How would Steve Jobs runs his TV station


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How would Steve Jobs runs his TV station

  1. 1. How would Steve Jobs run a TV station喬布斯 會如何營運一個電視台?Former BBC CEO Mr Mark Thompson made it clear in 2006 that he wishes the content ofBBC could be access by any interested parties at “any time, any where and any place” (*1).This is indeed the biggest dream of any content provider ever. However, Steve Jobs wouldstill be very much annoyed as described in his autobiography that “interaction” would havemade this a perfect idea.正如 BBC CEO Mr Mark Thompson 早在 2006 年便已在說,他希望 (BBC 的) 內容可以在「任何時間、任何地方、任何地點」(註 1) 都可以供有興趣的人擷取得到,這絕對是所有內容供應者的夢想。但相信喬布斯會咆哮說這主意還是很差勁,因為內容欠缺了「即時互動性」。有了「即時互動性」才會是自傳中說的一個絕佳主意- a perfectidea。The speech delivered by the head of China Radio International Mr Wang Gengnian during theChina Content Broadcasting Network (CCBN2012) earlier this year remarked that “Omni-media is a conglomeration of media format, content and technology. As for media format, themedium could either be paper, radio, television, internet or in mobile format; whereas contentcould be covering text, audio, video, animation and visuals. All omnipresent terminals will bedepending on networks provided by broadcasting, internet and also telecommunications.” (*2)套用中國國際廣播電台台長王庚年先生於今年三月二十日在中國國際廣播電視信息展覽會(CCBN2012)上的發言「全媒體是媒介形式、內容形式以及技術平台的集大成者。在傳播媒介上,可運用紙質媒介、廣播媒體、電視媒體、網絡媒體、手機媒體等載體;在傳播內容形式上,可涵蓋文字、聲音、圖像、動畫、視頻等等。在依賴的技術平台上,基於廣電網、互聯網、電信網所支持的無所不在的終端。」(註 2)What Mr Wang Gengnian has said could have been the foot note of what Mark Thompson haslaunched- the iPlayer which provides an interactive platform for anybody at “any time,anywhere and any place and that, would be an omni-media platform.王庚年先生的說明,或許可以成為 Mark Thompson 創立的 iPlayer 的一註腳,能在「任何時間、任何地方、任何地點」為任何人提供內容並可產生即時互動的平台,就是一個「全媒體」平台。Despite what we have been saying, thanks to the tablet and mobile phone developers whohave been riding on the mobile network carriers, we are able to access contents we wanted at“any time, anywhere and any place” and also executive real time interactions.其實,在一眾硬件商全力開發新一代平板電腦及手機並配合無移動線數據網絡的配合,我們早已可在「任何時間、任何地方、任何地點」檢索我們想要的內容,並實現即時互動。
  2. 2. So contents that could not be accessed at “any time, anywhere and any place and interactsimultaneously” with anybody are not real “omni-media” content indeed. Contents thatsimulcast on television, radio and webcasting are not “omni-media” contents; they are justmerely multimedia contents.而若果內容不能於「任何時間、任何地方、任何地點及可以即時互動」、任由群眾擷取的,均不是「全媒體」內容。同樣的,可以同步或不同步於電視、電台、網路上播出的內容亦不能百份百歸類入「全媒體」內容行列,這些做法只可稱為同樣內容的多媒體或跨媒體手段。Thanks to modern day technologies that the above conditions have already existed and can bereached at the snap of our fingers.要實現「全媒體」的條件,以往均無法做到「四味俱存」,但拜科技的進步,這些條件現在皆可輕易做到了。Steve Jobs is dead but his spirit lives on. Apple will be launching its own television set verysoon (it is not very appropriate to say that it is a television set but rather it is a monitor forsure.). Steve mentioned about this future television in his autobiography as follows.喬布斯雖已身故,但其精神不滅。Apple 馬上會於年底或稍晚時候推出其自家的「電視」(其實說「電視」可能不太合適,我們只知道那一個是一個「顯示器」而已) 。喬布斯只在其自傳中提過:“And he (Steve Jobs) very much wanted to do for television set that is completely easy to use.It would be seamlessly synced with all of your devices and with iCloud. No longer wouldusers have to fiddle with complex remotes for DVD players and cable channels. It will havethe simplest interface you could imagine. Steve Jobs finally cracked it. (註 3)”「他 (Steve Jobs) 很渴望可改變電視成為完全容易使用的工具,它可以無縫地透過雲端與你所有器材同步,用家再不需要為 DVD 播放機及有線電視的遙控而煩惱,它會有一個你想象不到的簡單操作介面。終於被喬布斯破解了。」Though this is all we have about the concept of a future television described in his bio. Donot feel sorry about that. It’s said that Steve has been planning or even designing iPad 2before he launches the first iPad, thus this description about the future television set certainlyprovides with us some clues.很可惜,翻畢喬布斯自傳全書,我們只找到這一小段與未來電視有關的描述。使人有點失望。但若果喬布斯可以在發佈第一代 iPad 前已在想及甚至在設計第二代 iPad 的話,那麼這段記錄在他離世前一年的說話亦應具有一定可觀性。
  3. 3. According to known sources and rumors on the internet, Apple has been doing their studiesabout the future television as early as 2008. In meetings as far back as 2010, Mr. Jobs metwith a series of cable and satellite executives to discuss next-generation television services forApple devices, according to people familiar with the matter. One important question Mr. Jobsasked in the series of meetings was how much of the universe of video content the providersactually had the rights to, according to a person familiar with the meetings. (We will talkabout copyright in just awhile.)根據知情者透露甚至互聯網上眾多的說法,Apple 團隊早於 2008、2009 年已開始對未來電視做研究,而有紀錄的記載,喬布斯自己本人早於 2010 年已在與有線及衛星電視業者對話,討論有關業界可為 Apple 器材提供怎麼樣的下一代電視服務;而在這些一連串的會面中,Steve 曾問及到底業界手上有多少視頻是有版權的。(註 4)( 有關版權問題,我們等一下再說)Nevertheless, our expectations of the Apple TV should include but not limited to thefollowings (or what we expected this next-generation television could do):無論怎樣,我們對 Apple TV 的預期應包括 (或希望這個未來電視可以做到以下事):1. We should be able to share all our contents including programmes, movies, music, photos, softwares, text, books and magazines or even ‘apps’ developed by any third party; 可以透 過「它」實現內容互享,包括節目、電影、音樂、相片、軟件程式、文字檔案、圖 書雜誌、廣播,及由第三者開發的應用程式 (即 apps) ;2. We should be able to voice or motion control that via siri and that remote control unit is no longer a necessity;「它」可以透過 Siri 甚至動作指揮操控,用家再不需要任何遙 控器;3. Or we can just download an ‘apps’ on either our iPhone or iPad and use them as touch screen remote and turn your finger into a cursor; 簡單下載一個 app,則 iPhone 或 iPad 又可成為「它」的 touch screen remote (觸感遙控) ,再成為上網滑鼠的 cursor;4. It should be able to become your massive storage hard ware and becomes your computer’s own time machine;「它」如 iPhone 及 iPad 一樣,另有存貯功能,可以成為你電腦的 time machine (時間機器) ,把所有重要內容存貯起來;5. It also provides ‘Cloud’ storage service and turns all your Apple devices into an omni- media platform. It also serves as your blue-ray player providing next-generation HD visuals;「它」同時又提供雲端存貯服務,實現閣下 Apple 用品的全媒體功能的同時, 成為閣下的藍光碟播放器;6. It provides multi-lingual search function. You can either voice search any content you want or even you can ‘touch’ your ‘monitor’ to search;「它」同時有多語言搜尋功能,
  4. 4. 閣下可透過手機 (甚至「顯示器」本身的觸感功能直接觸摸「顯示器」或以 siri 語音 搜尋閣下想要的內容;7. It also provides on screen information you need including your local weather forecast, news headlines, entertainment news and also prompting you when new email comes in. You can also put your social networking icon such as FB, twitter and mini-blog on screen and update them any time you want;「它」同步可顯示指定的其他訊息,如:閣下位 置最新天氣、頭條新聞、娛樂資訊及電郵新件。又或可根據用家需要,把相關社交 網 icon 置於「顯示器」一端;8. It can also become your desk top computer by superseding the ‘post-PC era’ where the iPad will be more powerful and becomes everybody’s note book computer;「它」或可成 為「後 PC 時代」繼 iPad 接替桌上電腦功能;而後繼的 iPad 功能則應更強大,成為 個人隨身電腦終端;9. And of course it will also be your networking tool with your overseas relatives. If you paired that with 3-D printing, it turns out to be a B2B working equipment;「它」當然也 可以成為與遠方親戚朋友社交互動的工具;配合實時 3D 立體打印,「它」更可成 為與遠方工作伙伴的工作工具;The term ‘television’ will become a confusing term in the future. Most newspapers have theirown web contents nowadays and yet they are still being called ‘newspaper’ online. It isobvious that these so-called online ‘newspapers’ based on a different platform and the waysthey work, operate and run in a completely different way. So, shall we still call this next-generation television set a ‘television’ or ‘TV’?所以,「電視」這個名詞在未來是一個令人疑惑的名詞,就正如現今的報紙很多都已有網上版,但在網上它們仍是叫「XX 日報」,但這種網上的「XX 日報」又與傳統的日報不論在媒體手段、操作辦法、工作方法甚至經營方面,均完全不一樣。那麼這個未來的 Apple TV,還可叫它「電視」或「TV」嗎?The popularity of tablets and the emerging use of ‘cloud’ services were denoted by Steve Jobsas the ‘post-PC era’ meaning the latest retina Mac Book Pro released could probably be thelast portable computer manufactured by Apple.正如因為平版電腦及雲端應用的出現,喬布斯才會稱我們已進入了「後 PC」時代。這意味著現在剛推出並擁有 Retina 顯示屏的 Mac Book Pro 有機會成為 Apple 最後一代個人手提電腦。This next-generation ‘television’ from Apple will actually be a giant multi function monitor athome. With its auto-synchronization capability with your tablets, desk top computers and
  5. 5. mobile phones, it certainly will bring people back from one’s own room to the living room,again.這個 Apple 的未來「電視」,只會變為家中的一個巨大的多功能屏幕,並且由於可與閣下的平板電腦、桌上電腦及手機自動同步,它會把現今新一代的活動空間從房間帶回到客廳中。So with such a new device or next-generation television, how would Steve Jobs runs atelevision station?有了這樣一個新工具,喬布斯的電視台又會是如何營運的呢?It would definitely be disappointing to learn that Steve Jobs will never run his own televisionstation. Firstly, he would never reconcile to running a single media platform and that alsocontradicts with his techno background as well. As for both Steve and Apple’s style, he willonly provide you with a new platform, he will only change the way how people used to usetheir television sets. He will then involve himself in the techno-revenue related sector beforepeople are astounded and amazed by the functions offered by this new integrated device andthat people can get whatever content they wanted. Steve does not bother to run a televisionstation just like telecommunication companies do not provide internet content, they allconcentrate at what they are good at and excel themselves in there.對不起,他才不會去營運一個「電視台」。首先,他不會甘心去營運一個單一的媒體,這與他的科技背景方向有矛盾;其次,以喬布斯及 Apple 的作風,他只會提供一個平台,他只會改變人們使用「電視」的方法,而人們透過這個新方法、透過他這個重新整合的器具,人們會自己找到或得到想要的內容,使人們驚訝於這器具的不一樣功能的時候,從中營運相關的收益。他才不會去營運一個「電視台」。正如電訊營運商不會去做網路內容一樣。他只會做他最擅長最拿手的核心業務。Providing contents to such a ‘monitor’為這樣一個「顯示器」提供內容Owing to its multi tasking functions, Steve Jobs would have requested television stations toprovide contents that could merge seamlessly with it; allowing customers to get what youwanted at “any time, any where and any place” and interact with it as you like. He probablywould have helped stations to produce contents he imagined as if Apple has been helpingthose ‘apps’ providers to finish their content while Apple markets it worldwide via iTunes.正由於「它」的多功能性,喬布斯一定會要求電視台能生產一些能與之無縫連接的內容,容許閣下可在「任何時間、任何地方、任何地點」均可擷取你所需要的內容,並隨閣下意願「可以即時互動」。他或甚至會協助電視台們去做到他心中的內容,正如
  6. 6. Apple 一直都在協助任何人以普通人的身份參予內容創作,並協助這些創作人透過iTunes 售賣其內容 (apps)。Only contents that could fulfill the applications of an Omni-media are Omni-media contents.However, like the online newspaper who still called themselves as newspaper and the next-generation television might still have to be called television; thus such Omni-media contentswill still have to be called as contents.能附合上述「全媒體」功能的便只有「全媒體」內容。正如網上的日報仍自稱為「日報」、未來的電視亦只好繼續自稱為「電視」一樣;這種全媒體內容亦只好暫稱之為「節目」。Jobs was talking with television tycoons about the kind of next-generation services for Appledevices. So what exactly are those next-generation television services? As both Jobs’ andApple’s tracked style, the iPhone was the revolution of mobile phones and the iPad was therevolution of notebook computers, Apple’s future TV should again be the revolution of household television. This revolution will again change the way and method how people used to usea television set. That’s Apple’s way of style! Content providers should be prepared to providethis next generation television services right at this moment.正如喬布斯與電視業界會面時說的一樣,他們在討論的是「next-generation televisionservices for Apple devices」,為 Apple 器材提供「下一世代的電視服務」。那麼「下一世代的電視服務」又是什麼?根據喬布斯及 Apple 的作風,像 iPhone 成為手機的革命、iPad 成為筆記本電腦革命一樣,未來的 Apple TV 亦應成為現在家居電視的一個革命。這個革命亦應使所有人改變使用電視的方法及形式,這才是 Apple 的正道!而作為內容供應商,亦應在當下、第一時間的在新的工具或載體出現前為提供「下一世代的電視服務」內容做好準備。Let’s begin Omni-media from organization, way of thinking and operation level全媒體節目應從組織、想法及操作改變開始Paul works for a certain newspaper in a certain country and he was given a special assignmentone day when he just got to work. He quickly snatched his notebook computer, mini camera,audio recorder and camera and dashed for the venue…Upon arriving the case venue withinminutes, he used his cellar phone to send out a news brief which was used by the company’swebsite almost right the way. A more detail report on the issue with visuals and photos wasreported on the web 30 minutes later and the company’s television station also carried that inthe same afternoon news having Paul as the reporting correspondent on the scene; and the
  7. 7. newspaper which Paul works for put it on its front page the following morning covering everydetail of it.保羅是某國某報業集團的記者。某天剛一上班,他就接到了一個突發事件的採寫任務。他迅速帶上筆記本電腦、小型錄像機、錄音筆和照相機就出發了……到達現場僅幾分鐘后,他就通過手機發布一條快訊,集團的網站很快就發布了﹔30 分鐘后,有關事件報道的詳訊也發表了,並配有視頻和圖片。中午,報業集團旗下的電視台播放了主持人對他的訪談。次日清晨,帶著油墨的報紙頭條,就是他採寫的這一事件的長篇報道。(註 5)Published by a Tsinghua University student Mr Wang Junchao on November 2010, the abovearticle might sound a bit crazy. Nonetheless this will happen one day with relevanttechnology, position and pay scale. Just as when 3G network was flourishing back in the turnof the century and telecommunication companies were giving out free 3G phones to televisionpractitioners in a not-so-smart way or with much myopia in mind. Those telecommunicationoperators turned a revolutionary way of communication into a mere public relationnetworking with management people at television industry. They failed to turn the serviceinto a new way of operation in the industry. Should Steve Jobs be the inventor of such a 3Gtelephone, he would have met with those senior television people and asked about thepossible next generation television services for such a new device. High definition recordingand shooting has become a common 3G feature and the more capable 4G is just right aroundthe corner; but we are still experiencing the way how news is being gathered and transmitted!Perhaps the common mistake we all made is the lack of imagination and the contempt ofbeing doing the right thing: we have been trying our best to keep mobile phone to be just atelephone!上面這篇由王君超於 2010 年 11 月發表的文章看似瘋狂,但我相信配合適當的科技手段、編制及待遇,這事早晚會成為事實。這就正如 3G 剛於香港開通時電訊商免費送第一代 3G 電話予電視業界人士使用一樣,但他們送的方法不夠聰明、又或不夠前瞻性。他們只把這個做法變成一般與電視台中高層的公關手段,而沒有把當時的 3G 電話及其提供的服務變成業界的工作手段。若 3G 電話是 Steve Jobs 的發明工具,相信在遠未發表這種電話時,他「應」會與一眾電視新聞高層茶聚,問他們下一代的電視新聞服務可怎樣應用在他的工具(3G 電話)上。就是到現在,3G 電話已可作高清拍攝、而 4G 都馬上到來的時候,我們還是見到現在的新聞報導或傳輸形式!他們犯的錯誤,就是缺乏幻想並只懂做好本份:就是遏力使手機只成為手機!Well, I would like to summarize the article Mr Wang Junchao has written as follow: “Paulworks for a certain newspaper in a certain country and he was given a special assignment oneday when he just got to work. Without a thought he grabbed with him the latest 7-inch iPhoneand dashed for the venue…Upon arriving the case venue within minutes, he used his cellarphone to send out a news brief which was used by the company’s website almost right the
  8. 8. way. A more detail report on the issue with visuals and photos was reported on the web 30minutes later and the company’s television station also carried that in the same afternoonnews having Paul as the reporting correspondent on the scene; and the newspaper which Paulworks for put it on its front page the following morning covering every detail of it.” It is forsure hectic enough bringing all the gears including notebook computer, mini camera, audiorecording machine and camera, needless to say one still has a bunch of charges that go withdifferent equipment. However, we can actually see that we already have an ‘appropriatetechnology mean’ on hand.話轉回來,我會把王君超的文章撮寫如下:「保羅是某國某報業集團的記者。某天剛一上班,他就接到了一個突發事件的採寫任務。他迅速帶上最新一代七吋 iPhone 就出發了……到達現場僅幾分鐘后,他就通過 iPhone 發布一條快訊,集團的網站很快就發布了﹔30 分鐘后,有關事件報道的詳訊也發表了,並配有視頻和圖片。中午,報業集團旗下的電視台播放了主持人對他的訪談。次日清晨,帶著油墨的報紙頭條,就是他採寫的這一事件的長篇報道。」要帶筆記本電腦、小型錄像機、錄音筆和照相機那麼多器材,光帶充電器就夠吐血了。從這就看到,「適當科技手段」已經有了。Let’s put together the existing technology means and re-write again. “Paul works for a certainnewspaper in a certain country and he was given a special assignment one day when he justgot to work. Without a thought he grabbed with him the latest 7-inch iPhone and dashed forthe venue while on the way to the location, he published the news in his own (or companyowned) weibo (mini-blog) and through the auto-sync function of his weibo, the same contentwas then synchronized with Face book and also Twitter. Before arriving the location, he wasalready put online with the television’s LIVE studio telling audience what he was about to doand seen with a real time high definition video. The LIVE signal delivered by Paul was thenbeing put online on the company’s website. He could also interact right the way through hisown ear-piece, not only with the television studio but also with audience’s feedback on hisweibo and other social networks. The LIVE broadcast lasted till the studio producer said ‘cut’.Footage editor was editing video downloaded and at the same time they have also chosen afew good pictures and turn them into photographs and were being transferred to thecompany’s newspaper editorial desk, which of course will be using some of the photosprovided for his next morning’s headline. Another 30-minute later, a 90-second clip wasbeing sent to social networks like Face book, twitter, weibo; and also on relevant website,radio and television broadcasting and also iOS and Android operated apps. The newspaperwhich Paul works for put it on its front page the following morning covering every detail of itand also summarized some of the feed backs collected via other platforms used earlier.若把手段也包括在這文章裡,我更會改寫如下:「保羅是某國某報業集團的記者。某天剛一上班,他就接到了一個突發事件的採寫任務。他迅速帶上最新一代七吋 iPhone就出發了……他首先在途上以手機發了一個微博,並透過微博自動轉移內容功能,同步在 FB 及 twitter 發放了相關新聞,在馬上到達現場時,他已用 iPhone 與直播室連上線,以現場實時及高清的畫面形式把自己所見所聞發回直播室;直播訊號同步上線,在集團下的網站播出;透過其耳機更對在其微博及網上的查詢作簡單反饋,直播並維
  9. 9. 持至直播室叫 cut;直播室內其他同事已把下載完的訊號從新剪輯,同步把幾個精彩畫面透過軟件轉成高清晰度照片發至系統內供集團報紙使用,30 分鐘後,一段一分半鐘的報導已相繼在 FB、twitter、微博、網站上、廣播中、電視上及手機應用程式中詳細也發表了。次日清晨,帶著油墨的報紙頭條,記載了他採寫的這一事件的長篇報道並與其他媒體的互動作了更詳細的解說。」It’s all because radio broadcasting is no longer just radio broadcasting; television broadcastingis no longer merely television broadcasting; internet is no linger internet alone and mobileapps are no longer purely an application. The same content could have used different identity,different platform, and different format to interact with anybody at any time.While contents turn multi-facet and those who work for these contents have to be multi-tasking people too. A revolutionary user platform back up by new revolutionary tools requireus to re-think about allocation of resources from the beginning.因為廣播不單只是廣播;電視不單只是電視;網絡不單只是網絡;手機應用程式也不單只是手機應用程式。這個內容以多樣的模式在多樣的平台以多樣的姿態在與任何人在互動。正因為內容多樣性,工作的人員也必須為多功能 (multi-tasking)的工作人員。革命性的工具配合革命性的平台,需要的是革命性的資源從新配置。The above is just a hypothesis using news reporting as a demonstration of how Omni-mediacould have worked.上面只是引新聞作一個「全媒體」報導的一個假設。到底是那個更容易變革成一家「全媒體」公司?已擁有多種媒體平台的公司抑或一個單一媒體公司?又或任何一個個人皆可成就「全媒體」? 多樣載體特性 電視 電台 戶外大屏 手機 平版電腦 個人電腦流動性 N Y/N N Y Y N軟件應用 iOS/ Andriod 不適用 不適用 Apps/ web Apps/ web Apps/ web內容提供 固定 固定 固定 隨機 隨機 隨機 模擬/ 數碼/ 光傳輸形式 模擬/ 數碼/ 光纖 模擬/ 數碼/ 光纖 4G/ Wifi 4G/ Wifi 4G/ Wifi 纖 下載費/ 廣告/ 數據 下載費/ 廣告/ 數據 下載費/ 廣告/ 數據收入來源 廣告/ 收視費 廣告 廣告 量 量 量
  10. 10. Theoretically and logically speaking, a multi-media company should have better technicalknowledge-how and talents to turning itself into an Omni-media establishment. However,that does not mean that a single media company cannot turn around and turn itself into anOmni-media operator.當然,若然一家已經擁有多樣媒體的公司要變革成為「全媒體」,理應在先天佔有一定的技術及人材優勢。但這不等於單一媒體公司就不能變革成為「全媒體」公司。“Breaking down the boarders among different media” is the way to become “an Omni-media”. The head of the China Radio International Mr Wang Gengnian complemented, “anOmni-media isn’t a mere joining up of different media in a multi-media era. It is not a simpleconglomeration but a co-existing complementation in an organically way. We have toemphasize on their different and unique characteristics, their different capabilities tocommunicate, their different affluences in which all medium have to be fused together. Notonly will an Omni-media integrates information flow in the news domain but will alsointegrate the technology of communication, the format and means currently being used andthe means of sales and marketing. It is an all rounded integration.”「只有打通媒體之間的邊界」(註 2) 才可成為「全媒體」,他(王庚年先生) 更補充說「全媒體不是跨媒體時代的媒體間簡單連接,不是各種媒體的簡單組合,而是共存互補,有機結合,強調的是特性不同、傳播力不同、影響力不同的各種介質的聚合。全媒體不僅將新聞領域的相關信息加以整合,同時傳播技術、傳播形式和手段、營銷方式等全方位整合」。Group General Manager Mr Zhang Dongming of the Nanfang Daily Media Group publishedin his article “Nanfang Daily- Thoughts and Execution of an Omni-media Turnaround”mentioned, ”…the strategies of media integration, in layman terms, is the integration of ourdifferent media, the integration of our different brands and also the integration of our differentbusiness units under our group. We will then follow the rules and practice of how a mediadevelops … turning ourselves into a trans-regional, trans-business, trans-media and also trans-ownership media group…throwing our weight around and blending organically by bringingthe energy of our newspapers and the enthusiasm of our websites together. And at the sametime, we have to keep an eye on the differentiation of positioning and development andavoiding an internal homophylic competition.”其中,南方報業傳媒集團總經理張東明在其「南方報業:全媒體轉型的思考與實踐」文中又有以下看法: (註 6)「…媒體聚合戰略,簡言之,就是通過集團旗下不同媒體形態的聚合、不同媒體品牌的聚合以及不同業務單元的聚合,順應媒體發展規律…跨地區、跨行業、跨媒體、跨所有制的傳媒集團…,發揮好集團與旗下各系列報刊網社的兩重積極性,實現有機協調。同時要繼續注意差異化定位和發展,避免內部同質競爭」。
  11. 11. So how do the different media that we mentioned above achieve “co-existingcomplementation in an organically way” and “integrate sales and marketing”?那麼上述不同媒體如何「共存互補,有機結合」?達至整合營銷?Contents require manpower and investment內容提供須要的人手及投資This “omni-media content” definitely benefited from modern day technologies. Everybodycould achieve being an “omni-media content provider” in a narrow sense.這種「全媒體」的「節目」受惠於科技進步,嚴格來說任何人皆可成就「全媒體節目」。Let’s reminiscence the glorious and yet hard working days 40 years ago of how our televisionveterans produce a program. By then they will have to go through a series of complicatedwork flow. Putting aside all preparatory work, carrying the camera and the recorder (Peoplewere still using U-matic machine which the camera and recorder were two separate machines.Some people might still be using super-8 which the cost of the film was more horrific.) willrequire 2 persons (camera man and also the assistant), adding to that will be batteries, tripodsand also a bunch of cables. In addition to that we still need one audio man and a lighting man(The job of an audio man will normally be taken up by the news anchor during newsgathering nor lighting would be a necessity in that domain. News crew will be rationed a handheld battery operated light gun which most of the time will be left in the car.) plus a cardriver. A team of Electronic Field Production (EFP) crew will then consist of 5 personsleaving alone the producer and production assistant. Such cost was enormous and beyondimagination by now.試回想四十年前的電視人光輝及辛勤歲月。製作一個播出的節目要經過複雜的製作過程。先不說準備工作,單是扛著攝像機及錄像機 (那時還不是一體攝錄的年代,使用的還是 U-matic,但亦有使用超 8 拍攝,但膠卷費則更嚇人) 便需要兩個人 (攝影師及助手) ,還有蓄電池及三腳架及部份線材。此外,還有收音師、燈光師 (新聞倒沒有收音師,收音工作一般由記者兼任。新聞亦不講究燈火,故亦沒有燈光師,一般或只配一組經常「被」放在車上手持的電池燈) 及開車的師傅,一組外景隊,光人員便五人,還沒算上導演助導等。成本高昂,現在回想簡直不可思議。Then there came the non digital integrated betacam recoders, however, the crew numberremains stagnant. Equipment alone will cost 65 thousand dollars in the last millennium’s 80s
  12. 12. (Such cost would be eligible to acquire a 600 square feet apartment in Hong Kong’s cityarea.). The leaps and bounces then came when people began to encounter digital highdefinition experiences.直至一體攝像經過「合體的」非數碼 betacam 後,需要的工作人員壓力亦沒有銷減。況且器材費用高昂,單是一台攝像機便約要 6.5 萬美元,那是上世紀八十年代的事 (6.5 萬美元在當時的香港可在市區買到一個 600 多平方呎的單位)。而後經歷的都是從非數碼至數碼至高清的質的躍進。Up till now, a 16 year old international school student got an assignment with his classmatesto present one of Hong Kong’s scenic spots visually. He then took a mini digital camera withvideo recording function with him and began to wonder around at Temple Street Jordan for afew hours. They took some very interesting videos back home and spent another half an houruploading them to his MBP. A 2 to 3-minute clip was cut using the built-in iMovie softwarebefore sub-titles and music was chosen from his iTunes library and added to the clip. It wassaved on the desk top of his computer lastly.直到今天,一位在香港某國際學校的 16 歲同學,因為接到老師的要求,希望他與幾位同班同學以視頻方式展示香港某旅客景點。於是他拿了家中的一台有攝影功能的迷你照相機與同學在佐敦道廟街走了幾小時,把有趣的畫面捕捉下來,回家花了大半小時把所有視頻上載到其 Mac Book Pro,繼而利用 Mac 內置的 iMovie 軟件剪輯了一段兩三分鐘的片段並配上簡單的字幕,同時在其 iTunes 的檔案中挑了段音樂配上,最後便存貯在桌面。His video shooting mini digital camera costed him 500 his MBP was around 1,200 dollars.However, he was able to finish a job of 5 or more men equipped with 7 to 80,000 dollarsgears.他那台有攝影功能的迷你照相機只賣五百多美元;他的 Mac Book Pro 亦只是賣 1200 美元。然而,他獨自完成了四十年前五個人 (或更多) 及須動用七、八萬美元器材的工作。The content format of an Omni-media「全媒體」內容模式“Omni-presence” means “everywhere”. Owing to the level of investment, technical barrierand also talents, people capable of operating a media will concentrate resources available inone single area. The story, however, could be re-write now.「無所不在」便等同於「全部」。以往有能力做媒體的只能因為「入場費(投資)」、「技術」及「人材」的問題,故一般只可以集中資源投資在一個單一的媒體上。現在,故事可以不是這樣的。
  13. 13. The content of an “Omni-media” processes the ability to show itself in all platforms. Take foran example for a cooking program that this program should be able to:「全媒體」內容必須為所有媒介的展現手段。換句話說,以一個簡單的烹飪節目來說,這節目必須:1) Stand alone as a television program (Whether it is being broadcasted LIVE or not is not theissue, we will come across about it later.);本身便是一個獨立的電視節目(LIVE 與否並不是重點,我們稍後再談);2) Broadcast itself in radio networks (television producers have to differentiate and considerwhen ‘contents’ are being carried without visuals in a proactive and interactive ways);這節目當然亦可在電台廣播(所以做「電視」內容時製作人要考慮沒有畫面的廣播與電視在呈現手段上有區別;同樣的亦須考慮或創造可以「互動」及「主動」的部份);3) Owe its web version and be able to process more diversified characteristics like messagefeedback, Video-on-demand, search and also receipt download functions;這節目須要有自己的網站版本,容許比電視及電台的呈現手法有更多獨特性格,例如可以留言、以 VOD 方式點播、可以搜尋,更可以下載烹飪菜單;4) Utilize free SDK like software provided by current mobile phone manufacturers (iOS andAndroid and window system to follow) and develop free cooking Apps for downloads takingadvantages of the tablet’s and other mobile devices’ ‘any time, anywhere and interactive’characteristics. For an instance the using of GPS function could very well remind owner ofmobile devices about the availability of nearby cooking ingredients; or provide a programmeddinner menu to those who have their diet preferences preset as cpnsiderations.這節目更須利用兩大手機平台軟件(iOS 及 Android, window 平台隨後)所提供的軟件發展包(SDK)開發一個具該烹飪節目的 Apps 供人下載,可發揮平板電腦及兩大陣營手機的隨時隨地性及即時互動性,例如可利用 GPS 主動提醒附近可有提供其中烹飪內容的食材;又或只要「機主」預早設定飲食偏好,則該 App 會定時發放符合該設定的晚餐餐單供「機主」考慮等等。5) More importantly that these contents should appear not only on platforms owned ordeveloped by the content providers but should also be able to show itself and reach by inother third party platforms like YouTube, weibo and facebook. For those websites that requireto have its own visuals but do not necessarily have to own and operate its own video storage.We could achieve our aims simply by putting those required visuals on YouTube, using otherpeople’s free storage or cloud services and also reduces one’s operating cost. While we allknow that YouTube has their own way to generate revenue by stratifying different users (The
  14. 14. program “Top Gear” generates most revenue for BBC for one single programme also has abig quantity of visuals on You Tube) and other social network platforms as well.更重要的是,上述這些內容不單在「自己開發或擁有的平台」裡出現,就是一些第三者的平台,如 youtube、微博及 facebook 都應該可以接觸到有關內容。即如網絡需要有視頻,但卻不一定需要有自己的視頻貯存,我們大可以把適當的內容放在 youtube,利用人家免費的雲端服務減去自己的貯存費用,而又達到同樣效果。況且 youtube 有另外的收入計算方法及用戶層(BBC 最賺錢的節目 Top Gear 同樣在 youtube 有大量視頻)。其他社交網亦然。6) All these aforementioned techniques and applications should be ready and able to showthemselves in their unique style by using this next generation interactive monitor Apple isabout to revealed.而當 Apple 推出全新的「電視機運用方法」的時候,上述的平台應用手段應該可以全數在這個巨大的「互動屏幕」以不同姿態及反應出現。A content that could show itself on televisions, radios, computers, tablets and also mobilephones of course could possibly fulfill everybody’s desire to get what they wanted “any time,any where and any place” and communicate with it. Now that’s what we called“Omni-media” content! Its main characteristic enables us to do at least two things. One is called“Time Shifting” and the other one is called “Place Shifting”. It is apparent that failure toprovide interaction through various kinds of media platform and fulfill that ‘shifting’ functioncannot be called an “Omni-media” content.一個可以出現在電視、電台、電腦、平板電腦及手機的節目,完全滿足任何人於任何地點、任何地方、任何時候皆可以得到的內容,更可以即時互動,這便是「全媒體」節目了!「它」的主要特性是容許我們做兩件最簡單的事,一是「穿越時間 (TimeShifting) ;另一方面是「穿越地點」(Place Shifting)」。如果沒有透過媒體平台的互動而做到上述的「穿越」,則閣下提供的內容便明顯不是「全媒體」內容了。Put it in a simpler way is that “Omni-media” still requires content (programme) and through itcontent turns into television shows, radio programmes, internet content and also Apps fortablets and mobile phones. We will have to mobilize every platforms to compliment eachother while having its own character. We will also have to utilize different hard ware,different technical platform to provide interaction simultaneously at “any time, any where andany place”.簡單說,「全媒體」內容首要還是要有「內容(節目)」;使之演化成透過電視作平台的「電視節目」;透過廣播平台的「電台節目」;透過網路平台的「互聯網內容」;透過平板電腦及手機平台的「apps」。使各種平台內容可以互補不足的同時又各自有
  15. 15. 自己個性,可以透過不同硬件載體,不同技術平台,為任何人於任何時間任何地方任何地點實現即時性互動。“Omni-media” requires “Omni-media talent”「全媒體」需要「全媒體人」If “Omni-media” has been translated into “all media”, then what qualifications should an “allmedia” talent process? New Media Professor Miss Sue Thomas of De Montfort University ofLeicestershire England has the following description back in the fall of 2009:假使 Omni-media 被翻譯為「全媒體」,那麼「全媒體」人又應具備什麼條件?英國萊斯特郡 De Montfort University 的新媒體教授 Miss Sue Thomas 於 2009 年末提出對於「全媒體人」有以下看法:「Transliteracy is the ability to read, write and interact across a range of platforms, tools andmedia from signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, radio and film, to digital socialnetworks.」(註 7)It descripted that one should be able to read and write and communicate across a wide rangeof platforms, the noun perhaps is new but the basic comprehension, the cultivated manners orpoise are somehow interchangeable. A simple way of saying is that such talent should be ableto communicate and creative across a wide range of media platforms.其中意指我們可從多種平台與傳播媒體來進行讀寫與溝通互動,名詞也許是新的,但基本理念與資訊素養應(Information Literacy)是相通的。簡單的說「全媒體」創作人須具備有與上述不同媒體的溝通及創作能力。The kind of division of labour among crew members (like a film cutter or editor normallydoes not know how to be a director or producer, and script writer does not know how to filmor shoot) might perhaps in a way merged by advancing technologies (just like a layman alsoknows how to shoot and film by using mobile phones, writing a personal blog or upload anddownload contents). In other words, a new reporter could also work as a reporter, acameraman, a script writer and also a technician. The only reason for the existence ornecessity of having a camera man is the need to having a reliable someone to capture thevisual in an objective and efficient way. Of course if we talked about transliteracy, then acamera man could also work as a reporter meaning we are sending out more than one crew ata time. And that requires a new job description and letting each and every position to knowthat “cheese can be moved” (that actually has been moving in a willingly manner).工作人員的分工由以往的分工合作各師其職(例如以往的剪接師不懂得拍片子做導演、撰稿員不懂得去幹攝影師的工作一樣),會或多或少的透過科技而「萬法歸一」(等於許多普通人都會試過用手機拍照、拍片子、寫博客、上載下載內容般),亦即如新
  16. 16. 聞記者「可以」同時是「記者」、「攝影師」、「撰稿員」及「工程人員」般。「攝影師」的需要只是為了可以客觀有效及可以信賴地把記者的言行以第三者身份紀錄下來而存在而矣,但當然,在 transliteracy 的前提下,「攝影師」當然又可以是記者,這意味著每次新聞採訪的力度已可多於一個人了,但這須要重新改動工作崗位的「工作描述」,使每個工種都知道「奶酪是可以挪動的(而這奶酪其實早已在自願情況下在動了)」。Television, radio, internet and Apps could have their own production team for contentproduction; however, the same team could also produce contents required for these differentplatforms. An increase in workload of course would require an increase in number of staffwithin the same team. In early 80’s the position of an Executive Producer could only besucceeded by a production staff and a shuffle of roles (the E.P. position succeeded by a scriptwriter instead) of course will cause unrest among the team members. When everyone realizedthat a fair chance of promotion has been given to everybody, television has already doubledtheir resources. And now, Television Broadcasting Limited Hong Kong (TVB) is hoping thatanother shuffle could enable them to embrace the coming of the “Omni-media” era. This willstirred up an even bigger batch of unrest and such sentiment will for sure be a bigger obstaclefor the change. However, such reshuffle does not necessarily mean a redundant of manpower.For those who failed to adapt and failed to perform multi-tasking roles will of course besieved. Those who adapted successfully will of course know where the industry is heading,and a platform who knows where it is heading will grow substantially and continually in thissurvival game.電視平台、廣播平台、互聯網平台及程式供應平台都可以以各自有自己的內容製作隊伍,但亦可以由同一支隊伍應付,當然工作量改變,人員數目自然會有變動。早在只有製作人員才可當節目監製的八十年代初,人員的改組(撰稿人當節目監製)曾引起所有製作部員工的不安,不過現在當所有編劇及導演均知道大家都有機會被擢升為監製時,電視平台因而變相的擴大了自己的資源。而據聞 TVB 又再次希望透過改組人員架構,去擁抱「全媒體」的未來,這個改變的難度當然要比八十年代的改變要來得更翻天覆地,由員工的不安而帶來的阻力亦會更大。其實改組不一定要削減人手,看的主要是適應能力、看的主要是 multi-tasking,沒能力適應的最後當然會被淘汰掉,能適應的一定可以應付未內業內的需要,而一個可以應付未來需要的平台才有持續發展及生存的空間。Manage by integration and achieve a bigger market share整合經營、獲取最大巿場份額Different media establishments will of course have different mode of management. Basicallytelevision, radio, website and Apps rely on advertisement to generate revenue. The onlydifference lies in the presentation and also calculation of advertisement. Website and Appsmight have additional revenue source like charging on a pay per view Video-on-demand and
  17. 17. by providing value added premium respectively. Value added content provided by Apps hasproved itself a success by charging creatively (The largest Apple Apps supplier has an annualturnover of tens of thousand dollars.)不同媒體當然有不同經營方式。基本上電視、電台、互聯網、apps 都可透過廣告營運,不同的是這些廣告的計算方法及呈現手段。而互聯網及 apps 更可有另外的創收來源與方法。例如 VOD 可另外有點播收費方法,又或 apps 可以有附加價值(value addedpremium)的收費方式,多提供內容價值,配合具創意的收費方法,已經在 apps 下載方面得到證實(Apple 最大的 apps 供應商年均可收入數千萬美元)。In other words an “Omni-media” organization is not running a single media. It is like runninga restaurant where we can order a la carte for soup, rice, noodle, desert and even tea or coffeeindependently. We are also free to choose any combination of the above and turn it into a setfor every individual according to one’s need. We can have more variety of sales’ proposal andtarget our client more precisely. Television rating can no longer be the only way to calculateCost per thousand impression, we should also incorporate hit rate and download rate and etc.We can simply increase our advertisement market share via a more creative way of puttingtogether our ‘set’, cost changing has direct connection with one’s creativity (or directly withtalent) while the hard ware cost is cheap comparatively.換言之,一個「全媒體」機構經營的不再單純是一個單一媒體。我們可以想象一下一個餐廳的菜單般,我們的湯、飯、麵、餃子、甜點甚至咖啡及茶等,不單可以單點,更可以以不同形式組合成可針對每個顧客需要的套餐,換言之廣告售賣方案可以更多元、更精準。單一收視率已經不可以成為衡量廣告「千人成本」的計算方法,我們更會在意「點擊率」、「下載率」等。簡單說透過新的創新意組合,廣告份額當然可以比原先的更大,成本的改變一定是與人的創意(或人)有關,硬件是很便宜的。Copyright issue and transmission format of an “Omni-media”「全媒體」版權及播出模式Its all because of the omnipresence and boundless nature of an “Omni-media” and the mediaitself is no longer the sole content provider (Audience is in both give and take position- theycan choose what they want and also there can be user generated content as well.). We used totalk about different copyrights in television like LIVE and delay LIVE and it is furtherdivided by area covering into satellite right, cable right, free to air right and the yet to bedefined internet right.就由於「全媒體」是那麼無遠弗屆、那麼無邊際,節目內容又不一定是由供應商單向提供的(觀眾可主動擷取或部份內容可以由觀眾互動提供 User Genernated Content),以往內容的版權分類法,以電視為例可分同步直播與不直播兩大方面,下面再以地域及技術手段細分衛星版權、有線版權、無線版權及尚未明確的互聯網版權。However, more and more content will utilize one’s own or other third party’s cloud storageand platforms providing these contents are constantly evolving due to new technology andhardware updates (The nature of an “Omni-media” is its omnipresence.). The boundary of
  18. 18. those so-called satellite right, cable right and free-to-air right will be blurred and thedefinition of internet right will become more clear.但由於以後的內容均會直接或間接的使用到自己的或第三者的雲端服務作貯存,而提供內容的平台又因新技術及新硬件的出現而改變(又或因「全媒體」無所不在罷),所謂衛星版權、有線版權、無線版權都會崩潰,互聯網版權亦因此更為明晰。In the end, however, there will only be two kinds of copyrights. That is copyright for LIVEand also the cloud right (That’s all non-LIVE rights.). That was the reason why Steve Jobswas asking those television operators “how much of the universe of video content theproviders actually had the rights to (broadcast). The next generation ‘monitor’ he wasplanning will not only change the way how we use it, it will also subvert our concept oftelevision copyrights. Copyright contract will either become obsolete or irrelevant, no onewill pay any attention to these inappropriate copyright contracts any more. (It is just likediscovering a new law after the un-manned Mars explorer ‘the Curiosity’ landed on Mars that‘anyone who murders a Martian on Mars will be sentence to death penalty’. Yes, that says thenew law but since it affects nobody so no one will care about it.)但綜觀到最後,版權只會分兩種,就是現場直播 LIVE 的版權與及雲的版權(即一切不是現場直播 LIVE 的內容)。這就是喬布斯為什麼會向電視業界查問「在全宇宙的視頻內容中你們真正擁有版權 (播出) 的 how much of the universe of video content theproviders actually had the rights to (broadcast)」的原因。喬布斯推出的新「屏幕」不單會顛覆使用「電視」的方法;「它」更會顛覆我們對「電視」版權的概念,所有以往簽訂的版權合約要不是變成全部無效便是顯得不再適用,最終沒有人會再理會這些「過時的、不再適用」的版權合約。(這正如因為人類無人駕使的「好奇者」登陸火星探索而出現的新法律 - 任何人類在火星上殺害火星人均會被判死刑,法規是有的,但影響不到眾人,故沒人會理會。)As I mentioned just now, there will only be two kinds of rights. The first being real time LIVEand the second one will be those pre-recorded and stored in the cloud content, the cloudcopyright. Whenever the first copyright expires and content is being transferred and stored inthe cloud, it will enter the cloud right domain automatically. Theoretically what follows cloudcopyright lies detail breakdown of satellite, cable and free-to-air rights, however since “Omni-media” content are accessible via different platforms, the concepts of these detail copyrightbreakdown are thus meaningless to both “Omni-media” companies and users. Can anybodytell me the relationship of watching BBC’s programme ‘Top Gear” on YouTube and thecopyright issue we talked about here? Or the relationship of using Apps to watch (read) NewYork Times on Apple’s iTV (iTV England will of course object the using of this name)? Thisis where the limitation of BBC’s iPlayer lies so that is why iPlayer can only be successful inEngland. But everybody would agree BBC’s iPlayer is not a big deal, it is just a VODwebsite that provides both audios and visuals (Or unless you go to England in person andhave it downloaded but still you will have limitation on certain contents.). For most peoplethe iPlayer still lacks the kind of ‘any time, anywhere and any place’ capabilities. Despite thefact that international copyright still goes nowhere but it is still comforting that theysucceeded in finding a way out. On the other side, BBC is also using YouTube as aninternational gateway proving the practical usage of third party’s cloud storage.
  19. 19. 但正如我說的般,版權只會分兩種,第一種便是現場直播 LIVE;第二種便是事先錄製好,然後貯存起來的雲端版權 Cloud Copyright。而當第一種內容直播完後貯存起來時便會變成雲端版權。這當然,雲端版權下面會有什麼衛星、無線及有線等等版權的細分,但由於「全媒體」可在眾多平台上獲得觀眾想要的內容,這些版權的意義對「全媒體」公司及「全媒體」用戶來說是意義不大的。試問我在 youtube 上看到 BBC 的節目 Top Gear 與這些版權有什麼關係呢?又或我在 Apple 推出的 iTV(世人對「它」的暫名,當然英國的 iTV 是當然反對的)上用 apps 看(讀) New York Times(其中也有新聞片段)又與這些版權是怎麼關係呢?BBC 的 iPlayer 就是未能突破這個版權的枷鎖,故「只可以」在英國本土成功,但相信所有人也會同意,BBC 的 iPlayer 沒什麼大不了,它只是一個集視頻與音頻並有 VOD 功能的網站罷(除非閣下親到英國下載了 iPlayer,但內容的獲得仍然有限制),對許多人來說,iPlayer 仍然未做到 any time, anywhere andany place。但令人欣慰的是,它對「國際版權」有一個雖然局限、但起碼是不一樣的出路。而且,BBC 也利用 youtube 作為它另一個國際出口,說明利用第三方的雲端貯存的實用性。An “Omni-media” content example: Cooking Show「全媒體」內容例子:烹飪節目Television Broadcasting Company Limited is the biggest single company in providingCantonese programming worldwide. Taking cooking shows as an instance that they have suchprogramming on Jade, Pearl, J2, Jade HD and Payvision and that it accumulates a total ofover 10 hours per week. TVB is perhaps the biggest single company providing suchprogramming world wide, again.作為以粵語內容供應商來說,TVB 可算是全世界最大的了;若以烹飪節目計,出現在翡翠台、明珠台、J2、翡翠高清台及其收費頻道中的烹飪節目,每周多達十小時以上,這以單一公司計算,相信亦為世界之最。So how should we schedule and arrange a one hour cooking show in an “Omni-media” way?但如果以「全媒體」手法安排每周一小時的烹飪節目,又會是如何的呢?1) First we need a team, a transliteracy working team. We assume there are 6 persons in theteam taking the one hour content per week workload. Each and every one of them has theability to communicate and maneuver different form of media we discussed, however,understanding technical bits like javascript and html is not a must. We still require having adepartment to centralize all technical work while the team itself concentrates only on twoaspects- content production and interaction with ‘audience’. The technical department has todevelop required Apps for download and a framework of the website dedicated to theprogramme while the team has to help provide the characters and requirement for them (It islike a centralized promotion department handling all programmes promotion in a televisionstation).
  20. 20. 首先必須要有一個工作隊伍,一支具 transliteracy 工作能力的隊伍。暫定以這個量的「全媒體」內容需要六個人,每個人均須對各種媒體平台要有熟悉的認知及溝通操作能力,但卻不一定需要具有懂得 javascript 及 html 等電腦語言方面的技巧。因為以「全媒體」工作法,與電腦、電視有關的技術工程應歸在一個統一集中的部門去,這個工作小組主要工作是內容及互動兩方面;有關的技術工程部門須為不同節目提供程式下載Apps 及網站內容框架供該工作隊伍使用,當然網站及 apps 的個性須與工作隊伍洽商(就等如現在電視台裡的屏幕宣傳部為不同節目製作宣傳片般);2) The team has to help define different needs on different platform. While we put aside LIVEbroadcasting the time being, television and radio stations has the widest point of contact bytheir passive programming which depends on advertisement as the main source of revenue(including product placement). Website might has a narrower point of contact in this contextbut audience takes a more active role in getting what they want. Website also depends onadvertisement as the main source of revenue; however, unlike television and radio which aremore restricted territorially, advertisement placement is more accurate. The key is to be foundand such need has been developed into a line of business already. Apps download has thenarrowest point of contact and requires the user to look it up and download the Apps fromtheir side. However, Apps developers are able to know about information and requirement ofthese Apps users precisely and advertisers will know more about their targeted segment at theend. The programme itself should have an account on social networks like Facebook and etcfor cross promotions and also other third party cloud service providers like YouTube. Freecontent will be uploaded and the video link will be used as a hyper link in the programme’swebsite and Apps, of course, interested parties could always subscript videos uploaded. Thisfree visual provides videos only where value added services will be complimented by websiteand Apps.其次,界定在不同平台上需要的內容特點。(以不作直播為前提)電視與電台接觸面最廣、對觀眾來說是被動式內容,主要依靠贊助商及廣告收入(包括植入式廣告);網站接觸面可能較窄,但卻是觀眾及用家主動接觸的內容,收入當然也靠廣告,但行為可以更精準,不似電視及電台受較大地域限制,關鍵是如何被搜尋到(坊間已有專業人士從事這工作);程式下載(apps)接觸面就更窄,而且是百份百依靠用家主動接觸下載,雖然如此,apps 的內容可以更具指向性,我們可更精準的知道用家的資料及要求,廣告可以更清楚知道受眾情況;為可配合宣傳,更應在社交平台如 facebook等有此節目的專用帳戶,以吸收更多意見;當然其他雲端平台如 youtube 也應被列為第三者媒介作應用,內容會免費上載並以其超連結作視頻的提供列於專屬網站及 Apps 內,並以此雲端服務供有興趣的觀眾及用家訂閱,當然免費視頻除視頻外,其他服務須於網站及 apps 上提供。3) Contents (television and radio compatible contents) are being scheduled strategically ontelevision, radio stations and other platforms when production has been finished. It will alsobe uploaded to YouTube and other social networks while it is being put on air. The samecontent of course will be simulcast on its own website having more characters like ingredients
  21. 21. are being tagged, whenever audience moves their cursor over it, an external link about suchingredient will pop up showing information about food safety and etc. We should also enablekey word search function within the website. We should also categorize the ingredientaccording to its genre, level of nutrition, fat, cholesterol, energy and etc so that anybody cansearch for it in the Apps (or suggesting a menu for tonight). The website and also the Appsmight have a certain degree of similarities in their functions, however, they will have differentdesk top and other differentiated functions in which we will build their different style andcharacters.完成節目內容(電視、電台或兩者兼顧的節目內容)後電視及電台可以按策略與其他平台播出,同步把內容上線到 youtube 等視頻及 FB 等社交平台,這工作同一組人幾分鐘便可完成。並同步在自己原有節目中上線,但在上線時要把網上技術特點使出來,這包括把不同材料加 tag,觀眾只要移動 cursor 便可連聯與這材料有關訊息的其他網址、又或與這食材有關的最新食物安全指引等等。並把有關這內容的 key words 放在站內的搜尋功能中。而在 apps 方面更可能需要把所有食材根據品種、營養、脂肪度、膽固醇度、熱量等資訊分類,方便可以在 apps 內以這些資料搜尋內容 (如今晚建議菜譜等) ,當然,網站及 apps 均有機會做到相同功能或互佔部份內容,但使用介面及某些特別功能當然會有分別,透過這樣建立不同媒體的個性。4) It is obsvious that production people will have to spend more time in preparation,coordination and post production (Post production might still need to be carry on after thecontent has been airing in television and radio). That is why the team has to know everymedia platform well and they will have to be responsible to interact with audience whichactually forms part of their job. Their initiaitive will be rewarded by suitable and relevantcompensation available from new form of revenue sourcing.4) 為了要做到提供「全媒體」內容,明顯可以看出,製作人員需要花更多時間在統籌準備以及後期製作中 (這裡指的後期製作在電視及電台播出後仍然可以繼續) 。而且所有工作人員均需要對所有媒體手段均需有一定了解甚至熟練,並且需要對與觀眾在網上互動視為工作的一部份。這其中靠的無非是工資以及在其他平台上「有機會」獲得的其他收益。
  22. 22. 備註:1) CMP=twt_gu2) CRI 臺長王庚年:“全媒體”是媒介的三重融合 , 2012 年 06 月 13 日發表於國際日報;3) Steve Jobs “That Day Has Come”, page 555, 1st paragraph.4) 華爾街日報 2011 年 12 月 11 日科技版「Apple Plots Its TV Assault」: ;5) 國際視野:“全媒體”時代,報網融合大發展,王君超 ,清華大學新聞與傳播學院 2010 年 11 月 29 日發表文章;6) 人民網,2011 年 03 月 24 日,張東明「南方報業:全媒體轉型的思考與實踐」;7. Transliteracy Research Group: What is Transliteracy? An Introduction from Sue Thomas introduction-from-sue-thomas-.html#tp;