Filled pauses and L2 proficiency: Finnish Australians speaking English

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Filled pauses and L2 proficiency: Finnish Australians speaking English

  1. 1. Filled pauses (FPs)and L2 proficiencyFinnish Australians speaking EnglishTimo Lauttamus, John Nerbonne andWybo WiersmaUniversity of Oulu, Rijksuniversiteit Groningentimo.lauttamus@oulu.fi, j.nerbonne@rug.nl &wybo@logilogi.org5 June 2009
  2. 2. In this talk we presentA method for detecting syntactic differences andour findings on pausing3 sub-questions about the method1 What did your corpus look like ?2 What is permutation statistics ?3 How to apply it to syntax ?3 sub-questions about the results1 What general differences did you find ?2 How much pausing is there, and by who ?3 What does this tell about the speakers ?
  3. 3. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesOutline of the TalkIntroductionIn this TalkOutline of the TalkThe MethodResultsConclusionQuestionsReferences
  4. 4. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesThe MethodIntroductionThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsConclusionQuestionsReferences
  5. 5. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesThe Method• Detect a wide range of syntax differences, and these as• significant differences• aggregate differences• relative differences• This would enable measuring the syntax part of totalimpact:“No easy way of measuring or characterizing thetotal impact of one language on another in thespeech of bilinguals has been, or probably can bedevised. The only possible procedure is to describethe various forms of interference and to tabulatetheir frequency.”
  6. 6. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesThe Method• Detect a wide range of syntax differences, and these as• significant differences• aggregate differences• relative differences• This would enable measuring the syntax part of totalimpact:“No easy way of measuring or characterizing thetotal impact of one language on another in thespeech of bilinguals has been, or probably can bedevised. The only possible procedure is to describethe various forms of interference and to tabulatetheir frequency.”- Weinreich, Languages in Contact
  7. 7. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesThe MethodWe also want to do this automatically and computationallyIn order to be able to:• Mine for differences in syntax between• learners versus native speakers• speakers of different dialects• writers from different discourses• Test dialectological and other linguistic hypotheses• Note over- and under-use instead of right / wrong
  8. 8. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesThe MethodWe did it in four steps:1 Tag 2 or more collections of comparable material (usingan automatic POS-tagger)2 Take n-grams (2 - 5 grams) of POS-tags3 Statistically compare their frequencies4 Sort the significant POS-n-grams by extent of differenceAarts J. and Granger S. did this without the statistics in:’Tag sequences in learner corpora: a key to interlanguagegrammar and discourse’ (1998)
  9. 9. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesOur CorpusOrigins:• 20,000 Finns immigrated to Australia• Working class background, limited education• 25-40 Years upon arrivalCorpus collected 1995-1998 by Greg Watson:• of the university of Joensuu, Finland• two age groups; adults and juveniles• 350.000 words, 305.000 words free conversation
  10. 10. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesOur CorpusAdults:• over 18 years at arrival, on average 30• on average 58 at time of interview• 60 interviews, 65 - 70 min each (221.000 words)Juveniles:• under 16 years at arrival, on average 6• on average 36 at time of interview• 30 interviews, 65 - 70 min each (84.000 words)
  11. 11. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesOur CorpusIn preparation we Part of Speech-tagged it with:• Trigrams ’n ’Tags (TnT) Statistical POS Tagger• made by Thorsten Brants (Universitt des Saarlandes)It achieves an accuracy of:• 96.7% on the Penn Treebank• 85.1% - 90.5% on our spoken materialAccuracy is of course worse for 3-grams:• 2-grams 74%, 3-grams 65%, 4-grams 58% ...
  12. 12. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation StatisticsIt is different from parametric (normal) statistics:• It is about the data, not about the population• no need for normality• no need for homoscedasticity (eq distrib variances)• no absolute need for random sampling• Still, important for permutation statistics are• random assignment and independence of observations• in practice no problems for linguistic/dialect dataAs a statistical method it is very suitable for linguistics
  13. 13. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation Statistics
  14. 14. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation Statistics
  15. 15. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation Statistics
  16. 16. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation Statistics
  17. 17. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation Statistics
  18. 18. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation Statistics
  19. 19. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation Statistics
  20. 20. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation Statistics
  21. 21. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation Statistics
  22. 22. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation Statistics
  23. 23. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPermutation Statistics
  24. 24. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesApplying it to SyntaxOne firstly needs something to permutate:• We permutated interviewees• more conservative than 3-grams• and also easier than sentences (did this earlier)• For each interview• we took 3-grams (N-grams too) of POS-tags• we then calculated the 3-gram-promillages for all3-grams (occurrence of 3-gram type per 1000 3-gramtokens)• These 3-gram-promillage-vectors were then used• summed per group after each permutation
  25. 25. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesApplying it to SyntaxSecondly one needs something to measure extremity:• Both• for the whole group• and for each individual POS-3-gram• We used r-square and summed r-square• we also tried cosine and summed r• R-square is the square of the difference (r)• for a POS-3-gram-promillage between the 2 groups• Summed r-square is the sum of r-square for all 3-grams
  26. 26. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesR-square
  27. 27. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesApplying it to SyntaxThirdly one needs to apply normalizations for:• Text-size per subject (for each subject)• divide by sum of the subjects’ 3-grams (the promillages)• to eliminate differences in text-size between authors• Frequencies of 3-gram types (for each 3-gram type)• divide by the corpus-wide total of the 3-gram-type• to eliminate differences in frequencies (optional)• Group-size (for both groups, across permutations)• divide by the average fequency of 3-grams in the group• to correctly detect over- and under-use
  28. 28. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesApplying it to SyntaxNormalisations are needed to• Prevent false significance• arising from differences in text- and group-sizes• Increase the weight of less frequent 3-grams• on the level of the group• (as said this is optional)• And it allows one to sort 3-grams based on• whether they are more or less typical for each group• relative to group-size
  29. 29. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesNormalizing for Frequency
  30. 30. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesResults and AnalysisIntroductionThe MethodResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferences
  31. 31. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesResults and Analysis• The following slides summarise some of the material inLauttamus, Nerbonne, and Wiersma (2007, 2009)• The evidence based on the data of the two groupsshows that there are statistically significant syntacticdifferences between the adult and juvenile groups• We argue that some of the significant differences foundin the data can be ascribed to the lower level oflanguage proficiency of the adults
  32. 32. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesGeneral DifferencesSome of the syntactic differences found in the data can bedescribed in most general terms as follows (all for the adultsgroup):1 Overuse of hesitation phenomena2 Overuse of parataxis3 Underuse of contracted forms4 Reduced repertoire of discourse markers5 Avoidance of complex verbal structures6 Avoidance of prepositional and phrasal verbs7 Underuse of the existential there
  33. 33. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesGeneral Differences• The adults demonstrate features of disfluent speech• such as (filled) pauses, repeats, false starts, incompleteor false syntactic structures, arising from difficulties inspeech processing, and particularly in lexical access• We argue that the statistical evidence obtained fromour data reflects syntactic distance between the twovarieties of L2 English• And, consequently, aggregate effects of the differencesin the two groups English proficiency• We will now look further into pausing
  34. 34. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPausingWe applied the computational technique described earlier toexamine:1 if the the adults and juveniles show a differential use ofpausing (filled pauses, FPs), and2 how such a difference can be analysed and explainedThus:• We will now look at the 308 POS-trigrams typical forthe adult (L1) speakers’ syntax• first we look at the top 200• compare them to the juveniles’ POS-trigrams• and then we look at all of them
  35. 35. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesFig. 1: Percentage of FPs, adults top-200
  36. 36. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPausing• These are the top 200 POS-trigram types which mostcharacteristically distinguish the adults from thejuveniles• they are significant at a p ≤ 0.05 level• 42.5%, 85 out of 200• include at least one filled pause, as in (1) and (2)• 6%, 12 out of 200• include at least two filled pauses, as in (3) and (4)• In addition, there is one trigram with only filled pauses
  37. 37. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPausing(1)Interj Conj(subord) Art (def)politically | uh when the | liberals(2)V(cop,pres,encl) Interj Adv(inten)I’ | m ah very | sick(3)Interj Interj Conj(subord)and | uh uh because | in the morning(4)Interj Pron(pers, sing) Interjand | uh I uh | snow-skied
  38. 38. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPausing• For the juveniles there are 792 POS-trigram types inwhich they use the sequence of POS tags morefrequently than the adults• Again significant at the p ≤ 0.5 level• But only 0.4%, 3 out of 792• include one filled pause• None include more than one FP
  39. 39. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesFig. 2: Percentage of FPs, adults all 308
  40. 40. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesPausing• Of all 308 POS-trigram types typical for the adults• this are all POS-trigrams significant at a p 0.05 level• 38.0%, 117 out of 308• include at least one filled pause• 4.5%, 14 out of 308• include two filled pauses• And again there is one trigram type with FPs only
  41. 41. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesAnalysis• Both figures show the same trend. The highly skeweddistribution of the filled pauses across the two groups ofFinnish Australian English speakers conclusively showsthat• the juveniles have a much more varied syntacticrepertoire (measured in terms of POS-trigrams) thanthe adults, and• the adults have much more limited and idiosyncratic(ungrammatical or substandard) syntactic patterns attheir disposal than the juveniles
  42. 42. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesAnalysis• The large number of filled pauses found in the adultsspeech as opposed to the juveniles’ is in agreement withthe evidence in Paananen-Porkka (2007: 234), whoargues that native speakers of Finnish show longerpauses on average in English than in Finnish• The statistically significant differential use of filledpauses by the adults can be explained in terms of theadults lesser proficiency (particularly at the level ofspeech planning) and, consequently, fluency of L2.
  43. 43. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesAnalysis• The elimination of all FPs from the data has little effecton the significance value for the tag sets• The outcome of running the scripts again without theFPs showed that there are still• 729 statistically significant trigram types for thejuveniles• as opposed to 220 for the adults
  44. 44. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesAnalysis• The examination of the top 200 FP-less trigram typesproduced by the adults showed that about 38% of thetrigram types are ungrammatical, and that some of theremaining trigram types are substandard• (e.g. omission of an obligatory article or preposition,omission of an obligatory copula or primary verb be orhave, omission of the subject, use of a redundant articlewith proper nouns etc.; cf. Lauttamus et al. 2007).
  45. 45. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesConclusion• The uneven distribution of the filled pauses across thetwo groups of Finnish Australian English speakersconclusively shows that• the adults used much more filled pauses than thejuveniles, and• that the adults have much more limited andidiosyncratic syntactic patterns at their disposal• The statistically significant differential use of filledpauses by the adults can be explained in terms of theadults lesser proficiency compared to that of thejuveniles
  46. 46. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesConcluding RemarksThere is room for fine-tuning the method:• Find optimum size for data-sets• Try and evaluate with different measuresThe method as is can easily be applied to many data-sets:• Works on untagged corpora of spoken language• Can empirically buttress thesesSoftware to do it and to pre-process corpora is freelyavailable:• the ComLinToo http://old.logilogi.org/ComLinToo
  47. 47. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesQuestionsAny questions ?
  48. 48. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesQuestionsAny questions ?
  49. 49. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesReferencesJan Aarts and Sylviane Granger.Tag sequences in learner corpora: A key tointerlanguage grammar and discourse.In Sylviane Granger, editor, Learner English onComputer, pages 132 – 141. Longman, London, 1998.Alan Agresti.An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis.Wiley, New York, 1996.Thorsten Brants.Tnt - a statistical part of speech tagger.In 6th Applied Natural Language Processing Conference,pages 224 – 231. ACL, Seattle, 2000.Eugenio Coseriu.Probleme der kontrastiven Grammatik.Schwann, D¨usseldorf, 1970.
  50. 50. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesReferencesKees de Bot, Wander Lowie, and Marjolijn Verspoor.Second Language Acquisition: An Advanced ResourceBook.Routledge, London, 2005.Charles Fillmore and Paul Kay.Grammatical constructions and linguistic generalizations:the what’s x doing y construction.Language, 75, 1999.Roger Garside, Geoffrey Leech, and Tony McEmery.Corpus Annotation: Linguistic Information fromComputer Text Corpora.Longman, London/New York, 1997.Phillip Good.Permutation Tests.Springer, New York, 1995 2nd, corr. ed.
  51. 51. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesReferencesBrett Kessler.The Significance of Word Lists.CSLI Press, Stanford, 2001.T. Lauttamus, J. Nerbonne, and W. Wiersma.Detecting syntactic contamination in emigrants: Theenglish of finnish australians.SKY Journal of Linguistics, 20, 2007.Chris Manning and Hinrich Sch¨utze.Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing.MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999.J. Nerbonne and W. Wiersma.A measure of aggregate syntactic distance.In J. Nerbonne and E. Hinrichs, editors, LinguisticDistances, pages 82 – 90. PA: ACL, Shroudsburg, 2006.
  52. 52. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesReferencesC.C.E. Oomen and A. Postma.Effects of divided attention on the production of filledpauses and repetitions.Journal of Speech, Language, Hearing Research, 44,2001.M. Paananen-Porkka.Speech Rhythm in an Interlanguage Perspective: FinnishAdolescents Speaking English. Pragmatics, Ideology andContact Monographs.University of Helsinki, Helsinki, 2007.Shana Poplack and David Sankoff.Borrowing: the synchrony of integration.Linguistics, 22, 1984.
  53. 53. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesReferencesShana Poplack, David Sankoff, and Christopher Miller.The social correlates and linguistic processes of lexicalborrowing and assimilation.Linguistics, 26, 1988.William C. Ritchie and editors Tej K. Bhatia.Handbook of Child Language Acquisition.Academic, San Diego, 1998.Peter Sells.Lectures on Contemporary Syntactic Theories.CSLI, Stanford, 1982.Sarah Thomason and Terrence Kaufmann.Language Contact, Creolization and Genetic Linguistics.University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988.
  54. 54. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesReferencesFrans van Coetsem.Loan phonology and the two transfer types in languagecontact.In Publications in Language Sciences, page 27. ForisPublications, Dordrecht, 1988.Greg Watson.The finnish-australian english corpus.ICAME Journal: Computers in English Linguistics, 20,1996.Uriel Weinreich.Languages in Contact.Mouton, The Hague, 1953 (page numbers from 2nd ed.1968).
  55. 55. FPs and L2proficiency:Timo Lauttamus,John Nerbonneand WyboWiersmaIntroductionIn this TalkOutlineThe MethodOur CorpusPermutation StatisticsApplying it to SyntaxResultsGeneral DifferencesPausingAnalysisConclusionQuestionsReferencesCopyleftCopyrights Wybo Wiersma, John Nerbonne and TimoLauttamus, available under the Creative Commons By-Salicense• Thanks to the OpenClipart archive; Carlitos for thelandscape, and unknown authors for the bomb and thefrogs.http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/

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