Specializations of anatomy applied anatomy (clinical anatomy) – involves application of anatomical study to diagnosis and treatment of disease, particularly as it relates to surgical procedures. descriptive anatomy (systematic anatomy) – the part of anatomy involved in the description of individual parts of the body and the relations to functional systems, but not of their disease conditions. For example, the study of the anatomical parts of the larynx and their relation to phonation. Microscopic anatomy – the study of body structures through the use of microscopy. Surface anatomy –The study of the configuration of the surface of the body, especially in its realtion to deeper parts. Developmental anatomy – the study of the structural changes in an individual from conception to adulthood. This entails two subfields: embryology which is the study of the embryo and its development fetology which is the study of the growth and development of the fetus. Pathological anatomy – the study of the parts of the body with regard to various pathologiies e.g. Parkinsons’ disease, stroke, etc… Comparative anatomy – the study of human and animal structure with regard to homologous structures or parts. For example, comparative study of the flippers of a seal and the hands of a human being.
anterior (ventral) – toward the front or in front of. posterior (dorsal) – toward the back or in back of. In lower animals it refers to the caudal or (tail) end of the body. Superior – toward the top or above another structure. Inferior – toward the bottom or below another structure. Cranial – toward the cranium or toward the anterior end in animals and superior end of the body in humans. Caudal – same as inferior in humans or toward the tail in animals. Medial – the side of the body or part that is toward the midline or median plan of the body. Lateral – denotes a structure or area of the body that is farther from the median plane or midline of the body. Distal – furtherest from a point of reference (For example, in reference to the shoulder, the fingers would be the most distal point of the arm. Proximal – closest to a point of reference (For example, in reference to the shoulder, the humerus would be the most proximal point of the arm. Axial skeleton includes the head and trunk with the spinal column being the axis. Appendicular skeleton includes the upper (arms) and lower (legs) limbs.
Midsagittal section – divides the body into equal halves (right and left halves) at the medial plane Sagittal section – divides the body into right and left parts that are unequal.
Coronal (frontal) Section – divides the body into anterior and posterior halves. Horizontal or transverse section – divides the body into superior and inferior portions. A horizontal plane intersects the body at a right angle to the coronal or frontal section.
Abduction - Movement away from midline Adduction - Movement toward midline Flexion - Bending of joint toward usually toward the ventral surface Extension - The opposite of flexion act of pulling two ends apart Supination - Palm upward Pronation - Palm downward
The four levels of organization of the body include: Cells – The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane. Tissues –An aggregation of morphologically similar cells and associated intercellular matter acting together to perform one or more specific functions in the body. There are four basic types of tissue: muscle, nerve, epidermal, and connective. Organs - A differentiated part of an organism, such as an eye, a wing, or a leaf, that performs a specific function. Systems - A group of physiologically or anatomically complementary organs or parts: For example, the respiratory system, the phonatory system, the articulatory system, the nervous system.
Muscle cells - A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscles. They arise from myoblasts. Each myocyte contains myofibrils, which are long chains of sacromeres, the contractile units of the cell. There are various specialized forms of myocytes: cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle cells, with various properties. Cardiac myocytes are responsible for generating the electrical impulses that control the heart rate, among other things.
A neuron (pronounced, also known as a neurone or nerve cell ) is an excitable cell in the nervous system that processes and transmits information by electrochemical signaling. Neurons are the core components of the brain, the vertebrate spinal cord, the invertebrate ventral nerve cord, and the peripheral nerves.
Bone cells are of two major types: osteoblasts - a type of cell that is responsible for bone formation. Osteoblasts produce osteoid (the organic portion of the matrix of bone tissue). Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly being reshaped by osteoblasts, which build bone. Osteoclasts (a type of bone cell which removes or resorbs bone tissue. Osteoblast cells tend to decrease as individuals become elderly, thus decreasing the natural renovation of the bone tissue.
Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism. Hence, a tissue is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The study of tissue is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology . Epithelial tissue forms epithelium which is a single layer of cells held together via occluding junctions called tight junctions, to create a selectively permeable barrier. This tissue covers the external surface of the body and all surfaces that come in contact with the external environment such as the skin, the airways, and the digestive tract. It also is the major tissue in glands. It serves functions of protection, secretion, and absorption, and is separated from other tissues below by a basal lamina. Connective tissue holds other tissues together such as in the formation of organs, and has the ability to stretch and contract passively. Bone and blood are examples of specialized connective tissues. Muscle tissue forms the active contractile tissue of the body known as muscle tissue. Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs. Muscle tissue is separated into three distinct categories: visceral or smooth muscle, which is found in the inner linings of organs; skeletal muscle, which is found attached to bone providing for gross movement; and cardiac muscle which is found in the heart, allowing it to contract and pump blood throughout an organism. Nerve Cells comprising the CNS and PNS are classified as neural tissue. In the central nervous system, neural tissue forms the brain, cranial nerves and spinal cord and, in the PNS, peripheral nerves inclusive of the motor neurons.
Epithelial Tissue Types: 1. Simple which consists of a single layer of cells. 2. Compound which consists of two or more layers of cells.
The four types of simple epithelial tissue are: I. Simple Epithelia Types (All 1 layer thick) Simple Squamous -single layer of flat cells (e.g. simple squamous tissue is found in the blood vessels, alveoli, heart). Simple Cuboidal – as its name suggests, it is cube shaped and secretory in function. This type of epithelium is found in glandular tissue and in the kidney tubules. Simple columnar epithelium - lines the stomach and intestines. Ciliated columnar epithelium - These are simple columnar epithelial cells , but in addition, they posses fine hair-like outgrowths, cilia on their free surfaces. Found in air passages like the nose and trachea.
Simple Squamous -single layer of flat cells. In surface view gives the appearance of &quot;tiled floor&quot; so it is also named &quot;pavement epithelium. Found in the lining of body cavities, blood vessels, pulmonary alveoli, heart, etc … )
Simple Cuboidal -are cube shaped in nature and have a secretory function (e.g. thyroid). Found in glandular tissue, ducts, and in the kidney tubules.
Simple Columnar - column-shaped cells found in absorptive/secretory lining of digestive tract, larger ducts, lining of uterine cervix, etc. Many have microvilli (= brush border in intestinal lining) on apical surface, some have cilia (e.g., fallopian tubes
Ciliated columnar epithelium- These are simple columnar epithelial cells , but in addition, they posses fine hair-like outgrowths, cilia on their free surfaces. These cilia are capable of rapid, rhythmic, wavelike beatings in a certain direction. This movement of the cilia in a certain direction causes the mucus, which is secreted by the goblet cells, to move (flow or stream) in that direction. Ciliated epithelium is usually found in the air passages like the nose, trachea and bronchi . It is also found in the uterus and Fallopian tubes of females. The movement of the cilia propel the ovum to the uterus.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium = all cells are in contact with basement membrane (EM necessary to distinguish this), but not all cells reach epithelial surface, and nuclei reside at more than 1 level. This gives the appearance of >1 layer, when in fact only one layer is present. PSC occurs lining larger excretory ducts, larger ducts of male reproductive system, and respiratory tract. PSC lining espiratory tract has numerous goblet cells and is ciliated. Stratified Epithelium (classified by the outer layer of cells) Stratified Squamous = thick membrane, only the outer layer(s) is squamous. Basal layers often demonstrate considerable irregularity. In Amniotes (reptiles, birds, mammals) this epithelium usually becomes keratinized to decrease water loss and protect from abrasion (skin). Stratified Cuboidal/Columnar = usually only two layers thick, rare. Cuboidal present only in the ducts of sweat glands in humans, skin of aquatic vertebrates. Columnar found in parts of male urethra, larger excretory ducts, and conjunctiva of eye. Transitional Epithelium = can be distended or stretched. It is found in the bladder. Composed of several layers of cells, thickness influenced (as is cell shape) by the state of the organs which it lines. Present only in distensible surfaces of excretory tract (bladder, ureters, pelvis of kidney). - In contracted state, it is many layers thick. The basal layer is cuboidal to columnar, intermediates layers are polyhedral, surface layer with large rounded cells. In distended state, upper cells become flat and the entire epithelium appears as a thin. 2-5 layers thick) stratified squamous epithelium. Rounded surface cells may be binucleate.
Connective tissues bind structures together, form a framework and support for organs and the body as a whole, store fat, transport substances, protect against disease, and help repair tissue damage. They occur throughout the body. Connective tissues are characterized by an abundance of intercellular matrix with relatively few cells. Connective tissue cells are able to reproduce but not as rapidly as epithelial cells. Most connective tissues have a good blood supply but some do not.
Areolar Connective Tissue – is loose connective tissue, supportive in nature. Holds organs and epithelia in place, and has a variety of protein fibers, including collagen and elastin. Adipose - Similar to areolar tissue, but impregnated with fat cells. contains adipocytes, used for cushioning, thermal insulation, lubrication (primarily in the pericardium which is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels) and energy storage.
Collagenous/White Fibrous Strong and dense, binds structures to together (e.g. usually found in ligaments) Elastic or Yellow - are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries. These fibers flexible and can stretch up to 1.5 times their length, and snap back to their original length when relaxed. Found in the trachea and bronchial tubes.
Lymphoid Tissue - i s found in the tonsils and adenoids. Cartilage - it is found primarily in joints, where it provides cushioning. The extracellular matrix of cartilage is composed primarily of collagen.
Vascular/Blood - Blood functions in transport. Its extracellular matrix is blood plasma, which transports dissolved nutrients, hormones, and carbon dioxide in the form of bicarbonate. The main cellular component is red blood cells. Blood cells are suspended in blood plasma Bone – It makes up virtually the entire skeleton in adults. It is the hardest of the connective tissue. There are two types: compact and spongy bone which contains marrow.
All bones are made of compact and spongy bone tissues. The compact tissue makes the outer part of the bone. The spongy tissue occupies the inner part.
Illustration of outer compact bone with inner spongy bone.
Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. It makes up about 55% of total blood volume. It is composed of mostly water (90% by volume), and contains dissolved proteins, glucose, clotting factors, mineral ions, hormones, and carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation).
There are three basic types of cartilage: Hyaline cartilage which has a bluish white color and is smooth in texture. This type of cartilage is found on articulating surfaces of bones, costal cartilage of ribs, larynx, trachea and bronchial passageway. Fibro-cartilage: is white in color, dense and comprised of flexible fibers. It is found in intervertebral disks and between the knee joints. Yellow (elastic) cartilage is yellow in color, firm and elastic. This is found in the pinna and epiglottis.
The three types of muscle tissues are smooth, striated/skeletal, and cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle is the type that is found in the digestive tract and blood vessels it is involuntary in nature. Cardiac muscle is also involuntary, helps with the function of the heart and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Skeletal muscle is the type that moves skeletal structures it is voluntary in nature.
Smooth muscle is the type that is found in the digestive tract and blood vessels it is involuntary in nature.
Cardiac muscle is also involuntary, helps with the function of the heart and is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
Skeletal muscle is the type that moves skeletal structures it is voluntary in nature.
Neurons also known as ( nerve cells ) are electrically excitable cells in the NS that process and transmit information. Neurons are the core components of the brain, the spinal cord, and the peripheral nerves.
Types of Neurons: Sensory neurons - respond to touch, sound, light and numerous other stimuli effecting sensory organs and send signals to the spinal cord and brain, Motor neurons - receive signals from the brain and spinal cord and cause muscle contractions and effect glands, Inter-neurons connect neurons to other neurons within the brain and spinal cord. Neurons respond to stimulus and communicate the presence of that stimulus to the central nervous systems, which process that information and sends a response to other parts of the body for action.
A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally. Functional classification Joints can be classified on the basis of their function or structure . The functional classification is based upon the degree of mobility they allow: Diarthrodial Joints - permit a variety of movements. All diarthrodial joints are synovial joints, and the terms &quot;diarthrosis&quot; and &quot;synovial joint&quot; are considered equivalent Terminologia Anatomica  Amphiarthrodial Joints - permit slight mobility. Most amphiarthrodial joints are cartilaginous joints. Synarthrodial Joints - permit little or no mobility. Most synarthrodial joints are fibrous joints.
Fibrous or synarthrodial (immobile) joints are joined by fibrous connective tissue. Three types are: Syndesmosis - A syndesmosis is slightly movable articulation where the contiguous bony surfaces are united by an interosseous ligament, as in the inferior tibiofibular articulation. Tibia = shinbone , is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee. Sutures which join the cranial bones. Gomphosis is a synarthrodial joint that binds the teeth to bony sockets (dental alveoli) in the maxillary and mandibular bones.
Cartilaginous joints are connected entirely by cartilage (fibrocartilage or hyaline). Cartilaginous joints allow more movement between bones than a fibrous joint but less than the highly mobile synovial joint. Cartilaginous joints are found on the vetebral column and between the ribs. Synchondrosis - Where the connecting medium is cartilage, a joint is termed a synchondrosis . This is a temporary form of joint, for the cartilage is converted into bone before adult life.  An example would be the joint between the manubrium and the sternum (manubrosternal angle). A Symphysis is a fibrocartilaginuos fusion between two bones. Unlike synchrondroses, symphyses are permanent. Examples The pubic symphysis is one of the more prominent symphyses.
Synovial joints allow for much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavities between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. Bursa sacks contain the synovial fluid.
The illustration above includes several types of joints: Cartilaginous joints are joined by cartilage. Examples are the intervetebral discs which separate the vertebral bones and the joint formed between the ribs and the vertebrae. Synarthrodial (immobile) joints – are illustrated by the sutures which join the cranial bones. Synovial Joints which are highly mobile are illustrated by the hinge (ginglymus) joint found at the elbow and the ball and socket (ellipsoid) joint found between the articulation of the femur and ilium.
A&P Basic Elements Of Anatomy 2009
Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech and Hearing Mechanisms: Basic Elements of Anatomy Wilhelmina Wright-Harp, Ph.D. Associate Professor: Howard University Department of Communication of Sciences and Disorders 2009 Fall Semester
Lecture Outline <ul><li>Systems of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional Terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain Sections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic Elements of Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments and Tendons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles </li></ul></ul>
Systems Involved in the Communication Process <ul><li>Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory/Resonatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Phonatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Articulatory/Resonatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory System </li></ul>Auditory Articulatory Respiratory Phonatory Nervous
Systems Involved in the Communication Process cont.,
Terminology <ul><li>Anatomy = the study of the structure of an organism (Seikel, 2005 p. 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology = “the study of the function of the living organism and its parts, as well as the chemical processes involved.” (Seikel, 2005 p. 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Specializations of anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>applied anatomy (clinical anatomy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>descriptive anatomy (systematic anatomy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathological anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative anatomy </li></ul></ul>
Terminology continued... <ul><li>Neuroanatomy - involves the study of the anatomy of the nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurophysiology - involves the study of the function of the neuron and other aspects of the nervous system. </li></ul>
Body Sections <ul><li>Midsagittial Section </li></ul><ul><li>Sagittal Section </li></ul>
Body Sections <ul><li>Coronal Section </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal or (transverse) section) </li></ul>http://homepage.smc.edu
Terms for Body Movements <ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Supination </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation </li></ul>http://www.amputee-online.com/amputee/
Basic building blocks of the human body <ul><li>The body is comprised of four levels of organization: </li></ul><ul><li>cells </li></ul><ul><li>tissues </li></ul><ul><li>organs </li></ul><ul><li>systems </li></ul>
Building Blocks: Cell Types <ul><li>Three types of cells are: </li></ul><ul><li>muscle cells </li></ul><ul><li>nerve cells </li></ul><ul><li>bone cells </li></ul>
Bone Cells <ul><li>Bone cells are of two major types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts </li></ul></ul>
Building Blocks: Tissue Types <ul><li>Cells of common structure and function are organized into tissues. There are four primary types of tissues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>epithelial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neural </li></ul></ul>
Building Blocks: Tissue Types <ul><li>I. EPITHELIAL TISSUE is comprised of the following two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Simple - consisting of a single layer of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Compound - consisting of two or more layers of cells. </li></ul>
Tissue Types (continued) Connective Tissue <ul><li>II. CONNECTIVE TISSUE- functions to bind structures together. The following are types of connective tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adipose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collagenous or white fibrous tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic or yellow tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphoid tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular (blood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone </li></ul></ul>
Tissue Types (continued) Cartilage <ul><li>Types of cartilage include: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyaline - which is smooth and has a glassy, bluish white color. </li></ul>http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Labs/Anatomy_&_Physiology/A&P201/201_Slides.htm
Cartilage cont., <ul><li>Fibro-cartilage - this is a dense white cartilage. </li></ul>http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Labs/ Anatomy&Physiology/A&P201/201_Slides.htm
Tissue Types (continued) Muscular Tissue <ul><li>III. MUSCULAR TISSUE - is capable of contraction once stimulated, e.g. muscles of VFs, tongue, etc... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some types of muscle fibers are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cardiac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skeletal or striated </li></ul></ul>
Tissue Types (continued) Nervous Tissue <ul><li>IV. NERVOUS TISSUE - consists of neurons or nerve cells. The three types are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internuncial </li></ul></ul>
Tissue Types (continued) Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Neurons - The function of neurons is to transmit neural impulses from: </li></ul><ul><li>one neuron to another </li></ul><ul><li>from neuron to muscle </li></ul><ul><li>from sensory receptors to other neural structures (e.g. muscles, brain). </li></ul><ul><li>Glial Cells - Another type of cell found in the NS are glial cells which serve as supportive cells for neurons and form the blood brain barrier. </li></ul>
Ligaments and Tendons <ul><li>Ligaments bind structures together. There are several types of ligaments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>visceral ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skeletal ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons usually bind muscles to other structures. </li></ul></ul>
Ligament vs. Tendon http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/19089.jpg
Types of Joints <ul><li>The junction of bones with other bones or cartilage with cartilage occurs by means of joints. Joints are generally classified by the degree of movement they allow. The three types are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diarthrodial - which are high mobility joints. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amphiarthrodial - are joints with limited mobility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synarthrodial - are immobile joints. </li></ul></ul>
Fibrous Joints <ul><li>Types of fibrous or synarthrodial joints: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>syndesmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sutures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gomphosis </li></ul></ul>http://acsweb.fmarion.edu/Barbeau/104L2_skeletal.htm http://music.musictnt.com/biography/sdmc_Gomphosis
Synovial Joints <ul><li>These joints are unique in that they are comprised of a joint cavity containing synovial fluid. Some types are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arthrodial (gliding joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spheroid (cotyloid joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condylar (ball and socket joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ellipsoid (ball and socket joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trochoid (pivoting joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sellar (saddle joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ginglymus (hinge joint) </li></ul></ul>
Types of joints cont., http://www.infovisual.info/03/026_en.html
Origin and Insertions <ul><li>origin - the point of attachment with the least mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>insertion - the point of attachment with the most mobility, which moves due to muscle contraction. </li></ul>
Origins and Insertions <ul><li>Origin and Insertions of Suprahyoid muscles of the larynx . </li></ul>
Muscles (continued) <ul><li>agonists - are muscles that move a structure. </li></ul><ul><li>antagonists - are muscles that oppose a movement </li></ul><ul><li>synergists - are muscles used to stabilize structures. </li></ul><ul><li>muscle innervations may be sensory (afferent) or motor (efferent). </li></ul><ul><li>motor unit is the efferent nerve fiber and the muscle it innervates. Muscles are innervated by a single nerve. </li></ul>
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