Vivienda en el centro poblado mi peru ventanilla - callao

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Vivienda en el Centro Poblado mi Perú Ventanilla - Callao.

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Vivienda en el centro poblado mi peru ventanilla - callao

  1. 1. (678(63$,27($6(*85,$1$,(7(/$48,7$ ,QIRUPHGHO(VWXGLRGHDVRGH9LYLHQGD 5RVDOtDDUDPXWWL HQWUR$OWHUQDWLYD -XQLR /LPD 3HU~1 Informe para CLASPO II - Estudio de Caso de Vivienda en el Cono Norte – Distrito de Ventanilla en las zonas de Nuevo Pachacútec y el Centro Poblado Menor Mi Perú.2 Licenciada en Sociología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Parte del trabajo de campo del Estudio de Caso de Vivienda fue realizado por el estudiante de Antropología de la UNMSM Franz Taipe, a quien agradezco su apoyo, perseverancia y colaboración.
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  13. 13. 3 Bejar (2001), toma en cuenta que en el terreno de las políticas públicas, cuando éstas existen, hay dos grandes modelos para la política social: un modelo marginal y otro integral o institucional. En el modelo marginal, los individuos deben solucionar por sus propios medios las necesidades que éstos demanden. El modelo institucional o integral no reconoce ningún límite fijo para los compromisos del Estado con el bienestar social porque tiende a la asistencia universal y supone que el bienestar del individuo es responsabilidad del colectivo social. La asistencia deja de ser dádiva para convertirse en un deber de la sociedad y un derecho del ciudadano.4 En Perú, Essalud, es una entidad Estatal que regula los servicios de salud en Lima y a nivel nacional, contando con especialidades capaces de atender a niños (as), adolescentes, adultos y ancianos de cualquier sector social.
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  26. 26. )21$9,DVXPLyFDVLHQH[FOXVLYDHOILQDQFLDPLHQWRGHODJXDGHVDJHSURHFWRVGHHOHFWULILFDFLyQHQSXHEORVMyYHQHVFHQWURVSREODGRV DSDUDHOFRPRFRQVHFXHQFLDGHXQDLPSUHVLRQDQWHLQYDVLyQGHWHUUHQRVDJUtFRODV GH SURSLHGDG SULYDGD HQ /LPD VH JHQHUy HO 3URJUDPD GH (PHUJHQFLD 352)$0FRQHOREMHWLYRGHGDUODRSRUWXQLGDGGHVDWLVIDFHUODVQHFHVLGDGHVGHYLYLHQGDDIDPLOLDVFRQHVFDVRV UHFXUVRV TXH FXPSODQ GHWHUPLQDGRV UHTXLVLWRV SHUR GLFKR SURJUDPD QR OOHQy ODVH[SHFWDWLYDVGHODSREODFLyQ6 Ver: Grompone, R., Zolezzi, M, Calderón, J., Olivera, L. 1983. La Lima de los 80 Crecimiento y Segregación Social. Lima, DESCO.7 Fondo Nacional para la Vivienda.8 PROFAM: Programa de Lotes Familiares destinado a la oferta de Lotes para Familias Previamente Calificadas.
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  81. 81. TXHKDWHQLGRHO(VWDGRSHUXDQRHQHOPDUFRGHXQDSROtWLFDVRFLDOGHYLYLHQGDFRQHOREMHWLYRGHYLYLU³GLJQDPHQWH´HQHVWDVGRV]RQDV1XHYR3DFKDF~WHFHOHQWUR3REODGR0HQRU 0L 3HU~ (Q DPERV OXJDUHV UHVLGH SREODFLyQ GH HVFDVRV UHFXUVRV (Q HO FDVR GH HVWH~OWLPRQRKDKDELGRSUHVHQFLDGHO(VWDGRHQPDWHULDGHYLYLHQGDORTXHVtVHKDREVHUYDGRHQ1XHYR3DFKDF~WHF ]RQDTXH QR VROR ³KD VLGR HORMRGHODWRUPHQWD´HQHOFDVRGHYLYLHQGDVLQR TXH HO (VWDGR KD DSRVWDGR SRU HVWH OXJDUHMHFXWDQGR HO 3URHFWR (O 0LUDGRUGHQWUR GHO3URJUDPDGH9LYLHQGD7HFKR3URSLRHXGDHUR /DFXOPLQDFLyQGHXQVXHxRHOLQLFLRGHRWURODYLYLHQGD µ(VWXHVSDFLRWHGDVHJXULGDGQDGLHWHODTXLWD¶/DYLYLHQGDFRPRQHFHVLGDG EiVLFD 3DUD KDEODU GH ODV QHFHVLGDGHV EiVLFDV WHQHU HQ FXHQWD OD YLYLHQGD HQWUH HVWDVGHEHPRVDERUGDUSULPHURODLGHDRFRQFHSFLyQGHORTXHpVWDVLJQLILFDGHQWURGHXQFRQWH[WRSHFXOLDUHOGHODFLXGDG/RTXHQRVUHPRQWDDSHUFLELUDpVWD~OWLPDQRVyORFRPRXQPHURKHFKR ItVLFR VLQR TXH HV QHFHVDULR HQWHQGHUOD FRPR XQ OXJDU LQWHJUDO H LQWHJUDGRU FRQQXHYDV IRUPDV GH YLQFXODFLyQ R QXHYRV HVSDFLRV S~EOLFRV FRQ UHODWLYD DXWRQRPtD SHURDUWLFXODGRV %RUMD
  82. 82. 8Q OXJDUGH GHPRFUDFLD GHVDUUROOR GRQGH LPSXOVDUODGLDOpFWLFDJHQHUDGRUDGHRQRVODFLXGDGPLVPD29 No queremos entender a la ciudad como un mero hecho físico, es decir, un conjunto de edificaciones, avenidas, áreas industriales, zonas residenciales, comerciales y/ o administrativas.
  83. 83. /LPD QRHVXQDXQLGDGWHUULWRULDOKRPRJpQHDVLQRXQOXJDUGHLQWHUUHODFLyQDYHFHVFRQIOLFWLYD
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  85. 85. $KRUDELHQFXDQGRKDFHPRVUHIHUHQFLDDOWHPDGHYLYLHQGDDORTXHHQWHQGHPRVSRUHOOD GHEHPRV WHQHU HQ FXHQWD TXH SDUD KDEODU GHO SUREOHPD KDELWDFLRQDO HQ /LPD0HWURSROLWDQDGHEHPRVUHFRUGDUTXHpVWDSXHGHOOHJDUDVHUXQRGHORVELHQHVPiVFRVWRVRVDOTXHODVIDPLOLDVSXHGHQDVSLUDU7HQHUYLYLHQGDSURSLDVLJQLILFDXQLPSRUWDQWHGHVSOLHJXHGHUHFXUVRV HPSH]DQGR SRU HO DFFHVR DO VXHOR
  86. 86. VDFULILFLRV TXH QR SUHFLVDPHQWH ULQGHQ VXVIUXWRV HQ XQ FRUWR SOD]R SRU OR TXH OD LQLFLDWLYD WDQWR SULYDGD FRPR HVWDWDO VH HQFXHQWUDSURPRYLHQGRGHVDUUROODQGRVLVWHPDVILQDQFLHURVHVSHFtILFRVSDUDSURPRYHUHODFFHVRDHOOD30 Revisar: Sánchez y Calderón (1987).31 La política de gestión del acceso al suelo urbano ha atravesado modificaciones significativas. La primera, es que al interior del aparato del Estado los aspectos referidos al suelo urbano vienen siendo recuperados por el gobierno central. La segunda, es que el gobierno central prioriza la política de regularización del suelo (propiedad y consolidación) por sobre los programas de acceso al suelo. Por tanto, la nueva política de gestión del suelo urbano se expresa en modificaciones sustantivas al marco jurídico, cuyo origen se da a partir de 1993, con la aprobación de la nueva Constitución. Esta Ley de Leyes, propuso un patrón liberalizador hacia los agentes económicos. Con relación a las atribuciones municipales parece que a éstas solo se les dio una referencia genérica a diferencia de la Constitución de 1979 que detallaba las funciones municipales y otorgaba, por tanto, una suerte de “garantía constitucional” a su validez. Calderón J. (1999).
  87. 87. (OWHPDGHYLYLHQGDHVXQWHPDGHSROtWLFDXUEDQDHOFXDOSXHGHGDUFXHQWDGH FyPRODV PRGLILFDFLRQHV GH OD HVWUXFWXUD ItVLFD GH OD FLXGDG SURGXFWR GH ODV PRGLILFDFLRQHV HQ HOVHFWRU SURGXFWLYR GHPDQGDQ GH XQD PDRU SUHVHQFLD SDUWLFLSDFLyQ GHO (VWDGR 6LQHPEDUJRODSUHVHQFLDGHO(VWDGRD~QQRHVFRQFUHWDDQWHHVWDVLWXDFLyQ DTXHUHFRQRFHUODSRVHVLyQGHXQDYLYLHQGDHOGHUHFKRDDFFHGHUDpVWDJDUDQWL]DWHQHUXQHVSDFLRHQODFLXGDGTXHFRQVWLWXHXQDFXHVWLyQHOHPHQWDOGHGHUHFKRVKXPDQRVTXHVHYXOQHUDGtDDGtD(QHOFDVR GH ORV VHFWRUHV SRSXODUHV FXDQGR HVWH GHUHFKR VH RWRUJD VyOR VH OHV SURSRUFLRQD HODFFHVR GH SRGHU RFXSDU ³XQ HVSDFLR´ HQ ODV iUHDV PDUJLQDOHV GH OD FLXGDG HQ OXJDUHV³LQDGHFXDGRV´TXHQRJDUDQWL]DQODVFRQGLFLRQHVPtQLPDVSDUDODYLGDGHWRGRVHUKXPDQR 3RU WDQWR OD IXQFLyQ UHJXODGRUD SURPRWRUD GHO (VWDGR HQ HO VHFWRU YLYLHQGD FRQVWUXFFLyQQROOHJDDGHPRVWUDUWHQHUHIHFWRVSUiFWLFRVFRQORVTXHJDUDQWLFHQWRWDOPHQWHRHQ EXHQD SDUWH GHPDQGDV GH YLYLHQGD (Q UHODFLyQ D HVDV GHPDQGDV HV QHFHVDULR WHQHUSUHVHQWH HO SURFHVR GH XUEDQL]DFLyQ GH ORV WHUUHQRV TXH KDQ KHFKR TXH D QLYHO HVSDFLDO GHPRJUiILFR QR VyOR FUH]FD OD FLXGDG VLQR TXH ODV YLYLHQGDV KDDQ DSDUHFLGR VH KDDQ³FRQVWUXLGR´ HQ IXQFLyQ GHODVQHFHVLGDGHVGHODSREODFLyQGHORVGLYHUVRVVHFWRUHVVRFLDOHVFRPRGHPDQGDJHQHUDO (O SURFHVR GH XUEDQL]DFLyQ GH WHUUHQRV OODPD OD DWHQFLyQ SXHV DSDUHFHQFRQMXQWDPHQWHFRQpVWRVDFWRUHVTXHGLQDPL]DQODSHUFHSFLyQTXHVHWLHQHVREUHHOSURFHVRGHDGTXLVLFLyQ GH OD YLYLHQGD /RV DFWRUHV TXH VH HQFXHQWUDQ GHWUiV GH OD DGTXLVLFLyQ GH XQDYLYLHQGDYDUtDQHQIXQFLyQGHORVUHFXUVRVTXHWHQJDQDVXGLVSRVLFLyQODVSHUVRQDVSDUDHVWHILQ (Q OtQHDV JHQHUDOHV HVWRV VHUtDQ ORV VLJXLHQWHV HO IXWXUR SURSLHWDULR GHO WHUUHQR ODHPSUHVDFRQVWUXFWRUDODVHQWLGDGHVILQDQFLHUDVHQWLGDGHVSULYDGDVRHVWDWDOHV
  88. 88. TXHPHGLDQWHSUpVWDPRVDXGDQDFRQVHJXLUDORVIXWXURVEHQHILFLDULRVODFDQWLGDGQHFHVDULDSDUDFRQVHJXLUVXYLYLHQGDHOYHQGHGRUGHOWHUUHQRRFDVDTXHRIHUWDHOORWHRHOLQPXHEOHILQDOPHQWHHOHVSDFLR R WHUUHQR SDUD OD YLYLHQGD 3XHGHQ ³DSDUHFHU´ R ³GHVDSDUHFHU´ RWURV DFWRUHV HQ HOSURFHVRGHSHQGLHQGRGHODVLWXDFLyQTXHVHSUHVHQWHHQHOPRPHQWRGHODDGTXLVLFLyQGHOORWHSHURHVWRVVRQORVPiVLPSRUWDQWHV32 El proceso de urbanización de los terrenos se asocia con el proceso de adquisición de una vivienda pues genera cambios en el crecimiento de las ciudades y la urbanización de actividades económicas que se vuelven motivadoras e impulsadoras, generando, en algunos casos, satisfacción de la necesidad de vivienda en la población.
  89. 89. $QWH HO HVFHQDULR GHVFULWR OtQHDV DUULED OD ILJXUD GHO (VWDGR DSDUHFH D WUDYpV GHO0LQLVWHULR GH 9LYLHQGD RQVWUXFFLyQ 6DQHDPLHQWR FRPR HQWH FHQWUDOL]DGRU TXH DSXQWD DVROXFLRQDU ODV GHPDQGD GH YLYLHQGD GH OD SREODFLyQ 3RU RWUR ODGR GHVFHQWUDOL]DQGR HOSURFHVR GH DGTXLVLFLyQ GH YLYLHQGD SHUR VLJXLHQGR HQ OD OtQHD GHO (VWDGR VH HQFXHQWUD OD0XQLFLSDOLGDG TXH FRQ ORV DxRV HV XQD LQVWLWXFLyQ TXH KD SHUGLGR LPSXOVR /RV JRELHUQRVUHJLRQDOHV KDQ VLGR GHMDGRV GH ODGR HQ OD SUiFWLFD (O DSRUWH GHO SUHVXSXHVWR D ODVPXQLFLSDOLGDGHV
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  91. 91. $FWXDOPHQWH VH EXVFD WUDEDMDU HQ OD PHMRUD GH XQ SURFHVR GH GHVFHQWUDOL]DFLyQ PiVDXVSLFLRVR /DSURSXHVWDGHPHMRUDUODVLWXDFLyQGHOD0XQLFLSDOLGDGVHHQPDUFDHQHOREMHWLYRGHTXH pVWD SXHGD DILDQ]DU VX URO FRPR LQVWLWXFLyQ TXH DFW~H FRPR UHJXODGRUD ILVFDOL]DGRUDSDUD TXH ORV XUEDQL]DGRUHV FXPSODQ FRQ ORV GLVSRVLWLYRV YLJHQWHV VREUH OD XUEDQL]DFLyQ GHWHUUHQRVTXHOHMRVGHDXGDUDVROXFLRQDUODSUREOHPiWLFDGHYLYLHQGDSURSLFLDQGHVDFXHUGRVFRQIOLFWRVDQWHODQHJDWLYDGHODVROXFLyQGHODGHPDQGDGHYLYLHQGD 7HQLHQGRHQFXHQWDORGHVFULWROtQHDVDUULEDODFRQFHSFLyQGHYLYLHQGDWLHQHXQDJUDQFRPSOHMLGDG SXGLHQGR JHQHUDU HQ OD SREODFLyQ P~OWLSOHV H[SHFWDWLYDV HQ IXQFLyQ GH ODE~VTXHGDGHODVDWLVIDFFLyQGHpVWDHQHOVLJQLILFDGRTXHODYLYLHQGDJHQHUDHQODSREODFLyQPLVPD 3RU HO ODGR GH ODV QHFHVLGDGHV EiVLFDV VRQ DTXHOODV TXH VRQ YLWDOHV GH JUDQLPSRUWDQFLDSDUDODVREUHYLYHQFLDGHODVSHUVRQDVJDUDQWL]DQGR³PtQLPDPHQWH´ODH[LVWHQFLDGHXQDSREODFLyQHQFRQGLFLRQHVDGHFXDGDVGHYLGD/DDOLPHQWDFLyQODVDOXGODHGXFDFLyQHOYHVWLGRODYLYLHQGDVRQODVQHFHVLGDGHVSULPDULDVSRUH[FHOHQFLDSDUDHVWDLQYHVWLJDFLyQVHWUDEDMDUiFRQXQDGHHOODVODYLYLHQGDHOVLJQLILFDGRTXHWUDHFRQVLJRDGTXLULUXQD33 La ley de Bases de la Descentralización y la Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales, la Ley 27972 – Ley Orgánica de Municipalidades ha consagrado un rol mucho más activo y promotor a los gobiernos locales, señalando en su Título Preliminar la responsabilidad del desarrollo local, económico y social. Asimismo, en una perspectiva de integralidad, los gobiernos locales deberán promover capacidades locales y condiciones de equidad en sus respectivas circunscripciones.
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  128. 128. (QWRQFHV D OR ODUJR GH ORV GLYHUVRV JRELHUQRV VREUH ORV FXDOHV VH KD WUDEDMDGR HVWDLQYHVWLJDFLyQODVSHUFHSFLRQHVGHORVHQWUHYLVWDGRVYDQGHVGHODDFHSWDFLyQSDUFLDOSDVDQGRSRUXQD³IRU]DGD´FRQILDQ]DHQHO(VWDGRGHTXLHQVHHVSHUDFXPSODVXSURPHVDGHYLYLHQGDKDVWD XQD LQFUHGXOLGDG WRWDO (Q HVWH PDUFR HO KDFHU PHQFLyQ GH XQD SROtWLFD VRFLDO GHYLYLHQGDQRVOOHYDDHQWHQGHUPHGLDQWHORVWHVWLPRQLRV GHVFULWRVOtQHDVDUULEDHOWUDEDMRFDVLQXORGHO(VWDGRHQUHODFLyQDODSRVLEOHFRQVWUXFFLyQGHXQDSROtWLFDVRFLDOGHYLYLHQGD 6L KDFHPRV UHIHUHQFLD DO PDUFR OHJDO GH OD YLYLHQGD HQ WDQWR ³GHUHFKR GH OD SHUVRQDGHEHPRVUHFRUGDUORVLJXLHQWHHO(VWDGRHQODRQVWLWXFLyQGH7tWXOR,FDStWXOR,,GHOD)DPLOLDHQHODUWtFXORGLFH³HVGHUHFKRGHODIDPLOLDFRQWDUFRQXQDYLYLHQGDGHFRURVD´(Q HO FDStWXOR ,,, GH OD 6HJXULGDG 6RFLDO 6DOXG %LHQHVWDU HQ HO DUWtFXOR FRQWLQ~DGLFLHQGR ³(O (VWDGR DWLHQGH SUHIHUHQWHPHQWH ODV QHFHVLGDGHV EiVLFDV GH OD SHUVRQD GH VXIDPLOLDHQPDWHULDGHDOLPHQWDFLyQYLYLHQGDUHFUHDFLyQ´39 Para proteger la identidad de nuestros entrevistados, en los testimonios sus nombres han sido cambiados por otros.
  129. 129. (QODRQVWLWXFLyQGH7tWXOR,FDStWXOR,HUHFKRVIXQGDPHQWDOHVGHODSHUVRQDDUWtFXORH[SUHVD³7RGDSHUVRQDWLHQHGHUHFKRDODSURSLHGDGDODKHUHQFLD´ /DGLIHUHQFLDHQWUHDPEDVFRQVWLWXFLRQHVQRVOOHYDDWHQHUHQFXHQWDTXHODYLYLHQGDKDGHMDGRGHVHUXQGHUHFKR(QODRQVWLWXFLyQGHVHKDEODFRQPiVFODULGDGGHODYLYLHQGDGHFyPRHO(VWDGRGHEHDWHQGHU³SUHIHUHQWHPHQWH´DHVWDQHFHVLGDGEiVLFDHQXQFLDGRTXHHVPXHVFXHWRHQODRQVWLWXFLyQGH%DMRHVWHPDUFRODPDRUtDGHORVHQWUHYLVWDGRVQRWLHQHQHQFODURTXHODYLYLHQGDHVXQGHUHFKRGHODSHUVRQDTXHVLELHQHVFLHUWRHO(VWDGRQRQHFHVDULDPHQWH GHEHSURSRUFLRQDUODVLQR³FUHDUFRQGLFLRQHV´SDUDSRGHUPHMRUDUODVLWXDFLyQGHODSREODFLyQGHELGRDODFDUHQFLDGHpVWD$OJXQRVHQWUHYLVWDGRVSLHQVDQTXHODYLYLHQGDHVXQGHUHFKRTXHFRPRWDOHVHO(VWDGRHOHQFDUJDGRGHFXEULUHVWDQHFHVLGDG3HURDODYH]WDPELpQHVFLHUWRTXHH[LJLUXQDYLYLHQGDGLJQDWDPELpQHVSDUWHGHVXVGHUHFKRVHVIRU]DUVHSDUDFRQVHJXLUODHVSDUWHGHVXUHVSRQVDELOLGDGFRPRSHUVRQDVFLXGDGDQRV /R TXH REVHUYDPRV HV TXH OD ³FRQFLHQFLD GH GHUHFKR D OD YLYLHQGD´ TXH SRVHHQ ORVFLXGDGDQRV YD GHVGH SHUFHSFLRQHV SDWHUQDOLVWDV KDFLD HO (VWDGR QR EHQHILFLDULRV GHO3URJUDPD 7HFKR 3URSLR HXGD HUR
  130. 130. KDVWD SHUFHSFLRQHVGRQGH SLHQVDQHQ HO YDORU GH HOORVPLVPRVFRPRSHUVRQDVSDUDFRQVHJXLUXQDYLYLHQGDGHO(VWDGRFRPRLQVWLWXFLyQTXHDXGHDFRQVHJXLUVXPHWDGHODYLYLHQGDEHQHILFLDULRVGHO3URJUDPD7HFKR3URSLRHXGDHUR
  131. 131. R SLHQVR TXH OD YLYLHQGD Vt HV XQ GHUHFKR TXH HO (VWDGR GHEH DXGDUQRV TXH HV VX REOLJDFLyQ HVR DSDUHFH HQ OD FRQVWLWXFLyQ DUORV DxRV 1%73 ± 1XHYR 3DFKDF~WHF
  132. 132. 7HQHUYLYLHQGDVtHVXQGHUHFKRSHURHO(VWDGRRVHDRSLGRHO(VWDGRPHORGDWDPSRFR FUHRTXHHVDVtHVRDGHSHQGHGHFDGDXQRSHURVVtHO(VWDGRGHEHGDUIDFLOLGDGHVSDUD WHQHUYLYLHQGDSURSLD5RVD DxRV %73± 1XHYR3DFKDF~WHF
  133. 133. (VDVtFRPRODSUHVHQFLDGHO(VWDGRHQHVWRV~OWLPRVDxRVUHVSHFWRDYLYLHQGDQRVHKDYLVWR FRQFUHWDPHQWH 6L ELHQ HV FLHUWR VH FUHDURQ GLYHUVRV WLSRV GH 3URJUDPDV GH YLYLHQGD352)$0)21$9,0L9LYLHQGD7HFKR3URSLR
  134. 134. TXHSXHGHQDXGDUDDGTXLULURDPHMRUDUODYLYLHQGDVyORKDQOOHJDGRDVHUVROXFLRQHVPRPHQWiQHDV7HQHPRVODSUHVHQFLDGHGLYHUVRV3URJUDPDVGH9LYLHQGDSHURD~QQRFRQWDPRVFRQXQDHVWUXFWXUDOLQHDPLHQWRVOHHVQRUPDVTXHSURPXHYDQXQDSROtWLFDVRFLDOGHYLYLHQGDRGHTXHDOPHQRVJDUDQWLFHQVXFRQWLQXLGDGTXH QR ILQDOLFHQ FRQ HO WpUPLQR GH FDGD JRELHUQR TXH OH SHUPLWD D OD SREODFLyQ SRGHUVDWLVIDFHUODGHPDQGDEiVLFDGHYLYLHQGDSURSLDTXHSDUDODVSHUVRQDVHQJHQHUDOSURSRUFLRQDVHJXULGDGFRPRGLGDGHVWDELOLGDG

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