Geology of Mars

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PowerPoint on Mars geology for an introductory geology course.

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Geology of Mars

  1. 1. Mars Orbit: 687 earth days Rotation: 24.5 hours Surface T: -1400 C (polar winter) to 200 C (equator) Atmosphere: 96% CO2
  2. 2. Mars Orbiters Global Surveyor Mars Climate Orbiter Mars Observer Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Nozomi (Japan)
  3. 3. Mars Landers/Rovers Sojourner Viking Spirit & Opportunity Phoenix Lander
  4. 4. Volcanoes Volcanoes are widely distributed across the surface of Mars. Composite, shield, and calderatype volcanoes are all common.
  5. 5. Shield Volcanoes
  6. 6. Olympus Mons Olympus Mons is the tallest volcano on Mars, with a base that would cover the state of Utah.
  7. 7. Calderas
  8. 8. Collapsed Lava Tubes
  9. 9. Rift Basins
  10. 10. Valles Marinaris
  11. 11. Thrust Belts
  12. 12. Evidence for Hydrologic System Evidence is abundant for a significant hydrologic system in the pa • Drainage networks • Headward erosion • Springs • Concretions • Karst • Braided and meandering fluvial systems • Cross-bedding • Alluvial fans • Deltas • Eolian dunes • Glaciers • Patterned ground • Mass wasting • Ocean basins • Oxidized sediment
  13. 13. Drainage Networks Well-developed dendritic drainage networks are widespread on M
  14. 14. Headward Erosion
  15. 15. Sapping (springs)
  16. 16. Concretions
  17. 17. Karst
  18. 18. Braided River Deposits
  19. 19. Meandering River Deposits
  20. 20. Entrenched Meanders
  21. 21. Cross-bedding
  22. 22. Alluvial Fans
  23. 23. Deltas
  24. 24. Bajadas
  25. 25. Eolian Systems The Martian atmosphere is thin but very active, resulting in welldeveloped eolian systems, including barchan, barchanoid, transverse, longitudinal, and star forms.
  26. 26. Barchan Dunes
  27. 27. Barchanoid Dunes
  28. 28. Transverse Dunes
  29. 29. Longitudinal Dunes
  30. 30. Star Dunes
  31. 31. Dust Devil Tracks
  32. 32. Mass Wasting Mass-wasting, in the form of falls, slumps, and flows are all common on the surface of Mars.
  33. 33. Rock Falls/Avalanches
  34. 34. Slump s
  35. 35. Mud Flows
  36. 36. Ocean Basins
  37. 37. Glaciers
  38. 38. Patterned Ground
  39. 39. Weathering
  40. 40. Geologic Map
  41. 41. Geologic Time Scale
  42. 42. What is it?
  43. 43. “Enhanced” Image
  44. 44. New Interpretation

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