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    PBL PBL Presentation Transcript

    • Is It Them or Is It Me? QED 520 Educational Psychology I Problem Based Learning Tutor: Daniel Tan Eng Hai Group One: Betty Chua Yi Qin Eunice Leow Shium Rou Wendy Fan Wenying Rodney Sea Chi Huan 1
    • PBL Scenario One SCENE 1 (In the staff room) Ms Jia sat at her table, staring into space, drained of every bit of her energy after class, and then with a sigh writing into her notepad to-do- list. ... 2
    • Set of questions identified: I. How will a teacher’s self-efficacy affect the classroom learning environment? II. How do teachers’ expectation and students’ motivation impact on academic performance? III. How do reward and punishment enforce discipline and enhance performance? IV. To what extent will cognitive processes, or the lack of thereof, impact meaningful learning? 3
    • Set of questions identified: I How will a teacher’s self- II How do teachers’ efficacy affect the expectation and students’ classroom learning motivation impact on environment? academic performance? III How do reward and IV To what extent will punishment enforce cognitive processes, or the discipline and enhance lack of thereof, impact performance? meaningful learning? 4
    • I. How will a teacher’s self-efficacy affect the classroom learning environment? Self-Efficacy 5
    • I Self Efficacy-Evidences • drained of every bit of her energy • how am I going to manage • should I even have signed up for teaching? • How can others teach for so many years? • Frustrated, Miss Jia approached Dua Xia, the boy with loudest voice in class. “Dua Xia, you have the loudest voice…” • She always late one lah. Even if I am not in class, she also won’t notice it. 6
    • II Self Efficacy-Theories • Albert Bandura’s concept of Self Efficacy: • Ms Jia has low self efficacy 7
    • III Self Efficacy- Analysis • Her low instructional self efficacy (from Santrock p.473 & Bandura 1997) can be seen by her inability to control the classroom, needing Dua Xia’s help to keep them to settle down so that she may start her lesson. • Less time was spent in active teaching and monitoring of students’ progress; Ms Jia was just interesting in “getting the job done”, and to complete the syllabus by the given timeframe, as possibly prescribed by the SOWs. 8
    • IV Self Efficacy- Solutions • She needs to prioritize her task by classifying it into two possible categories, namely important and urgent matters. • Using Bandura’s theory, Miss Jia can improve her self-efficacy by practicing self-regulation which involves these three processes: self- observation, self-judgment and self-reaction. • She should set management goals for herself 9
    • II. How do teachers’ expectation and students’ motivation impact on academic performance? Expectation and Motivation 10
    • I Low Expectation- Evidences I • She suspects him of cheating • If you didn’t study, be prepared to fail. Face the music! Why must you copy? • You’ve never believed me. • Even if I explain, you won’t be able to understand. It’s probably too difficult for you! • Dutifully answered Annie’s questions, one by one, oblivious to the rest of the pupils in class 11
    • I Low Expectation- Evidences II • Guess what I do is never enough… I give up… (stomps out of class) • She asked Annie, her favourite pupil, to try solving one of them • Unless you’re really blind, you should see that I have put in a lot of sweat into my studies. • Irritated by the disruption, she said in a condescending tone. • Really made Minah regret asking. Fine. I will not ask in the future!” Minah shouted 12
    • II Low Expectation- Theories • Albert Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy 13
    • III Low Expectation- Analysis I • Ms Jia’s efficacy has led to her low expectation of her students. • Not much support provided in helping them reach high standards, in challenging them towards high achievements. Lack of scaffolding • This has become a self-fulfilling prophecy, in other words, students were not motivated by excitement and encouraged to learn even though they had demonstrated inquisitiveness, as in the case of Minah, as Ms Jia did not believe in their ability in Math 14
    • III Low Expectation- Analysis II • The exception is in the case of Anne, who was self motivated (towards self mastery), though there is not much information was provided. • negative reinforcement/feedback provided: “Just follow the rule. You don’t have to know the rationale behind it. Even if I explain, you won’t be able to understand. It’s probably too difficult for you!” • she did not motivate the students to learn. Thus the resulting effect on Lucy (and perhaps the class too) in the last paragraph; “Take all she says as facts and follow exactly what she says we are to do. Sure no problems, that way. ” Lucy said in a matter-of-fact tone and continued reading her CLEO magazine.” 15
    • IV Low Expectation- Solutions • She should first believe that all children can learn and not right them off. • She should also set learning goals base on their potentials instead of her bias judgment on them. • She should not denigrate her students. • Miss Jia should understand a student’s social life and family background before she sets any stereotypical view on them. 16
    • III. How do reward and punishment enforce discipline and enhance performance ? Reinforcement and punishment 17
    • I Misuse of Reinforcement- Evidences • I don’t have the time to pursue the matter (smoking) with you now. See me after class • That’s not fair! You didn’t even scold John when he was late for class just now! Lian Huay protested indignantly. He smoked and you didn’t even care. Then, now you scold me for such a small thing! What kind of teacher are you? • Wah, Jia Lat is very unfair hor. John always gets away with things. Then, for the rest of us, we always get scolded. Like how it was just now, I asked her a question and she scolded me in front of the whole class. I hate her. 18
    • II Misuse of Reinforcement-Theories • Vygotsky’s approach to Social Constructivist • Skinner’s theory about Reinforcement processes 19
    • III Misuse of Reinforcement-Analysis • She wrote off some pupils as unteachable (Brookover & others, 1979), such as John and Minah, even though they did exhibit some “bright sparks” such as studying the subject over the weekend, inquisitiveness, with the effect that some students like Lucy had already acquired “learned helplessness” 20
    • IV Misuse of Reinforcement-Solutions • She should provide immediate and positive feedbacks to the students when they attempt to question the topic or contribute to class participation. • Punishments should not be made without proper investigation, taking the example of John, she should not punish him when she merely “suspect” him of cheating. • Fair and just punishment should be practiced. When one breaks the rule, correction should be taken instead of overlooking it (John smoking). 21
    • IV. To what extent will cognitive processes, or the lack thereof, impact meaningful learning? Cognitive Processes 22
    • I Cognitive processes – Evidences I • I must finish teaching this topic today • The only priority in her mind was to finish teaching this topic today. She constantly looks at her watch… • Irritated by the disruption, she said in a condescending tone • Just follow the rule. You don’t have to know the rationale behind it. 23
    • I Cognitive processes – Evidences II • Even if I explain, you won’t be able to understand. It’s probably too difficult for you! • Really made Minah regret asking. Fine. I will not ask in the future! Minah shouted • Know her pattern by now. You can do anything, just don’t stop her lessons in any way. And just don’t ask questions about her lessons. • Miss Jia: Just follow the method and do accordingly 24
    • II Cognitive processes- Theories • Robert Gagne’s Instructional Cognitive processes, Social Constructivist Approach by Vygotsky, Information Processing theory 25
    • III Cognitive processes- Analysis I • Miss Jia did not even try to gain the attention of the class herself; she got Dua Xia to control the class. So first step of this instructional cognitive process, she’d already gone wrong. • Miss Jia didn’t give clear or good objective in the beginning of the class. In fact, her only objective known to the students was “to finish the syllabus” 26
    • III Cognitive processes- Analysis II • Miss Jia did not help stimulate any prior knowledge, for example recapping from previous lesson. Using Information Processing Theory term, she did not activate the students’ long term memory and promote Metacognition. • Miss Jia did not perform this either. She rushed through the lesson and assumed that the class understood what was taught by questioning and receiving a correct answer from the smartest girl in class. 27
    • III Cognitive processes- Analysis III • Again, not only did she not provide guidance, she also discouraged / stopped the students from questioning by denigrating a student who had a question regarding the Math question. However, she did provide learning guidance to one girl before she began the lesson, 28
    • III Cognitive processes- Analysis IV • Eliciting responds from the students was missing in her lesson too. She did not elicit any responses from the class with questions or prompts. • She provided negative feedback eg , “Just follow the rule. You don’t have to know the rationale behind it. Even if I explain, you won’t be able to understand. It’s probably too difficult for you!” 29
    • IV Cognitive processes-Solutions I • She must draw the students’ attention by structuring her lesson plan properly. • Clear objectives should be laid out at the beginning of the lesson. It would be better if she could recap the previous topic with the students. • Doing the problem-sum solving, she should try to break them down into comprehensible steps and not simply rush through it. • Miss Jia can also start the lesson with simple questions then move on to difficult ones. 30
    • IV Cognitive processes-Solutions II • She should pick an average standard student or even a weak student to “test water”. If the weak student understands, that means 80% of the class understand too. For those who did not understand, they were either not paying attention or day-dreaming. • Miss Jia should give support and scaffolding (and gradually withdrawn) to students during the learning process and problem solving. For example, giving clues, asking questions, prompting the students and breaking down problems. 31