On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For
Roof Perimeters

Wilma Leung
Williams Engineering Canada
Outline
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

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Photo Credit: Gord Rajewski

Roof Overhangs
Roof Parapets
Environmental Barriers
at Roof Perimeters
Ch...
Roof Perimeters: Overhangs & Parapets
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Cantilevered
Appendages
Inconvenient Details
No Man’s Land ?
Confluence o...
Roof Perimeters: Overhangs & Parapets
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Frontline Defense
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


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

Deflect Rain & Snow
Control Solar Radiation
Suppo...
Roof Perimeters: Multidisciplinary


Discipline-based Design
Perspectives






Overlaid ?
Optimized ?

Critical Earl...
Roof Perimeters: Multidisciplinary





“ If all you have is a
hammer, everything
looks like a nail.”
– English Proverb...
Roof Overhangs






Vernacular & Universal
Control Indoor Climate
Passive Solar Strategies
Protect from Wetness
Evol...
Roof Overhangs: Potential Conflicts
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Wildfire Vulnerability





Flame Impingement
Ember Exposure

Wildfire Mitigatio...
Roof Overhangs: No Exhausts Below


No Moisture Exhausts
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





Boilers
Dryers
Kitchens
Bathrooms

Aggravated Damage...
Roof Overhangs: Eavestroughs



Seldom Professionally
Designed
High Risk Impromptu
Gutter Installations







On E...
Roof Overhangs: Eavestroughs


Gutters for Colder Regions
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

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Overhang 12” with Drip
Flashing; Or
Roof Edge Made
Wate...
Eave Overhangs: Falling Ice & Snow


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

Assessing Hazards
Icicles
Snow Cornices
Overhead Cables
Plumbing Vents

Gabl...
Eave Overhangs: Falling Ice & Snow
Temporary Fix
 “Beware of Falling Ice”
 Heat Trace may



Create Path for Water
to ...
Eave Overhangs: Air Inlets for “Cold Roofs”


Prerequisites for Cold
Roofs
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
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1 ½” - 5” High Air Space
Eave Air In...
Roof Parapets

Historically Promoted to
Displace Wood Overhangs



For Fire Protection Benefits

Fire Resistant Unreinfor...
Roof Parapets: Reducing Wind Uplift


Parapets Higher than 1 m
Significantly Reduce
Wind Uplift on Flat Roofs






L...
Roof Parapets: Reducing Wind Uplift
Scuppers up to 1 m Wide
Installed near Roof Corners



Effective for Corner Regions
o...
Roof Parapets: Adjoining Building


Waterproofed Parapet
of Adequate Height to
Prevent Liabilities from




Drainage B...
Roof Parapets: Multi-Tasking

 Proper Installation of Roof
Membranes and Flashings
 Reduce Roof Penetrations

 Piping &...
Roof Parapets: Cap Flashings & Copings


Effectively Reduce







Uncapped Concrete /
Masonry Copings





Wall ...
Roof Parapets: Protecting Cap Flashings


High Wind Damage
Initiated at Roof Edges







Starting with Lifting of C...
Roof Perimeters: Environment Barriers


Durable Continuity









Connects Exterior Walls
with Roof Assemblies
A...
Roof Perimeters: Environment Barriers
 Avoidable Stresses
 Thermal Bridging
 Air Leakage

 Brick Veneer Parapet
 Free...
Roof Perimeters: Air Leakage


The Source of Moisture
Issues in Steel/Wood
Buildings











Improper Detaili...
Roof Perimeters: Durable Air Barrier



Photo Credit: Gord Rajewski




Protected from Severe
Thermal Cycling
Prefer P...
Roof Perimeters: Thermal Bridging
 Structural Designers Can
Significantly Reduce
Energy Consumption of
Buildings
 Reduce...
Roof Perimeters: Thermal Bridging

Reducing Thermal Bridging

 Reduce Frequency of Penetration
by Conductive Material
 S...
Roof Perimeters: Possible Configurations
 Intermittent Connections,
Not Continuous
 R Stainless Steel = 3 x R Carbon Ste...
Roof Perimeters: Possible Configurations

On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
Roof Perimeters: Possible Configurations

On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
Roof Perimeters: Changing Environmental Loads




Design based on Historical Climate Data
Will Past Extremes Represent ...
Roof Perimeters: Changing Environmental Loads
 If Building Envelope Fails
During a Storm
 Damage to Contents Likely 2 to...
Roof Perimeters: Changing Environmental Loads
2 Main Concerns for Building Envelope
Durability of Building Envelope Fabri...
Roof Perimeters: Changing Environmental Loads
 Building Envelopes Adapt by




Preventative Maintenance
Better Materia...
An Integrative Design Process




Identify Performance Needs
Apply Building Science Thinking
Develop & Coordinate Desig...
An Integrative Design Process


Without Building
Science Thinking At
Early Stages of Design







Future Roof Perime...
An Integrative Design Process


An Optimal, Cost-Effective, Safe
& Durable Design





Unlikely Arrived at by Chance
U...
An Integrative Design Process







An Expressive Atrium
Roof & Canopy
Largely Eliminated
Nuisance of Rain, Snow
and ...
Conclusion
Building Science Thinking must be present at the early stages of
building projects when geometries determining ...
Cited References & Additional Information
Kazmeierczak, K. (2010, April). Review of Curtain Walls, Focusing on Design Prob...
Resso, F. (2010, September). Effective Low-Slope Roofing Begins with Secure Roof Edges. Interface Magazine, September 2010...
Thank You

Wilma Leung
Williams Engineering Canada

On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
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On the Edge? Defensive Strategies for Roof Perimeters

  1. 1. On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters Wilma Leung Williams Engineering Canada
  2. 2. Outline      Photo Credit: Gord Rajewski Roof Overhangs Roof Parapets Environmental Barriers at Roof Perimeters Changes in Environmental Loads on Roof Perimeters An Integrative Design Process On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  3. 3. Roof Perimeters: Overhangs & Parapets      Cantilevered Appendages Inconvenient Details No Man’s Land ? Confluence of Contradiction ? Photo Credit: Gord Rajewski On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  4. 4. Roof Perimeters: Overhangs & Parapets  Frontline Defense       Deflect Rain & Snow Control Solar Radiation Support     Wind Damage Snow Damage Ice Damage Gutters Walls Slabs Protect    People Walls & Openings Ground & Foundation On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  5. 5. Roof Perimeters: Multidisciplinary  Discipline-based Design Perspectives     Overlaid ? Optimized ? Critical Early Stages of Building Design Integrate       Rain, Snow, Ice Fire, Wind, Drainage Durability, Airtightness Thermal Separation Structural Stability Environmental Changes On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  6. 6. Roof Perimeters: Multidisciplinary    “ If all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail.” – English Proverb Discipline-based Design Perspectives   Overlaid ? Optimized ? Critical Early Stages of Building Design Integrate       Rain, Snow, Ice Fire, Wind, Drainage Durability, Airtightness Thermal Separation Structural Stability Environmental Changes On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  7. 7. Roof Overhangs      Vernacular & Universal Control Indoor Climate Passive Solar Strategies Protect from Wetness Evolved to incorporate   Vented Soffits Gutters On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  8. 8. Roof Overhangs: Potential Conflicts  Wildfire Vulnerability    Flame Impingement Ember Exposure Wildfire Mitigation      Narrower Overhangs Fewer Joints Screened Soffit Vents Choice of Material Removal of Plants  High Wind & Coastal Areas     Intensified Wind Speeds Wind-driven Rain Accelerated Weathering Wind Mitigation  Narrower Overhangs On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  9. 9. Roof Overhangs: No Exhausts Below  No Moisture Exhausts      Boilers Dryers Kitchens Bathrooms Aggravated Damage      Moisture to Attics Rapid Freeze-Thaw Cycling Porous Material: Wood, Stucco, Concrete, Paint Mildly Acidic Emissions Neighboring Buildings On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  10. 10. Roof Overhangs: Eavestroughs   Seldom Professionally Designed High Risk Impromptu Gutter Installations      On Eaves with No Overhangs For Low-slope Roofs Mounted on Walls & Parapets Ends butting against a Wall or a Sloped Roof Underneath Inadequate First Defense   Flow Concentration Wind Uplift On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  11. 11. Roof Overhangs: Eavestroughs  Gutters for Colder Regions    Overhang 12” with Drip Flashing; Or Roof Edge Made Waterproofed Lower Gutter Position on Fascia   Avoid Damming of Ice or Snow Avoid Being Damaged by Ice or Snow On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  12. 12. Eave Overhangs: Falling Ice & Snow      Assessing Hazards Icicles Snow Cornices Overhead Cables Plumbing Vents Gable Overhangs: Safe Zone for Entrances, Parking, Prized Plants … Note: Slanted Gables are more similar to Eaves.  On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  13. 13. Eave Overhangs: Falling Ice & Snow Temporary Fix  “Beware of Falling Ice”  Heat Trace may   Create Path for Water to Drain Create More Icicles Mitigation  Reduce Freeze-Thaw Factors  Reduce Heat Loss into Attic, and onto Roof  “Cold Roof” Strategy Photo Credit: Gord Rajewski On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  14. 14. Eave Overhangs: Air Inlets for “Cold Roofs”  Prerequisites for Cold Roofs     1 ½” - 5” High Air Space Eave Air Inlets to Avoid       Well-insulated Ceiling Airtight Ceiling Warm Air Sources Air Exhausts & Entrance Doors Façade with High Solar Absorption Material Stack Effects Protects Roof in Winter Saves $ in Summer On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  15. 15. Roof Parapets Historically Promoted to Displace Wood Overhangs  For Fire Protection Benefits Fire Resistant Unreinforced Masonry Parapets   Hazard for Firefighters Hazard during Earthquakes Main Functions Today    Proper Installation of Roof Membranes and Flashings Protect Roof Assemblies from Wind Uplift, esp. at Roof Perimeters Guardrail, increasingly On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  16. 16. Roof Parapets: Reducing Wind Uplift  Parapets Higher than 1 m Significantly Reduce Wind Uplift on Flat Roofs     Lower Parapets  Photo Credit: Gord Rajewski Both Low- & High-Rise Esp. near Roof Perimeters Marginal for Corner Regions of Low-Rise Significantly Increase Local High Uplift Pressures near Roof Corners On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  17. 17. Roof Parapets: Reducing Wind Uplift Scuppers up to 1 m Wide Installed near Roof Corners  Effective for Corner Regions of High-Rise Short Section of Open Guardrail in lieu of Parapet  Effective for Corner Regions Low Parapets, based on Wind Exposure & Design Wind Speed  Can Prevent Blow-off of Roof Aggregate of Prescribed Sizes On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  18. 18. Roof Parapets: Adjoining Building  Waterproofed Parapet of Adequate Height to Prevent Liabilities from    Drainage Blockage Roof Overflow Melting of Drift Ice On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  19. 19. Roof Parapets: Multi-Tasking  Proper Installation of Roof Membranes and Flashings  Reduce Roof Penetrations  Piping & Wiring to Emerge from Parapets  Provide Support to Roof Grillage  Protect & Enable Sustainability Roof Services  Green Roofs  FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheet 1-35  Height, Scupper, Vegetation  Biophilic / Food Gardens  Solar Arrays On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  20. 20. Roof Parapets: Cap Flashings & Copings  Effectively Reduce      Uncapped Concrete / Masonry Copings    Wall Wetting Water Infiltration Staining on Cladding Damage to Masonry Lack Waterproofing Exposed to Extremes of Moistures & Temperature Slanted Parapets   No Drip Edges More Staining On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  21. 21. Roof Parapets: Protecting Cap Flashings  High Wind Damage Initiated at Roof Edges      Starting with Lifting of Cap Flashings Membrane Dislodgement Flying Debris Punctures & Tears Vortex Suppression      Innovative Aerodynamic Roof Edge Devices Minimize Vortex Uplifts Under Full-Scale Testing Double Damage Threshold Cost-Effective Photo retrieved from http://www.professionalroofing.net On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  22. 22. Roof Perimeters: Environment Barriers  Durable Continuity        Connects Exterior Walls with Roof Assemblies Air Barrier Vapor Barrier Weather Barrier Thermal Barrier Intersection Avoidable Stresses   Thermal Bridging Air Leakage On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  23. 23. Roof Perimeters: Environment Barriers  Avoidable Stresses  Thermal Bridging  Air Leakage  Brick Veneer Parapet  Freeze-Thaw Cycling Accelerates Deterioration  Worsened by Coping with  Inadequate Waterproofing  No Cross Slope  No Drip Edge  Hence Water Absorption & FreezeThaw Damage On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  24. 24. Roof Perimeters: Air Leakage  The Source of Moisture Issues in Steel/Wood Buildings          Improper Detailing e.g. Balloon Framing Design Not Ready for Construction Frost in Attics Ice-Damming Efflorescence Spalling of Brick/Mortar Metal Corrosion Photo Credit: Gord Rajewski Allow to Dry Out Durable Material On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  25. 25. Roof Perimeters: Durable Air Barrier   Photo Credit: Gord Rajewski   Protected from Severe Thermal Cycling Prefer Placing Air Barrier within Insulation or on Steady Temperature Side of Insulation (if compatible with air permeance of material) Air Barrier at Roof Deck Level for Curtain Wall Panels Structurally Supported to Withstand Stack Effects On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  26. 26. Roof Perimeters: Thermal Bridging  Structural Designers Can Significantly Reduce Energy Consumption of Buildings  Reduce Heat Loss  Reduce Condensation on Interior Cold Spots  Prevent Mildews  Reduce Radiant Heat Loss  Raised Heel Trusses  Provide Space for Insulation On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  27. 27. Roof Perimeters: Thermal Bridging Reducing Thermal Bridging  Reduce Frequency of Penetration by Conductive Material  Strengthen Structure Outside of Insulation and Air Barrier  Reduce Need to Transfer Loading Across Insulation and Air Barrier  Use Lower Conductive Material     Fiberglass Foam-glass High Strength Foam Use Wood / Stainless Steel instead of Carbon Steel when Structure Penetrates Insulation or Air Barrier Photo Credit: Gord Rajewski  Separating  Tempered Structural Core & Frame  Exposed Structural Fins & Shells On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  28. 28. Roof Perimeters: Possible Configurations  Intermittent Connections, Not Continuous  R Stainless Steel = 3 x R Carbon Steel  R Stainless Steel = 12 x R Aluminum  R Wood = 400 x R Carbon Steel  Structural Stability  Capacity for Lateral Resistance On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  29. 29. Roof Perimeters: Possible Configurations On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  30. 30. Roof Perimeters: Possible Configurations On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  31. 31. Roof Perimeters: Changing Environmental Loads    Design based on Historical Climate Data Will Past Extremes Represent Future Conditions ? Currently Projected Changes  More Intense Precipitation  Increased Summer Drying  Intensified Peak Winds  Higher Frequency of Damage Thresholds Being Exceeded  Roof Perimeters Critical in  Protecting Roofs & Walls Against Wind & Storm Events  Mitigating Wildfire & Earthquake Damages On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  32. 32. Roof Perimeters: Changing Environmental Loads  If Building Envelope Fails During a Storm  Damage to Contents Likely 2 to 9 times Building Repair Cost  Disasters Trigger Sequence of Financial Events for Insurers & Reinsurers  Supply of Reinsurance May Dwindle On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  33. 33. Roof Perimeters: Changing Environmental Loads 2 Main Concerns for Building Envelope Durability of Building Envelope Fabric to Weather Additional Environmental Stresses     More Frequent Freeze-Thaw Cycles in Colder Regions Potentially Increased Atmospheric Chemical Deposition Initially Increasing UV Levels Changes to Precipitation Regimes Impact of Weathering Over Time on Building Envelope’s   Durability Resilience to Extremes Increasingly Critical to   Resist Wind Prevent Moisture Entry On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  34. 34. Roof Perimeters: Changing Environmental Loads  Building Envelopes Adapt by    Preventative Maintenance Better Material Formulation Changes in Engineering Practice  More Durable  Greater Resilience  Parapets & Overhangs Increasingly Important in  Protecting Roof Equipment & Surfaces  Prolonging Life of Vulnerable Claddings, and hence Buildings  Protecting Heritage Buildings with Effective Water Shedding & Waterproofing Measures On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  35. 35. An Integrative Design Process    Identify Performance Needs Apply Building Science Thinking Develop & Coordinate Design Configurations  Integrating Performance Needs  Adequately Develop Construction Details  Meeting All Performance Needs On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  36. 36. An Integrative Design Process  Without Building Science Thinking At Early Stages of Design     Future Roof Perimeter Issues can Expect to be Challenging Snap Decisions Leading to Increased Workload and Expenses for Building Operations & Maintenance Less Durable Building Missed Prevention of Hazards & Nuisance Photo Credit: Gord Rajewski On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  37. 37. An Integrative Design Process  An Optimal, Cost-Effective, Safe & Durable Design    Unlikely Arrived at by Chance Unlikely Guided Solely by Minimum Code and Legal Requirements Maximizing Real Estate Value  Range of Considerations Available to Assist  Rising Real Estate Value of Roofs  An Integrative Design Process  Highest Degree of Accountability for Holistic Property Value  Begins with Owner’s Project Requirements  Verifications at Building’s Commissioning On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  38. 38. An Integrative Design Process     An Expressive Atrium Roof & Canopy Largely Eliminated Nuisance of Rain, Snow and Ice Improved Usability of Outdoor & Indoor Space Sheds Water & Snow onto Parapeted Roof of Carport On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  39. 39. Conclusion Building Science Thinking must be present at the early stages of building projects when geometries determining the performance of roof perimeters would likely be defined. On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
  40. 40. Cited References & Additional Information Kazmeierczak, K. (2010, April). Review of Curtain Walls, Focusing on Design Problems and Solutions. Proceedings of the BEST 2 Conference, Portland, Oregon, April 2010. Retrieved from Strathopoulos, T., Baskaran, A., (1988). Turbulent Wind Loading of Roofs with Parapet Configurations. Proceedings of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering Annual Conference in http://www.nibs.org/resource/resmgr/best/best2_008_ee4-1.pdf Montreal, May 1987. Retrieved from http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/l88-077 U.S. Department of Energy (2000, December). Passive Solar Design. Technology Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.southface.org/factsheets/PSD-Passivesolar 00-790.pdf th Crandell, J., Fischer, M. (2010, March). Winds of Change: Resolving Roof Aggregate Blow-Off. Proceedings of the RCI 25 Anniversary Convention and Trade Show, Orlando, Florida, March Lockyear, S. (2012). Creating Redundancy in Building Envelope Design. STRUCTURE magazine, April 2012. Retrieved from http://www.structuremag.org/Archives/2012-4/C-GuestColumnLockyear-Apr12.pdf 25-30, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.rci-online.org/interface/2010CTS-Proceedings-crandell-fischer.pdf Morrison, R.V. (2011, July). Field Investigation of Aggregate Blow-Off of Spray Polyurethane Foam Roofs. Originally presented at the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues th Quarles, S.L. (2001, August 31). Conflicting Design Issues in Wood Frame Construction. Prepared for 9 Durability Building Materials Conference, Brisbane, Australia, March 2002. (RICOWI) Fall Symposium, November 11, 2010, in Rock Hill, SC. Interface Magazine, July 2011. Retrieved from http://www.rci-online.org/interface/2011-07-morrison.pdf th Ennis, M., (2010). Fire and Wind Resistance Standards for Vegetative Roofs. Proceedings of the RCI 25 International Convention March 25 – 30, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.rci- Retrieved from www.ucanr.org/sites/wildfire/files/91481.pdf online.org/interface/2010CTS-Proceedings-ennis.pdf FEMA (2011, August). Coastal Construction Manual. FEMA P-55, Volume II. Retrieved from http://www.madcad.com/media/fema/FEMA-P55-Vol2-2011.pdf Smith, T. (2010, June). Wind Safety of the Building Envelope. Whole Building Design Guide. Retrieved from http://www.wbdg.org/resources/env_wind.php?r=envelope Smith, T. (2011, October). Building Envelope Design Guide – Roofing Systems. Whole Building Design Guide. Retrieved from http://www.wbdg.org/design/env_roofing.php Roodvoets, D.L., Mallinger, T., Banks, D. (2009, March). Ice Dams or Shingle Degradation a Concern? A New Tool to Predict the Ventilation Performance of Insulated Steep Roofs. th Proceedings of the 24 Annual RCI International Convention and Trade Show, Dallas, Texas, March 2009. Retrieved from http://www.rci-online.org/interface/2010-08-roodvoets-mallingerbanks.pdf Flick, L.D., McGowan, L.M., (2012). Cold-Roof Design Practices and Performance Case Studies. Proceedings of the Symposium on Building Envelope Technology October 2012. Retrieved from http://www.rci-online.org/interface/2012-bes-mcgowan-flick.pdf Buska, J., Tobasson, W., (2001). Minimizing the Adverse Effects of Snow and Ice on Roofs. Proceedings of the International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technologies (ICBEST-2001). Retrieved from http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/library/conferencepapers/MP-01-5663.pdf Arthur, S., Wright, G.B., (2005). Technical Note: Recent and Future Advances in Roof Drainage Design and Performance. Building Service Engineering Research and Technology 26,4 (2005) pp.337-348. Retrieved from http://web.sbe.hw.ac.uk/staffprofiles/bdgsa/Scott Arthur Papers/BSERT - Advances in roof drainage design and performance, Building Services Engineering Research and Technology Advances in roof drainage design and performance Arthur and Wright.pdf th Hutchinson, T., (2010). The Roof as Platform. Proceedings of the RCI 25 International Convention March 25 – 30, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.rci-online.org/interface/2010CTSProceedings-hutchinson.pdf O’Brien, C., Banks, D., (2012, June). Wind Load Analysis for Commercial Roof-Mounted Arrays. Solarpro Magazine, June/July 2012, 72-92. Retrieved from http://www.dnvkema.com/Images/SP5_4_pg72_OBrien.pdf SPRI (2010). Wind Design Standard for Vegetative Roofing Systems. ANSI/SPRI RP-14. Retrieved from http://www.greenroofs.org/resources/ANSI_SPRI_RP_14_2010_Wind_Design_Standard_for_Vegetative_Roofing_Systems.pdf Maurenbrecher, A.H.P. (1998, December). Water-Shedding Details Improve Masonry Performance. 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  42. 42. Thank You Wilma Leung Williams Engineering Canada On the Edge? Defensive Strategies For Roof Perimeters
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