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Energy for Opportunity, Presentation for E-Discuss

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    • 1. SOLAR IN WEST AFRICA – PROJECTS AND GOALS OF ENERGY FOR OPPORTUNITY Robert Munro, (former) CIO, Energy for Opportunity, CEO, Idibon E-Discuss, San Francisco November 2013
    • 2. Sierra Leone 6.5 Million people  Electricity coverage:  urban ~10%  rural ~1%  GDP per capita: US$679 (1.5% US)  Adult Literacy: 38.1%  Life Expectancy: 47.3 years  3 Physicians per 100,000 people  53% of population has access to safe drinking water 
    • 3. STEADY IMPROVEMENT & STABILITY  v Top 5 countries in Africa by Global Peace Index
    • 4. SIERRA LEONE  Development is not for lack of resources
    • 5. ENERGY FOR OPPORTUNITY  Background (2007): Environmental Foundation for Africa, Sierra Leone  United Nations High Commission for Refugees 
    • 6. WHO WE ARE Simon Willans – Exec Director  Chernor Jalloh – Engineering Manager  Mohamed Turay – Engineering Manager  Idrissa Tarawally – Engineering Manager  ~100 people employed by EFO or at charging stations that we created 
    • 7. STATUS OF COMPANY  Self-sustaining as of 2013: We can cover cost of operations with for-profit installations  Admin is <10% of budget  >95% of people employed were born in Sierra Leone   170 KW has been produced by EFO 10 KW in the country before EFO  Direct/Indirect population 100,610 / 928,130   Full electrical systems and education  Eg: 7W LED vs 60W incandescent
    • 8. IN THE LAST YEAR: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene – 3 Districts  Kamakwie District Hospitals  Madina CHC  15 CHCs/CHPs --- Bonthe, Kenema and Tonkolili   Community Charging Stations     GIZ --- Koindugu, Kambia, Kono and Kailahun Christian Aid --- Bonthe WHH --- Bo and Kenema BBC Media Action   Eastern Radio Freetown Office
    • 9. IN THIS TALK Water, Sanitation and Hygiene – 3 Districts  Kamakwie District Hospitals  Madina CHC  15 CHCs/CHPs --- Bonthe, Kenema and Tonkolili   Community Charging Stations     GIZ --- Koindugu, Kambia, Kono and Kailahun Christian Aid --- Bonthe WHH --- Bo and Kenema BBC Media Action   Eastern Radio Freetown Office
    • 10. COMMUNITY CHARGING STATIONS (CCS)  Thirty five CCSs in operation   Creates income for the communities   We had two in 2010 Eg: Light and power rentals, charging cellphones Converting to a self-sustaining business unit within the company  Partnerships with entrepreneurs within the country who can deploy and manage multiple systems to villages from district HQs
    • 11. KAMABAI COMMUNITY CHARGING STATION  One of our first: allows longitudinal (ish) study.  Lighting is expensive 10-15% of rural household incomes  500x more spent on lighting than people from industrialized countries   90% cellphone ownership Kamabai in 2010 (Mohamed)
    • 12. • • • • Low-lumen light Fire and burn hazard Indoor pollution Loss of community revenue Profits Profits Payments Funds to re-supply Kerosene Retailer / Torch Batteries Community Members Payments Target Community Profits Generator Fuel Mobile recharging business Profits External Usual Energy Use in a Sierra Leone Village (10-15% of expenses)
    • 13. • • • • High Lumen Light Improved education outcomes Reduced hazards Creation of community revenue Community Members Target Community Community Fund Payments Wages Community Charging Station Maintenance and repair (most still within the country) External Community Charging Station (CCS) approach for Rural Lighting and Mobile Phone charging
    • 14. PROFITS
    • 15. KAMABAI PROFITS Monthly Revenue at the Kamabai CCS 250 Greater acceptance of solar as an electricity source that won’t fry a phone. 150 100 Revenue Trendline Rainy Season Dry Season 50 10 Jul 10 Se p1 0 No v1 0 J an 11 Ma r1 Ma 1 y1 1 Jul 11 Se p1 1 No v1 1 J an 12 Ma r 12 Ma y1 2 Jul 12 Se p1 2 No v1 2 J an 13 Ma r 13 Ma y1 3 Ma y r 10 0 Ma Revenue (US$) 200 Time
    • 16. KAMABAI CCS Funds Secondary School Town Water Supply Health Clinic
    • 17. KAMABAI SECONDARY SCHOOL Average passes and credits (n=40)
    • 18.  v “We don’t have money to buy kerosene. The income that we usually put into light I spend on food and textbooks” Daniel K Amen (Senior student Kamakwie) “Immensly improved the status of the school. We have bad results in the school; With the solar system, children will come in to study, teachers, using whatever equipment we have, especially computers, will help the children to have more materials to study” (Jnr School Principal Kamabai)
    • 19. NEXT STEPS: PRIVATIZATION WITHIN SIERRA LEONE
    • 20. SOLAR POWERED WATER PURIFICATION  v
    • 21. SOLAR POWERED WATER PURIFICATION  Community based and managed Revenue generated for maintenance and upgrade  Builds off CCS model   Localized treatment   Reduce transportation and other transaction costs Focused treatment  Contrast to large scale, general treatment facilities
    • 22. SOLAR POWERED WATER PURIFICATION SolaWata can be purchased from the CCS in one or five gallon containers (containers by deposit)  Le 3,000 for the five gallon container and Le 1,000 for the one gallon container ($0.70 / $0.23)  Le 1,000 = cost to pay someone to fetch a container of water from well/stream  Positive image, but still with limited uptake 
    • 23. CONTAINER SYSTEM Addresses donor concerns over environmental impacts of plastic packets  Minimises risk of after sales contamination of water  Challenge is to create package options that meet the demand from customers at an affordable price point 
    • 24. BRAND/MARKETING  Logo development   Radio programming   Discussion and jingle Direct marketing   Highlights the sun and water aspects and the relationship between them ‘Noisy’ campaigns, t-shirts, and flyers Community visibility  Kiosk and container stickers
    • 25. UPTAKE  More time by installers on site.  Lowered cost  Allowed community containers
    • 26. REASONS WHERE THERE IS A LACK OF UPTAKE BY COMMUNITIES  v  Water bags are *much* more expensive, but have familiarity
    • 27. CONCLUSIONS / CURRENT & FUTURE WORK  Community charging station expansion   US Embassy Housing    12KW hybrid system including NPA (grid) connection UNOPS Hospitals River 2 Micro Hydro:   Establishment of PCSs to complete the distribution chain Our first ‘micro-grid’, combining solar and hydro Further reading:  Simon Willans, Amé Christiansen and Paul Munro (2011). "Emerging Forms of Entrepreneurship: For-Profit and Non-Profit Partnerships for the Dissemination of Solar Power into Rural Sub-Saharan Africa". The 56th Annual ICSB World Conference: Sweden.