formed a “Council” Tries to create a “Unified Theory” in the actions of the Gods 20
  21. 21. Olympians The principal deities of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. The Olympians gained their supremacy in a war of gods in which Zeus led his siblings to victory over the Titans. 21
  22. 22. Zeus King of the gods and ruler of Mount Olympus; god of the sky and thunder. Symbols include the thunderbolt, eagle, oak tree, scepter and scales. Brother and husband of Hera, although he had many lovers. 22
  23. 23. Hera Queen of the gods and the goddess of marriage and family. Symbols include the peacock, pomegranate, crown, cuckoo, lion and cow. Wife and sister of Zeus. Being the goddess of marriage, she frequently tried to get revenge on Zeus' lovers and their children. 23
  24. 24. Poseidon Lord of the seas, earthquakes and horses. Symbols include the horse, bull, dolphin and trident. Brother of Zeus and Hades. Married to the Nereid Amphitrite, although, like most male Greek Gods, he had many lovers. 24
  25. 25. Demeter Goddess of fertility, agriculture, nature, and the seasons. Symbols include the poppy, wheat, torch, and pig. Her Latin name, Ceres, gave us the word cereal." 25
  26. 26. Ares God of war, violence and bloodshed. Symbols include the boar, serpent, dog, vulture, spear and shield. Son of Zeus and Hera, all the other gods (excluding Aphrodite) despised him. His Latin name, Mars, gave us the word "martial." 26
  27. 27. Athena Virgin goddess of wisdom, handicrafts, defense and strategic warfare. Symbols include the owl and the olive tree. Daughter of Zeus and the Oceanid Metis, she rose from her father's head fully grown and in full battle armor after he swallowed her mother. 27
  28. 28. Apollo God of light, knowledge, music, poetry, prophecy and archery. Symbols include the sun, lyre, bow and arrow, raven, dolphin, wolf, swan and mouse. Twin brother of Artemis. Youngest child of Zeus and Leto. 28
  29. 29. Artemis Virgin goddess of the hunt, virginity, childbirth, archery and all animals. Symbols include the moon, deer, hound, she-bear, snake, cypress tree and bow and arrow. Twin sister of Apollo. Eldest child of Zeus and Leto. 29
  30. 30. Dionysus God of wine, celebrations and ecstasy. Patron god of the art of theatre. Symbols include the grapevine, ivy, cup, tiger, panther, leopard, dolphin and goat. Son of Zeus and the mortal Theban princess Semele. Married to the Cretan princess Ariadne. The youngest Olympian, as well as the only one to have been born of a mortal woman. 30
  31. 31. Aphrodite Goddess of love, beauty, and desire. Symbols include the dove, bird, apple, bee, swan, myrtle and rose. Daughter of Zeus and the Oceanid Dione, or perhaps born from the sea foam after Uranus' blood dripped onto the earth and into the sea after being defeated by his youngest son Cronus. Married to Hephaestus, although she had many adulterous affairs, most notably with Ares. Her name gave us the word "aphrodisiac". 31
  32. 32. Hephaistos Master blacksmith and craftsman of the gods; god of fire and the forge. Symbols include fire, anvil, ax, donkey, hammer, tongs and quail. Son of Hera, either by Zeus or alone. After he was born, his parents threw him off Mount Olympus, and he landed on the island of Lemnos. Married to Aphrodite, though unlike most divine husbands, he was rarely ever licentious. His Latin name, Vulcan, gave us the word "volcano." 32
  33. 33. Hermes Messenger of the gods; god of commerce and thieves. Symbols include the caduceus (staff entwined with two snakes), winged sandals and cap, stork and tortoise (whose shell he used to invent the lyre). Son of Zeus and the nymph Maia. 33
  34. 34. Speculative Philosophy Eventually Myths become less important (Classical Age), only believed by the underclass. Skepticism 34
  35. 35. Forces exist in OPPOSITION to MAN Fate Natural Chaos Humans more orderly than Nature In a Human centered world, matter is liberated from Spirit, acts IMPERSONALLY 35
  36. 36. What is the ORDER of Nature? What is Reality and What is Appearance? 36
  37. 37. What is Real in a World that is Constantly Changing? Heraclitus: Can you step in the same river twice? 37
  38. 38. IS ANYTHING REALLY UNIVERSAL AND UNCHANGING? Can I be SURE of ANYTHING???? 38
  39. 39. Socrates Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his student Plato. Socratic method, or elenchus. 39
  40. 40. Socrates Elenchus A commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions are asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. The “Socratic Method” 40
  41. 41. “Critical Thinking” is Dangerous Rather than upholding a status quo and accepting the development of what he perceived as immorality within his region, Socrates questioned the collective notion of "might makes right" that he felt was common in Greece during this period. Plato refers to Socrates as the "gadfly" of the state (as the gadfly stings the horse into action, so Socrates stung various Athenians), insofar as he irritated some people with considerations of justice and the pursuit of goodness. His attempts to improve the Athenians' sense of justice may have been the source of his execution. 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. Plato Socrates's idea that reality is unavailable to those who use their senses is what puts him at odds with the common man, and with common sense. He who sees with his eyes is blind-this idea is most famously captured in his allegory of the cave. The allegory of the cave is a paradoxical analogy wherein Socrates argues that the invisible world is the most intelligible ("noeton") and that the visible world ("(h)oraton") is the least knowable, and the most obscure. 43
  44. 44. Allegory of the Cave According to Socrates, physical objects and physical events are "shadows" of their ideal or perfect forms, and exist only to the extent that they instantiate the perfect versions of themselves. Just as shadows are temporary, inconsequential epiphenomena produced by physical objects, physical objects are themselves fleeting phenomena caused by more substantial causes, the ideals of which they are mere instances. For example, Socrates thinks that perfect justice exists (although it is not clear where) and his own trial would be a cheap copy of it. 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. Aristotle Aristotle disagreed with Plato, arguing that all universals are instantiated. For Aristotle, there are no universals that are unattached to existing things. If a universal exists, either as a particular or a relation, then there must have been, must be currently, or must be in the future, something on which the universal can be predicated. 46
  47. 47. Great chain of being The central concept of the chain of being is that everything imaginable fits into it somewhere, giving order and meaning to the universe. 47
  48. 48. Plato=Universals Aristotle=Particulars 48
  49. 49. Pythagoreanism Mathematics is the “Realest” Reality 49
  50. 50. Protagoras “Man is the Measure of All Things” 50
  51. 51. Pottery Pottery was made of terra cotta (earthenware material) which may or may not be glazed Black-figure pottery was popular. Figures were painted in black Details were incised with a sharp tool, exposing the orange clay below Vase was fired to turn the painted figures black and the surface areas orange Red-figure vases involved reversal of this process
  52. 52. Hydria: water jug with 3 handles: two for lifting and the top for pouring Lekythos: flask for pouring oil Krater: bowl for mixing wine and water Amphora: vessel for storing olive oil, wine, honey, or water Kylix: drinking cup Oenachoe: jug for pouring wine
  53. 53. 53 Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BCE. 3’ 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  54. 54. Geometric Style The main scene, which occupies the widest portion of the vase, shows the prothesis, a ritual in ancient Greek funerary practice in which the deceased is laid out on a high bed (bier), usually within the house. During the prothesis, relatives and friends may come to mourn and pay their respects to the deceased. Here, the figure seated at the foot of the bier may be the dead man's wife, and the smaller figure on her lap their child. 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. Emphasis on surviving mourners. Death is mysterious-no real afterlife. 56
  57. 57. 57 Lady of Auxerre, ca. 650–625 BCE. Limestone, 2’ 1 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris. Daedalic Period Daedalus “the skillful one”
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. Archaic Period Close ties to Egypt are evident Kouros=male youth Grave markers 61
  62. 62. 62
  63. 63. 63 Kouros, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, 6’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  64. 64. 64
  65. 65. 65
  66. 66. 66 Kouros, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, 6’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Frontal Left foot advancing Arms are held Fist clenched Funerary purpose Liberated from stone block Nude
  67. 67. 67
  68. 68. 68
  69. 69. 69
  70. 70. 70
  71. 71. 71 Calf Bearer, dedicated by Rhonbos on the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 560 BCE. Marble, restored height 5’ 5”; fragment 3’ 11 1/2” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
  72. 72. 72 notice the big X ..and the smile
  73. 73. 73 The “Archaic Smile”
  74. 74. 74
  75. 75. 75 Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 6’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  76. 76. Kroisos 530 BC Marble 6’ 4” Not a portrait Grave marker “Archaic Smile” More naturalistic Orig. painted in encaustic "stay and mourn at the tomb of dead Kroisos, whom raging Ares destroyed one day as he fought in the foremost ranks."
  77. 77. 77
  78. 78. 78
  79. 79. 79
  80. 80. NUDITY Ancient Greece had a particular fascination for aesthetics, which was also reflected in clothing or lack thereof. Sparta had rigorous codes of training and physical exercise in the nude. Athletes would compete in the nude in public sporting events. Spartan women, as well as men, would sometimes be nude in public processions and festvals. Nudity=Heroic Large penis=animalistic, barbaric Small penis is more civilized 80
  81. 81. 81
  82. 82. 82 Peplos Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 4’ high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
  83. 83. 83
  84. 84. 84 Peplos Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 4’ high. Acropolis Museum, Athens. Notice traces of encaustic paint on the Peplos Kore. Most Greek stone statues were painted. Notice also that the Peplos Kore is clothed.
  85. 85. 85
  86. 86. 86
  87. 87. 87
  88. 88. 88 Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 520–510 BCE. Marble, 1’ 9” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
  89. 89. Sanctuary Sacred space Natural setting is integrated in overall design 89
  90. 90. Plan of a typical peripteral Greek temple. Peripteral: having a single row of pillars on all sides 90 Peripteral Greek Temple
  91. 91. 91 Temple of Hera I (“Basilica”), Paestum, Italy, ca. 550 BCE.
  92. 92. The Cult Figure The cult figure occupies the temple center
  93. 93. 93
  94. 94. Parts of a Temple: The Doric Order as Example The main column is known as a shaft, with 20 flutes running lengthwise The foot is known as the stylobate The top part of the column is called the neck See diagram for other parts of the column
  95. 95. The Three Orders of Columns
  96. 96. Comparing the Three Orders The Doric is the simplest, with no decoration at the top The Ionic contains volutes (scroll shapes) that replace the echinus (the bulge above the necking) of the Doric The Corinthian has a flowery capital just above the necking
  97. 97. 97 Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BCE. 3’ 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  98. 98. Orientalizing Style Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian, Persian influences 98
  99. 99. Black-Figure Pottery
  100. 100. 100 EXEKIAS, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (detail from an Athenian black-figure amphora), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 540–530 BCE. Whole vessel 2’ high; detail 8 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  101. 101. 101 ANDOKIDES PAINTER, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (Athenian bilingual amphora), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 525–520 BCE. Black-figure side (left) and red-figure side (right). 1’ 9” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  102. 102. 102 EUTHYMIDES, Three revelers (Athenian red-figure amphora), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 510 BCE. 2’ high. Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich.
  103. 103. Transition to Classical Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500–490 BCE. Local Goddess of fertility 103
  104. 104. 104 Plan (left) and GUILLAUME-ABEL BLOUET’S 1828 restored view of the façade (right) of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500–490 BCE.
  105. 105. 105
  106. 106. 106 Dying warrior, from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500–490 BCE. Marble, 5’ 2 1/2” long. Glyptothek, Munich.
  107. 107. 107 Dying warrior, from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, 6’ 1” long. Glyptothek, Munich.
  108. 108. 108
  109. 109. Dying Warriors (Temple of Aphaia) Fake smile vs. real pain outward vs. inward a classical revolution
  110. 110. 110 East pediment from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, 87’ wide. Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
  111. 111. E Pediment (Temple of Zeus) 470-456 BCE • Chariot race btw Pelops and King Oinomaos • Center Zeus, Oino and wife, Pelops and Hippodamia
  112. 112. 112 Seer, from the east pediment of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, full figure 4’ 6” high; detail 3’ 2 1/2” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
  113. 113. Seer Keeping it “REAL” Old age Wrinkled Saggy Gray hair Emotional Horrified expression
  114. 114. 114 Athena, Herakles, and Atlas with the apples of the Hesperides, metope from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470– 456 BCE. Marble, 5’ 3” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
  115. 115. 115 Early Classical :Severe Style; no emotion
  116. 116. 116 Kritios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, 2’ 10” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
  117. 117. 118 Kritios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, 2’ 10” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens. Kritios Boy is the earliest known example of contrapposto, a relaxed and natural stance. Notice how his weight shifts to his left leg and how his head turns slightly to his right. Also notice absence of Archaic smile.

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