Cfa Level I Ss4 2005  Ll - tài liệu luyện ôn thi chứng chỉ CFA
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Cfa Level I Ss4 2005 Ll - tài liệu luyện ôn thi chứng chỉ CFA

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- tài liệu luyện ôn thi chứng chỉ CFA

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Cfa Level I Ss4 2005  Ll - tài liệu luyện ôn thi chứng chỉ CFA Cfa Level I Ss4 2005 Ll - tài liệu luyện ôn thi chứng chỉ CFA Document Transcript

  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com CFA Level I - Study Session 4 1. A. “Economic Fluctuations, Unemployment, and Inflation” The candidate should be able to a) explain the phases of the business cycle; Business cycle is a description of the fluctuations in the general level of economic activity in an economy as measured by changes variables such as real GDP, employment, and unemployment. Business cycles consist of distinct phases: Business Peak: When most businesses in the economy are operating at capacity, real GDP is growing rapidly and unemployment has fallen. It is not sustainable over a long period and thus leads to; Contraction: Aggregate business conditions slow, real GDP growth falls and may even turn negative, and unemployment begins to rise. Recessionary trough: Is the point at which the economic slowdown reaches its lowest. From this point onward aggregate economic activity tends to rise; Expansion: When aggregate economic activity completely recovers from the previous slowdown. Real GDP growth rises, firms begin to increase their capacity utilization, and unemployment begins to fall. Business Cycle & Economic Sectors Economic Slowdown/ Economic Expansion/ Slowdown Recovery Expansion Peak Economy Slowing Slow Growing Decelerating Monetary Policy Neutral Easy Neutral Tight Interest Rates Falling Falling Rising Rising Profits Slowing Falling Rising Decelerating Sector Groups Cons. Staples Consumer Basics Utilities expected Finance Cyclicals Capital Goods to do well Health Care Tech. &Energy Stock Non-Cyclical Econ. Sensitive Cyclical Non-cyclical Characteristics Blue Chip Visible Earnings Leveraged Visible Earnings High Yield Growth Oriented High Growth High Yield Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 1 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com b) describe the key labor market indicators and discuss the problems in measuring unemployment; Key labor market indicators are: Civilian Labor Force: Number of persons 16 years of age or greater who are either employed or are actively seeking work. Unemployed: Person who is not currently employed who is either (1) actively looking for a job or (2) waiting to begin or return to a job. Labor Force Participation Rate: Number of persons in the civilian labor force who are 16 years or older who are either employed or actively seeking work as a percentage of the total civilian population 16 years of age or older. Unemployment Rate: Percentage of persons in the labor force who are currently unemployed. Problems in measuring unemployment include; (1) do not count discouraged workers as unemployed because they have given up looking for jobs; (2) do not adjust for underemployed workers, those working part-time who would prefer to be working full-time, and (3) do not count non-market employment such as stay-at-home fathers/mothers as employed, even though they would be considered “employed” if working as maids, cooks, or nannies. c) describe the three types of unemployment; Frictional Unemployment: Due to changes in the economy that prevent qualified workers from being immediately matched up with existing job openings. Frictional unemployment arises from incomplete information on the part of both employers and the unemployed. Structural Unemployment: Due to the structural characteristics of the economy that make it difficult for job seekers to find employment and employers to hire workers. Generally arises as result of mismatches between existing labor force skills and employer skill needs. Cyclical Unemployment: Due to business cycle fluctuations in overall economic activity. Unemployment rises during recessionary periods and falls during expansionary periods. d) define and explain full employment and the natural rate of unemployment; Full Employment: Level of employment that results from the efficient use of the labor force after making allowance for the normal rate of unemployment consistent with information costs, dynamic changes and structural characteristics of the economy. Natural Rate of Unemployment: Long-run average level of unemployment due to frictional and structural conditions in the economy’s labor markets. This level is not set in stone but rather is affected by dynamic economic change and public policy over time. e) define inflation and calculate the inflation rate; Inflation: The sustained rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in the economy. Annual inflation rate is calculated as the percent change in a chosen price index (PI). PIt - PIt - 1 ´ 100 Inflation ratet = PIt - 1 Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 2 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com f) discuss the harmful consequences of inflation. Anticipated Inflation: An increase in the general level of prices that was expected by most decision- makers on the economy. Unanticipated Inflation: An increase in the general level of prices that was not expected by most decision-makers on the economy. 1. Unanticipated inflation alters the outcome of long-term projects, increases the risks of long-term investment activities, and so reduces the amount of long-term investment undertaken. Less investment today is likely to lead to lowers levels and growth of output in the future. 2. Inflation distorts the information contained in prices. This distorts the signals of scarcity or plenty contained in prices, reducing the effectiveness of markets and harming economic activity. 3. High and variable rates of inflation lead people try to protect themselves from inflation risk. This is likely to harm current production as resources are devoted to inflation protection. 1. B. “Fiscal Policy” The candidate should be able to: a. explain the process by which fiscal policy affects aggregate demand and aggregate supply; Fiscal policy affects AD directly through gov’t spending & indirectly through effects of taxes on consumption and investment. Taxes may affect AS by changing incentives for workers and firms. Fiscal policy can be restrictive (lowers AD) or expansionary (raises AD). b. explain the importance of the timing of changes in fiscal policy and the difficulties in achieving proper timing; Recognition lag, implementation lag before policy passed, effectiveness lag before policy works. If timed correctly can stabilize economy, if not policy will bring more instability (usually in opposite direction). c. discuss the impact of expansionary and restrictive fiscal policy based on the basic Keynesian model, the crowding-out model, the new classical model, and the supply-side model; • Keynesian model assumes SRAS upward-sloping. If economy is in recession (below LRAS), expansionary fiscal policy shifts out AD, and moves economy back to LRAS. • Crowding out model similar but notes expansionary fiscal policy raises gov’t deficit, which changes interest rates and exchange rates. These changes lower investment and net exports, partly offsetting expansionary fiscal policy. • New Classical model believes fiscal policy has no effect because any change in deficit (from spending or tax changes) is offset by changes in private savings behavior. • Supply-side model believes tax changes affect productivity and so can increase equilibrium output in long run. Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 3 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com d. explain how and why budget deficits and trade deficits tend to be linked. Nat’l Income identity Y = C + I + G + NX Rearrange yields: Y- C - G = I + NX or (Y-C-T) + (T-G) = I + NX Where Y-C-T = Private Saving = S, T-G = Budget Balance If S and I fixed, then increase in Budget Deficit, {(T-G) more negative}, implies that NX more negative, i.e. larger Current Account Deficit. e. identify automatic stabilizers and explain how they work, etc. Automatic stabilizers are fiscal policies that automatically promote budget deficits during recessions and surpluses during booms. Examples are unemployment compensation, corporate profits tax, and progressive income tax. These policies affect AD in ways that offset economic fluctuations. f. discuss the supply-side effects of fiscal policy. Changes in tax rates, particularly marginal tax rates, affect aggregate supply through their impact on the relative attractiveness of productive activity in comparison top leisure and tax avoidance. Supply-side tax cuts are a long-term growth-oriented strategy that will eventually increase both SRAS and LRAS. g. explain the relationships among budget deficits, inflation, and real interest rates; In theory, higher gov’t budget deficits should lead to higher real interest rates by loanable funds market analysis. In practice effect is not as strong as expected. Higher gov’t budget deficits may lead to higher inflation rates and higher nominal interest rates if gov’t finances deficit by printing money. 1. C. “Money and the Banking System” The candidate should be able to: a. identify and explain the three basic functions of money. At a theoretical level, money supply consists of assets that act as: • Medium of Exchange - facilitates transactions (liquidity). • Unit of Account - used to quote prices. • Store of Value - transfer purchasing power to future. b. define the money supply; At a practical level, U.S. money supply defined by 3 widely-used measures: M1 = Currency + Traveler’s Checks + Demand Deposits + Other Checkable Deposits M2 = M1 + Savings Deposits + Small Time Deposits + Money Mkt. Mutual Funds M3 = M2 + Large Time Deposits + Term Repo’s Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 4 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com c. describe the fractional reserve banking system; Commercial Bank activities: • Accept Deposits : Hold Reserves : Make Loans • Reserves are vault cash or deposits at central bank, required by central bank to hold minimum % of deposits, Reserve requirement, rr. Required Reserves = rr x Deposits • See PP slides for more details of Commercial bank activities and role of reserve requirement in money supply. d. explain the relationship between reserve ratio, potential deposit expansion multiplier, and actual deposit expansion multiplier. Potential Deposit Expansion Multiplier = 1/(Reserve Requirement) • Maximum potential increase in the money supply as a ratio of new reserves injected into the banking system Actual Deposit Expansion Multiplier • Multiple by which a change in reserves changes the money supply • Inversely related to the reserve requirement • Smaller than the Potential Deposit Expansion Multiple to the extent that: i. Persons hold currency rather than deposit it in the banking system ii. Banks fail to lend out all excess reserves, i.e. banks choose to hold reserves in excess of the legal minimum required. e. describe the tools that a central bank can use to control the money supply and explain how a central bank can use monetary tools to implement monetary policy. Open Market Operations: • Purchase or sale of gov’t bonds by the central bank. • Open Market purchase of bonds by central bank increases reserves at banks, banks lend excess reserves, and money supply increases. Reserve Requirements • Gov’t regulates banks’ minimum reserve-deposit ratios. • Increase in reserve requirements, lowers money multiplier, and so decrease money supply as banks call loans to build up reserves. Discount Rate • Interest rate on reserves borrowed from central bank. • Lower discount rate, cheaper borrowed reserves, more reserves borrowed by banks, banks increase loans, which increase deposits in banking system, thus increasing money supply. f. discuss potential problems in measuring an economy’s money supply. Growth rate of money supply generally used to gauge monetary policy. Money supply measures subject to changes due to structural shifts & financial innovations. i. Use of U.S. $ outside of U.S. – US$ acts as international vehicle currency in international transactions, illegal activities, dollarisation, etc. Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 5 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com ii. Shifts from interest-bearing checking accounts to MMDA’s – checking accounts in M1 but MMDA’s only in M2. Distorts M1 vs. M2 measures. iii. Increased availability of low-fee stock and bond mutual funds – Not counted in money measures but increasingly liquid, act as near-money. iv. Debit cards and electronic money – Reduce reasons to hold currency, may transfer transaction balances outside banking system. 1. D. “Modern Macroeconomics: Monetary Policy” The candidate should be able to: a. discuss the determinants of the demand for and supply of money; Market for Money: Money Supply: Ms= M0 • Set by the Central Bank using monetary policy instruments. Money Demand: Md= P*L(r, Y) • Interest rate is opportunity cost of holding money. • Transaction demand depends on Real GDP, Y and on the level of prices, P, in the economy. Equilibrium: M0/P = L(r, Y) • Keynesian Theory of Liquidity Preference says real interest rate moves to equate demand and supply at any level of real GDP, Y. b. discuss how anticipation of the effects of monetary policy can reduce the policy’s effectiveness; To the extent that the effects of monetary policy are fully anticipated, they exert little impact on real activity, only nominal variables change. Expectations of inflation will affect nominal interest rates quickly, keeping real interest rate constant, reducing impact on AD. Escalator clauses in wages automatically raise costs, shifting SRAS & economy more quickly back towards LRAS. c. identify the components of the equation of exchange, and discuss the implications of the equation for monetary policy; Equation of Exchange states that MV = PY where Y = Real GDP, P = Implicit GDP Price Deflator, M = Money Supply, and V= Velocity of Money. If one assumes that Velocity is constant, or changes slowly, then a change in the money supply, M, must result in the same proportionate change in Nominal GDP, PY. This is equivalent to saying that expansionary monetary policy shifts out the aggregate demand curve. How this increase is split between a price increase and an increase in output depends on the slope of the Short Run Aggregate Supply curve. Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 6 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com d. describe the quantity theory of money and its implications for the determination of inflation; Quantity Equation states MV = PY or in growth rates m + v = p + y Y = Real GDP, y = growth of real GDP P = Implicit GDP Price Deflator, p = inflation M = Money Supply, m = growth rate of money supply Velocity = V = # times per year $1 used to buy output. In LR monetary policy affects only price level and inflation assuming velocity constant or varies predictably. Real Output, Y, determined by other factors. p = m – y or inflation equals growth rate of money in excess of the growth rate of real GDP. e. compare and contrast the impact of monetary policy on the inflation rate, real output, employment, and interest rates in the short run and long run, when the effects are anticipated or unanticipated; See Fig. 4.1D for SR vs. LR effects of monetary policy on the economy when policies are initially unanticipated. Unanticipated Expansionary Monetary Policy Effects: Real Output, Y SR – Increase in Real GDP LR – Returns to LRAS. Inflation Rate, p SR – Prices (inflation) rise LR – Prices (inflation) rise further. Real Interest rate, r SR – Decrease in r. LR – Returns to original level. When monetary policies are anticipated, their SR effects on out put are less and LR effects occur more rapidly. Fig. 4.1D - Effects of Monetary Policy Real Interest Price MS0 LRAS MS1 Rate Level SRAS PLR 4. 1. r0 PSR 2. 3. P0 AD1 r1 AD0 MD(P0) 3. Y0 YSR Money Output 4. Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 7 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com 1. E. “Stabilization Policy, Output and Employment” The candidate should be able to: a. describe the composition and use of the index of leading economic indicators; The index of leading indicators is a composite index of 11 key variables that generally turn down prior to a recession and turn up prior to a recovery. Changes in the index are used to forecast future changes in the state of the economy but there is significant variability in the lead time of the index, and hence the index is not always an accurate indicator of the economy’s future. 1. Length of the average work week in 2. Initial weekly claims for hours. unemployment compensation. 3. New manufactures orders. 4. % of companies receiving slower deliveries from suppliers. 5. Contracts & orders for new plant & 6. Permits for new housing starts. equipment. 7. Change in unfilled orders for durable 8. Change in sensitive materials prices. goods. 9. Change in S&P 500 index. 10. Change in money supply (M2). 11. Index of consumer expectations b. discuss the time lags that may influence the performance of discretionary monetary and fiscal policy; Recognition lag: Time period between when the policy is needed to stabilize and when the need is recognized by policymakers. Note the length of this lag is the same for both monetary and fiscal policy and depends on the ability of economic forecasters to accurately predict the future state of the economy. Administrative or implementation lag: Time period between when the need for the policy is recognized and when the policy is actually implemented. Monetary policy tends to be implemented quickly, therefore it has a short implementation lag. Fiscal policy is implemented by Congress and the President, therefore it tends to have a long implementation lag. Impact or Effectiveness lag: Time period after a policy is implemented but before the policy actually begins to affect the economy. Monetary policy tends to have a long and variable impact lag. Fiscal policy affects the economy immediately thus it has a short impact lag. If timed correctly can stabilize economy, if not policy will bring more instability (usually in opposite direction). In addition, there may be a bias towards using fiscal policy to stimulate the economy before an election, regardless of whether it is warranted by the state of the economy, as a way to ensure incumbents are reelected. c. explain the role expectations play in determining the effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policy; Expectations determine how quickly SRAS adjusts to changes in AD Curve, leading the economy back to LRAS. Fiscal & monetary policies (both expansionary & restrictive) will be less effective when people anticipate their effect on prices more quickly. Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 8 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com d. contrast the adaptive expectations hypothesis to the rational expectations hypothesis; Adaptive Expectations hypothesis: Individuals base their future expectations on actual outcomes in the recent past. (Backward-looking) Rational Expectations hypothesis: Individuals weigh all available evidence, including information about probable effects of current & future economic policy, when forming expectations about future economic events. (Forward-looking) e. distinguish between an activist and a non-activist strategy for stabilization policy. Monetary Policy Rules: MV=PY • Money Growth Target: Money growth determined by Quantity Theory. • Nominal GDP Target: Money adjusted to hit Nominal GDP target growth rate. • Price Level Target: Money growth used to keep Price level within target growth. Fiscal Policy Rules: • Balanced Budget Rule: Fiscal Policy sets Budget Deficit = 0. Problem is makes economy more unstable. • Stabilizing GDP: Fiscal policy sets automatic stabilizers (income taxes, transfers). Cyclical Deficits and Surpluses. 1. F. “Stabilization Policy, Output and Employment” The candidate should be able to a. describe the Phillips curve; Phillips Curve was an empirical relationship that showed that higher rates of wage inflation were associated with lower rates of unemployment in developed countries. This relationship tended to change over time when used by policymakers. Higher wage inflation initially leads to lower unemployment on a fixed Phillips Curve, but then the Phillips Curve shifts out leading to higher unemployment rate at the higher rate of wage inflation. Thus the “trade-off” between higher inflation and lower unemployment was transitory, not permanent if used by policymakers. See slides in the PP presentation for extended discussion of Phillips Curve. b. discuss the trade-off between unemployment and inflation in the context of expectations. Unanticipated higher inflation reduces real wages, expands production, and reduces unemployment below natural rate, UN. Once higher inflation is recognized, real wage adjusts back, unemployment returns to UN and output returns to LRAS. Under Adaptive Expectations: • Individuals underestimate future inflation when rate is rising. • Temporary trade-off of higher inflation & lower unemployment. • Once the higher inflation is recognized, trade-off disappears. Under Rational Expectations: • Individuals do not systematically under- or over-estimate future inflation. • Very temporary trade-off of higher inflation & lower unemployment. • Higher inflation recognized very rapidly and trade-off disappears. Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 9 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com 2004 Level I, Study Session 4 – Macroeconomics 1. Which phase of the business cycle is associated with falling real GDP growth and capacity utilization? A. Recessionary trough B. Economic expansion C. Economic Contraction D. Business Peak 2. A software developer loses his job as a result of outsourcing to a firm in India. This software developer is suffering from what type of unemployment? A. International unemployment B. Frictional unemployment C. Cyclical unemployment D. Structural unemployment 3. An expansionary fiscal policy is likely to have the largest effect on output in the short run under which type of macroeconomic model? A. New classical model B. Keynesian model C. Crowding out model D. Pigovian model 4. Which of the following statements is true regarding time lags affecting discretionary fiscal and monetary policy? A. Fiscal policy has a longer recognition lag but a shorter implementation lag. B. Fiscal policy has a shorter recognition lag but a longer implementation lag. C. Monetary policy has a longer implementation lag but a shorter effectiveness lag. D. Monetary policy has a shorter implementation lag but a longer effectiveness lag. 5. When banks hold reserves in excess of those required: A. The potential deposit expansion multiplier is smaller than the actual deposit multiplier. B. An increase in government spending will be more effective. C. Monetary policy will be more effective in affecting real output. D. The potential deposit expansion multiplier is larger than the actual deposit multiplier. Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 10 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com 6. You are told that money growth is 7%, real GDP growth is 4.5%, and velocity is growing at 1.5%. What inflation rate is consistent with the Quantity Theory of Money? A. An inflation rate of 1.0%. B. An inflation rate of 2.5%. C. An inflation rate of 4.0%. D. An inflation rate of 5.5%. 7. The trade-off between inflation and unemployment on the Phillips Curve is likely to persist longest when: A. Individuals exhibit rational expectations. B. The central bank adopts a non-activist monetary policy. C. Individuals exhibit adaptive expectations. D. The central bank adopts a non-activist fiscal policy. 8. Interest rates in the U.S. economy rise. As a result, Americans shift out of demand deposits and into CD’s that pay the higher interest rate. Effect on U.S. money supply measures: A. Both M1 and M2 money measures decrease. B. M1 increases but M2 decreases. C. M1 decreases but M2 is unchanged. D. M1 decreases but M2 increases. 9. Which one of the following macroeconomic policies affects aggregate demand directly? A. An increase in money supply. B. An increase in government spending. C. A decrease in income taxes. D. A rise in the discount rate. 10. Which one of the following macroeconomic policies is considered a contractionary policy? A. An increase in money supply. B. A increase in government spending. C. A decrease in income taxes. D. A rise in the discount rate. Answers on page 16 Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 11 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com 2003 Level I, Study Session 4 – Macroeconomics 1. Which of the following is not a lag that impacts the ability of fiscal policy to achieve proper timing: A. Effectiveness lag. B. Adaptive lag. C. Recognition lag. D. Implementation lag. 2. Which of the following best describes how government budget deficits and a nation’s trade deficits tend to be linked: A. Higher government budget surpluses and larger trade deficits. B. Higher government budget deficits and larger trade surpluses. C. Higher government budget deficits and larger trade deficits. D. No relationship between the two deficits. 3. Which of the following is not a way in which a central bank can decrease the money supply: A. Open market sale of government bonds. B. Raise the discount rate. C. Increase the reserve requirement imposed on commercial banks. D. Raise the prime rate. 4. Which one of the following is not a determinant of the demand for money: A. The level of the federal funds rate in the economy. B. The level of interest rates in the economy. C. The level of real GDP in the economy. D. The level of prices in the economy. 5. You are told that the rate of growth in the money supply is 12.5% and the growth rate of real output is 3.25%. Under the assumption that velocity is constant and that the growth rates in money and output will be sustained in the future, what should the long run inflation rate be? A. 12.5%. B. 3.25%. C. 15.75%. D. 9.25%. Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 12 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com 6. Which of the following is not a way in which expansionary monetary policy is transmitted to the economy? A. An increase in investment. B. An increase in the interest rate C. An increase in aggregate demand. D. An increase in real GDP. 7. An unanticipated increase in the money supply is most likely to: A. Increase both real GDP and the price level. B. Decrease both real GDP and the price level. C. No change in real GDP but increase the price level. D. No change in both real GDP and the price level. 8. The Phillips Curve tradeoff: A. Shows a tradeoff between higher inflation and higher unemployment. B. Lasts longer if people have rational expectations rather than adaptive expectations. C. Lasts longer if people have adaptive expectations rather than rational expectations. D. Shows a tradeoff between higher inflation and higher exchange rates. Answers on page 16 Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 13 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com 2002 Level I Study Session #4 Questions 1. Which of the following is not a way in which fiscal policy affects the economy? A. Aggregate demand directly through government spending. B. Aggregate demand indirectly through consumption. C. Aggregate supply indirectly through marginal tax rates. D. Aggregate demand directly through open market operations. 2. How are government budget deficits and the trade deficit likely to be related? A. A higher budget deficits and a lower trade deficit. B. A lower budget deficits and a higher trade deficit. C. A higher budget deficits and a higher trade deficit. D. Not related to one another. 3. Which of the following is not one of the three basic functions of money? A. Unit of account. B. Measure of income. C. Store of value. D. Medium of exchange. 4. Which of the following events leads to a divergence between the potential and actual deposit expansion multipliers? A. Increase in the reserve requirement. B. Increase in bond issuance to finance a government budget deficit. C. Increase in the public’s demand for currency. D. Increase in open market sales of bonds by the Federal Reserve. 5. What are the likely short run and long run effects of unanticipated expansionary monetary policy on the level of GDP? A. Increase in GDP in the short run but no effect in the long run. B. No effect on GDP in the short run but an increase in GDP in the long run. C. Increase in GDP in both the short run and the long run. D. No effect on GDP in either the short run or the long run. 6. What are the likely short run and long run effects of anticipated expansionary monetary policy on the level of prices? A. Increase in price level in the short run but no effect in the long run. B. No effect on price level in the short run but an increase in the long run. C. Increase in the price level in both the short run and the long run. D. No effect on the price level in either the short run or the long run. Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 14 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com 7. Which of the following would not be considered a non-activist monetary policy? A. Pursuit of a money growth target. B. Pursuit of a discretionary policy to avoid economic fluctuations. C. Pursuit of a nominal GDP target. D. Pursuit of a price level target. 8. Which one of the following policies would not act as an automatic stabilizer on the economy? A. Unemployment compensation. B. Progressive income taxation. C. Government expenditures on national defense. D. Corporate profits tax. 9. Which one of the following actions by a central bank should not result in an increase in the money supply? A. Open market sale of government bonds. B. Lowering the discount rate. C. Lowering the reserve requirement. D. None of the above. 10. The Phillips Curve tradeoff between higher inflation and lower unemployment is likely to: A. Last longer if people have rational expectations. B. Last longer if people have adaptive expectations. C. Is unaffected by the type of expectations people are using. D. Improve over time as people’s expectations change. Answers on page 16 Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 15 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com 2004 Level I, Study Session 4 – Macroeconomics 1 C. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.A.a 2 D. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.A.c 3 B. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.B.c 4 D. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.E.b 5 D. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.C.d 6 C. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.D.e 7 C. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.F.b 8 C. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.C.b 9 B. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.B. and D. 10 D. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.C.e 2003 Level I, Study Session 4 – Macroeconomics 1 B. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.B.b 2 C. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.B.d 3 D. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.C.e 4 A. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.D.a 5 D. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.D.e 6 B. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.D.b 7 A. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.D.b 8 C. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.E.b 2002 Level I Study Session #4 Answers 1. D. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.C.a 2. C. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.C.e 3. B. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.D.a 4. C. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.D.d 5. A. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.E.d 6. C. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.E.d 7. B. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.F.c 8. C. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.C.d 9. A. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.D.e 10. B. LOS Level I Study Session 4-1.g Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 16 of 17
  • Bản Tin Sớm www.bantinsom.com Permission to print questions & answers from past AIMR Study Guides has been granted as indicated by the following statements. Reprinted with permission from the 1995 Level I CFA® Study Guide. Copyright (1995), Association for Investment Management and Research, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from the 1996 Level I CFA® Study Guide. Copyright (1996), Association for Investment Management and Research, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from the 1997 Level I CFA® Study Guide. Copyright (1997), Association for Investment Management and Research, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from the 1998 Level I CFA® Study Guide. Copyright (1998), Association for Investment Management and Research, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from the 1999 Level I CFA® Study Guide. Copyright (1999), Association for Investment Management and Research, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from the 2000 Level I CFA® Study Guide. Copyright (1999), Association for Investment Management and Research, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from the 2001 Level I CFA® Study Guide. Copyright (2000), Association for Investment Management and Research, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from the 2002 Level I CFA® Study Guide. Copyright (2001), Association for Investment Management and Research, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from the 2003 Level I CFA® Study Guide. Copyright (2002), Association for Investment Management and Research, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from the 2004 Level I CFA® Study Guide. Copyright (2003), Association for Investment Management and Research, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission from the 2005 Level I CFA® Study Guide. Copyright (2004), CFA Institute, Charlottesville, VA. All rights reserved. Level I SS4 Macroeconomics 2005 Page 17 of 17