Business Process Configurationin the CloudHow to Support and Analyze Multi-Tenant Processes?Invited Talk ECOWS, September ...
It is not just about technology …                                    PAGE 1
Are you afraid tolook at reality?                    It is also                    about                    processes!    ...
Also applies     Processes!!to cloudcomputing!                  Dealing with                    variabilityNot just aboutt...
Newopportunities!      Cross-organizational        process mining!!                             PAGE 4
The need for configurable process      models: CoSeLoG project+/- 430 Dutch                                          PAGE ...
The need for configurable process  models: Suncorp caseEnd to end process has between 250-1000 process steps       Product...
Two variants of the same process …                                     PAGE 7
Variation points   … in the cloud                                    PAGE 8
Cloud computing                  PAGE 9
Traditional SituationIS = Information SystemE = Event logM = Models                          PAGE 10
Example Acknowledgement of an Unborn Child• Same but different …• “Couleur Locale”• Different from NVVB  models.• Configur...
Using SaaS TechnologyIS-SaaS = Information System (using a SaaS-based BPMS)E = Event logCM = Configurable ModelsC = Config...
Process Mining: Before         IS1              IS2              ISn    E1          M1   E2          M2   En          Mn  ...
Process Mining: Aftercross-organizational process mining   PAGE 14
Configuration
Positioning of ConfigurationSome quotes from Michelangelo• “Every block of stone has a statue  inside it and it is the tas...
Life is about making choices …                                 PAGE 17
Time and artifacts • Design time (generic model, i.e., is   not released for instantiation) • Configuration time (specific...
Continuum•   In The Netherlands, …•   In Brisbane, …•   When the sun shines, …•   On Sunday, …•   When very busy, …•   For...
Hiding and blocking                      Configuration = limiting behavior !                                          Acti...
Configurable Process Models    C-EPCC-Petri Net  C-YAWL                                                          C-LTS   C...
Inheritance of dynamic behavior              Inheritance            Inheritance             Configuration           Config...
Configuration Techniques • Blocking   (removing an option) • Hiding   (skipping activities)                               ...
Processmining Desire lines in process models                                  PAGE 24
Data explosion                 PAGE 25
Process Mining =     Event Data + Processes  Data Mining + Process AnalysisMachine Learning + Formal Methods              ...
Process Mining
Starting point: event log                        XES, MXML, SA-MXML, CSV, etc.                                            ...
Simplified event log                       a = register request,                       b = examine thoroughly,            ...
Processdiscovery            PAGE 30
Conformancechecking              case 7: e is               executed                without                             ca...
Extension: Adding perspectives tomodel based on event log                                    PAGE 32
We applied ProM in >100 organizations• Municipalities (e.g., Alkmaar, Heusden, Harderwijk, etc.)• Government agencies (e.g...
All supported by …• Open-source (L-GPL), cf. www.processmining.org• Plug-in architecture• Plug-ins cover the whole process...
Towards Maturity …• IEEE Task Force on Process Mining    − Software vendors (Pallas Athena, IDS Scheer/Software AG, Futura...
How can process mining help?• Detect bottlenecks        • Provide mirror• Detect deviations         • Highlight important•...
PAGE 37
Example of a Lasagna process: WMO    process of a Dutch municipalityEach line corresponds to one of the 528 requests that ...
WMO process  (Wet Maatschappelijke Ondersteuning)• WMO refers to the social support act that came into  force in The Nethe...
C-net discovered usingheuristic miner (1/3)                         PAGE 40
C-net discovered usingheuristic miner (2/3)                         PAGE 41
C-net discovered usingheuristic miner (3/3)                         PAGE 42
Conformance check WMO process (1/3)                                  PAGE 43
Conformance check WMO process (2/3)                                  PAGE 44
Conformance check WMO process (3/3)            The fitness of the discovered            process is 0.99521667. Of the 528 ...
Bottleneck analysis WMO process (1/3)                                        PAGE 46
Bottleneck analysis WMO process (2/3)                                        PAGE 47
Bottleneck analysis WMO process (3/3)flow time ofapprox. 25 dayswith a standarddeviation ofapprox. 28                     ...
Two additional Lasagna processes                                   RWS                            (“Rijkswaterstaat”)     ...
RWS Process• The Dutch national public works department, called  “Rijkswaterstaat” (RWS), has twelve provincial offices.  ...
C-net discovered using heuristic miner                                         PAGE 51
Social network constructed based onhandovers of work                          Each of the 271 nodes                       ...
Social network consisting of civil servants thatexecuted more than 2000 activities in a 9 month period.                   ...
WOZ process• Event log containing information about 745 objections  against the so-called WOZ (“Waardering Onroerende  Zak...
Discovered process modelThe log contains events related to 745 objections against theso-called WOZ valuation. These 745 ob...
Conformance checker:(fitness is 0.98876214)                          PAGE 56
Performance analysis                       PAGE 57
Resource-activity matrix(four groups discovered)                           PAGE 58
PAGE 59
Example of a Spaghetti processSpaghetti process describing the diagnosis and treatment of 2765patients in a Dutch hospital...
Fragment18 activities of the 619 activities (2.9%)                                             PAGE 61
Another example(event log of Dutch housing agency)   The event log contains 208   cases that generated 5987   events. Ther...
PAGE 63
Cross-organizational      mining                   PAGE 64
From one to many organizations• More than 80,000 organizations are using Salesforce• More than 1 million organizations are...
Consider n organizations                           PAGE 66
Cross-organizational process mining              event     processprocess 1              log 1     model 1                ...
Pure model-based     PM1 + PM2 + … + PMn = CM                                PAGE 68
Pure log-based   α(EL1 + EL2 + … + ELn) = CM                                 PAGE 69
How to find and                                              How to merge   Questionscharacterize                         ...
Evidence-based “best practices”• Organizations can learn from each other.• Configuration support and diagnostics.• Softwar...
About the paper …                                        C-nets!                                                       XOR...
Merging made easy          book flight                                        book flight                        b        ...
Interested ….                PAGE 74
Conclusion                 book flight                               b          a                    c         e        st...
www.processmining.org  www.win.tue.nl/ieeetfpm/                             PAGE 76
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Business Process Configuration in the Cloud: How to Support and Analyze Multi-Tenant Processes?

  1. 1. Business Process Configurationin the CloudHow to Support and Analyze Multi-Tenant Processes?Invited Talk ECOWS, September 15th 2011, Lugano, Switzerlandprof.dr.ir. Wil van der Aalstwww.processmining.org
  2. 2. It is not just about technology … PAGE 1
  3. 3. Are you afraid tolook at reality? It is also about processes! PAGE 2
  4. 4. Also applies Processes!!to cloudcomputing! Dealing with variabilityNot just abouttechnology/ Processinfrastructure variants/ configuration PAGE 3
  5. 5. Newopportunities! Cross-organizational process mining!! PAGE 4
  6. 6. The need for configurable process models: CoSeLoG project+/- 430 Dutch PAGE 5municipalities
  7. 7. The need for configurable process models: Suncorp caseEnd to end process has between 250-1000 process steps Product Sales Service Claims 500 Dev steps• 25+ steps • 50+ steps • 75+ steps • 100+ steps Sources: Guidewire reference models, GIO CISSS Project, CI US&S P4PI Project Home       Motor         30 Commercial      variations Liability      CTP / WC      PAGE 6Thanks to Marcello La Rosa
  8. 8. Two variants of the same process … PAGE 7
  9. 9. Variation points … in the cloud PAGE 8
  10. 10. Cloud computing PAGE 9
  11. 11. Traditional SituationIS = Information SystemE = Event logM = Models PAGE 10
  12. 12. Example Acknowledgement of an Unborn Child• Same but different …• “Couleur Locale”• Different from NVVB models.• Configurable process models! PAGE 11
  13. 13. Using SaaS TechnologyIS-SaaS = Information System (using a SaaS-based BPMS)E = Event logCM = Configurable ModelsC = Configuration PAGE 12
  14. 14. Process Mining: Before IS1 IS2 ISn E1 M1 E2 M2 En Mn Processes Processes Processes Municipality 1 Municipality 2 Municipality n PAGE 13
  15. 15. Process Mining: Aftercross-organizational process mining PAGE 14
  16. 16. Configuration
  17. 17. Positioning of ConfigurationSome quotes from Michelangelo• “Every block of stone has a statue inside it and it is the task of the sculptor to discover it.”• “I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free.”• “Carving is easy, you just go down to the skin and stop.” Michelangelos David
  18. 18. Life is about making choices … PAGE 17
  19. 19. Time and artifacts • Design time (generic model, i.e., is not released for instantiation) • Configuration time (specific model, i.e., can be instantiated) • Instantiation time (specific model + instance) • Run time (specific model + instance + state/partial trace) • Auditing time (specific model + instance + full trace) PAGE 18
  20. 20. Continuum• In The Netherlands, …• In Brisbane, …• When the sun shines, …• On Sunday, …• When very busy, …• For these customers, … Branching structure• … PAGE 19
  21. 21. Hiding and blocking Configuration = limiting behavior ! Activate Hide/skip Block PAGE 20
  22. 22. Configurable Process Models C-EPCC-Petri Net C-YAWL C-LTS C-BPEL Configuration Blocking Hiding EPC a b c Petri Net e l YAWL g m i n LTS BPEL o p PAGE 21
  23. 23. Inheritance of dynamic behavior Inheritance Inheritance Configuration ConfigurationVariant ASuperclass Subclass Reference Model Superclass Variant B PAGE 22
  24. 24. Configuration Techniques • Blocking (removing an option) • Hiding (skipping activities) τ τBlocking and hiding are the τessential concepts of configuration.“Every block of stone has a statue insideit and it is the task of the sculptor todiscover it.” PAGE 23
  25. 25. Processmining Desire lines in process models PAGE 24
  26. 26. Data explosion PAGE 25
  27. 27. Process Mining = Event Data + Processes Data Mining + Process AnalysisMachine Learning + Formal Methods PAGE 26
  28. 28. Process Mining
  29. 29. Starting point: event log XES, MXML, SA-MXML, CSV, etc. PAGE 28
  30. 30. Simplified event log a = register request, b = examine thoroughly, c = examine casually, d = check ticket, e = decide, f = reinitiate request, g = pay compensation, and h = reject request PAGE 29
  31. 31. Processdiscovery PAGE 30
  32. 32. Conformancechecking case 7: e is executed without case 8: g or being h is missing enabled case 10: e is missing in second round PAGE 31
  33. 33. Extension: Adding perspectives tomodel based on event log PAGE 32
  34. 34. We applied ProM in >100 organizations• Municipalities (e.g., Alkmaar, Heusden, Harderwijk, etc.)• Government agencies (e.g., Rijkswaterstaat, Centraal Justitieel Incasso Bureau, Justice department)• Insurance related agencies (e.g., UWV)• Banks (e.g., ING Bank)• Hospitals (e.g., AMC hospital, Catharina hospital)• Multinationals (e.g., DSM, Deloitte)• High-tech system manufacturers and their customers (e.g., Philips Healthcare, ASML, Ricoh, Thales)• Media companies (e.g. Winkwaves)• ... PAGE 33
  35. 35. All supported by …• Open-source (L-GPL), cf. www.processmining.org• Plug-in architecture• Plug-ins cover the whole process mining spectrum and also support classical forms of process analysis PAGE 34
  36. 36. Towards Maturity …• IEEE Task Force on Process Mining − Software vendors (Pallas Athena, IDS Scheer/Software AG, Futura Process Intelligence, HP, IBM, Infosys, Fluxicon, Businesscape, Iontas, Fujitsu, Business Process Mining) − Consultancy (Some of the above and ProcessGold, Business Process Trends, Gartner, Deloitte, Rabobank) − Universities (TU/e, University of Padua, University of Catalunya, New Mexico State University, Technical University of Lisbon, University of Calabria, Penn State University, University of Bari, Humboldt-Universität, Queensland University of Technology, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Stevens Institute of Technology, University of Haifa, Seoul National University of Technology, Cranfield University, K.U.Leuven, Tsinghua University, Innsbruck University)• Various tools: ARIS Process Performance Manager (Software AG), Comprehend (Open Connect), Discovery Analyst (Stereo-LOGIC), Flow (Fourspark), Futura Reflect (Futura Process Intelligence), Interstage Automated Process Discovery (Fujitsu), OKT Process Mining suite (Exeura), Process Discovery Focus (Iontas/ Verint), ProcessAnalyzer (QPR), ProM (TU/e), Rbminer/Dbminer (UPC), and Reflect|one (Pallas Athena). PAGE 35
  37. 37. How can process mining help?• Detect bottlenecks • Provide mirror• Detect deviations • Highlight important• Performance problems measurement • Avoid ICT failures• Suggest improvements • Avoid management by• Decision support (e.g., PowerPoint recommendation and • From “politics” to prediction) “analytics” PAGE 36
  38. 38. PAGE 37
  39. 39. Example of a Lasagna process: WMO process of a Dutch municipalityEach line corresponds to one of the 528 requests that werehandled in the period from 4-1-2009 until 28-2-2010. In totalthere are 5498 events represented as dots. The mean timeneeded to handled a case is approximately 25 days. PAGE 38
  40. 40. WMO process (Wet Maatschappelijke Ondersteuning)• WMO refers to the social support act that came into force in The Netherlands on January 1st, 2007.• The aim of this act is to assist people with disabilities and impairments. Under the act, local authorities are required to give support to those who need it, e.g., household help, providing wheelchairs and scootmobiles, and adaptations to homes.• There are different processes for the different kinds of help. We focus on the process for handling requests for household help.• In a period of about one year, 528 requests for household WMO support were received.• These 528 requests generated 5498 events. PAGE 39
  41. 41. C-net discovered usingheuristic miner (1/3) PAGE 40
  42. 42. C-net discovered usingheuristic miner (2/3) PAGE 41
  43. 43. C-net discovered usingheuristic miner (3/3) PAGE 42
  44. 44. Conformance check WMO process (1/3) PAGE 43
  45. 45. Conformance check WMO process (2/3) PAGE 44
  46. 46. Conformance check WMO process (3/3) The fitness of the discovered process is 0.99521667. Of the 528 cases, 496 cases fit perfectly whereas for 32 cases there are missing or remaining tokens. PAGE 45
  47. 47. Bottleneck analysis WMO process (1/3) PAGE 46
  48. 48. Bottleneck analysis WMO process (2/3) PAGE 47
  49. 49. Bottleneck analysis WMO process (3/3)flow time ofapprox. 25 dayswith a standarddeviation ofapprox. 28 PAGE 48
  50. 50. Two additional Lasagna processes RWS (“Rijkswaterstaat”) process WOZ (“Waardering Onroerende Zaken”) process PAGE 49
  51. 51. RWS Process• The Dutch national public works department, called “Rijkswaterstaat” (RWS), has twelve provincial offices. We analyzed the handling of invoices in one of these offices.• The office employs about 1,000 civil servants and is primarily responsible for the construction and maintenance of the road and water infrastructure in its province.• To perform its functions, the RWS office subcontracts various parties such as road construction companies, cleaning companies, and environmental bureaus. Also, it purchases services and products to support its construction, maintenance, and administrative activities. PAGE 50
  52. 52. C-net discovered using heuristic miner PAGE 51
  53. 53. Social network constructed based onhandovers of work Each of the 271 nodes corresponds to a civil servant. Two civil servants are connected if one executed an activity causally following an activity executed by the other civil servant PAGE 52
  54. 54. Social network consisting of civil servants thatexecuted more than 2000 activities in a 9 month period. The darker arcs indicate the strongest relationships in the social network. Nodes having the same color belong to the same clique. PAGE 53
  55. 55. WOZ process• Event log containing information about 745 objections against the so-called WOZ (“Waardering Onroerende Zaken”) valuation.• Dutch municipalities need to estimate the value of houses and apartments. The WOZ value is used as a basis for determining the real-estate property tax.• The higher the WOZ value, the more tax the owner needs to pay. Therefore, there are many objections (i.e., appeals) of citizens that assert that the WOZ value is too high.• “WOZ process” discovered for another municipality (i.e., different from the one for which we analyzed the WMO process). PAGE 54
  56. 56. Discovered process modelThe log contains events related to 745 objections against theso-called WOZ valuation. These 745 objections generated 9583events. There are 13 activities. For 12 of these activities bothstart and complete events are recorded. Hence, the WF-net has PAGE 5525 transitions.
  57. 57. Conformance checker:(fitness is 0.98876214) PAGE 56
  58. 58. Performance analysis PAGE 57
  59. 59. Resource-activity matrix(four groups discovered) PAGE 58
  60. 60. PAGE 59
  61. 61. Example of a Spaghetti processSpaghetti process describing the diagnosis and treatment of 2765patients in a Dutch hospital. The process model was constructedbased on an event log containing 114,592 events. There are 619different activities (taking event types into account) executed by 266different individuals (doctors, nurses, etc.). PAGE 60
  62. 62. Fragment18 activities of the 619 activities (2.9%) PAGE 61
  63. 63. Another example(event log of Dutch housing agency) The event log contains 208 cases that generated 5987 events. There are 74 different activities. PAGE 62
  64. 64. PAGE 63
  65. 65. Cross-organizational mining PAGE 64
  66. 66. From one to many organizations• More than 80,000 organizations are using Salesforce• More than 1 million organizations are using Google Apps• All 430 Dutch municipalities are implementing the same set of processes• All 94 U.S. District Courts in the United States share the same set of workflows• All car-rental offices of Hertz, Avis, …• … PAGE 65
  67. 67. Consider n organizations PAGE 66
  68. 68. Cross-organizational process mining event processprocess 1 log 1 model 1 C event process (configurable)process 2 C log 2 model 2 process model event processprocess n C log n model n event log PAGE 67
  69. 69. Pure model-based PM1 + PM2 + … + PMn = CM PAGE 68
  70. 70. Pure log-based α(EL1 + EL2 + … + ELn) = CM PAGE 69
  71. 71. How to find and How to merge Questionscharacterize process models into adifferences among single configurableprocesses using What are the effects of model?event logs? these differences on the event performance of a process process 1 log 1 process?1 model CHow to find and event process (configurable)characterize differences process 2 log 2 model 2 process model Cusing models / How to derive theconfigurations? configuration for a process given a configurable model? event process process n C log n model n How to discover a configurable model from a collection of event log event logs? PAGE 70
  72. 72. Evidence-based “best practices”• Organizations can learn from each other.• Configuration support and diagnostics.• Software vendors/service providers can improve their products/services. PAGE 71
  73. 73. About the paper … C-nets! XOR-split AND-split OR-split input output bindings bindings XOR-join AND-join OR-join• Replay semantics• More suitable for process configuration and process mining PAGE 72
  74. 74. Merging made easy book flight book flight b b a c e a c e start book car complete start book car completebooking booking booking booking d d book flight book hotel b book hotel start complete a d e booking booking Also good representational bias for process mining! PAGE 73
  75. 75. Interested …. PAGE 74
  76. 76. Conclusion book flight b a c e start book car complete booking booking d book hotel PAGE 75
  77. 77. www.processmining.org www.win.tue.nl/ieeetfpm/ PAGE 76
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