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Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013
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Bioinformatics p1-perl-introduction v2013

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Perl, an introduction

Perl, an introduction

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  • 1. FBW 08-10-2013 Wim Van Criekinge
  • 2. Bioinformatics.be • Communiceren van praktische zaken: waar en wanneer gaan de lessen door • Ter beschikking stellen van lesmateriaal • Aanvullend educatief materiaal (FAQ, Web Links) • Practicum opgaven en programmacode Voordelen • Gebruik van het webtechnologie bij het assimileren van de cursus • Veel vragen/antwoorden kunnen interessant voor meerdere mensen, Vermijden van terugkerende vragen • Permante discussie (tijdens het jaar) tussen studenten, prof maar ook thesis en doctoraatsstudenten
  • 3. Practicum • Practicum regeling ? – Inleiding van 45min over de gebruikte editor, programmeertaal, websites – 15min toelichting tot de opgaven – Normaal in PC-zaal D (check bioinformatics.be!) Perl for Bioinformatics Part 1: Beginning Part 2: Mastering
  • 4. Practicum Bioinformatica • Practicum – Inleiding tot Perl – Write your first PERL program ! – Execute your first.pl
  • 5. • Perl is a High-level Scripting language • Larry Wall created Perl in 1987 – Practical Extraction (a)nd Reporting Language – (or Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister) • Born from a system administration tool • Faster than sh or csh • Sslower than C • No need for sed, awk, tr, wc, cut, … • Perl is open and free • http://conferences.oreillynet.com/e urooscon/ What is Perl ?
  • 6. • Perl is available for most computing platforms: all flavors of UNIX (Linux), MS-DOS/Win32, Macintosh, VMS, OS/2, Amiga, AS/400, Atari • Perl is a computer language that is: – Interpreted, compiles at run-time (need for perl.exe !) – Loosely “typed” – String/text oriented – Capable of using multiple syntax formats • In Perl, “there‟s more than one way to do it” What is Perl ?
  • 7. • Ease of use by novice programmers • Flexible language: Fast software prototyping (quick and dirty creation of small analysis programs) • Expressiveness. Compact code, Perl Poetry: @{$_[$#_]||[]} • Glutility: Read disparate files and parse the relevant data into a new format • Powerful pattern matching via “regular expressions” (Best Regular Expressions on Earth) • With the advent of the WWW, Perl has become the language of choice to create Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts to handle form submissions and create compute severs on the WWW. • Open Source – Free. Availability of Perl modules for Bioinformatics and Internet. Why use Perl for bioinformatics ?
  • 8. • Some tasks are still better done with other languages (heavy computations / graphics) – C(++),C#, Fortran, Java (Pascal,Visual Basic) • With perl you can write simple programs fast, but on the other hand it is also suitable for large and complex programs. (yet, it is not adequate for very large projects) – Python • Larry Wall: “For programmers, laziness is a virtue” Why NOT use Perl for bioinformatics ?
  • 9. • Sequence manipulation and analysis • Parsing results of sequence analysis programs (Blast, Genscan, Hmmer etc) • Parsing database (eg Genbank) files • Obtaining multiple database entries over the internet • … What bioinformatics tasks are suited to Perl ?
  • 10. Example of problems we will be solving • Primary Sequence analysis • Perform alignments • Simulation experiments to explain Blast statistics • Predicting protein topology • Predicting secondary structures • “Real-life” problems – Proteomics: Given aa masses find protein in database – …
  • 11. • Perl (op USB): – Perl is available for various operating systems. To download Perl and install it on your computer, have a look at the following resources: – www.perl.com (O'Reilly). • Downloading Perl Software – ActiveState. ActivePerl for Windows, as well as for Linux and Solaris. • ActivePerl binary packages. – CPAN • http://www.bioinformatics.be/n ew/faq/setup/ Perl installation
  • 12. Check installation • Command-line flags for perl – Perl – v • Gives the current version of Perl – Perl –e • Executes Perl statements from the comment line. – Perl –e “print 42;” – Perl –e “print ”Twonlinesn”;” – Perl –we • Executes and print warnings – Perl –we “print „hello‟;x++;”
  • 13. How to enter your first program ? • Gebruik een editor – DOS: EDIT – Windows: • NOTEPAD (Let op!) • Word(Pad) -> TEXT FILE – Scite: http://www.scintilla.org/SciTE.html – Textpad – Others • VIM • Eclipse
  • 14. Path:  Route followed by OS to locate, save, and/or retrieve a file Brief Introduction to Subdirectories—The Path
  • 15. • Probleem – Ofwel kan je perl starten – Ofwel kan je het script niet vinden – Ofwel kan je een file nodig in het script niet vinden • Oplossing – Don‟t panic ! – Gebruikt absolute path-namen • D:Perlbinperl.exe D:tempTest.pl – Let wel in je script met je de slash “escape” • $filename = “d:Temppdb.fasta” Het absolute pad probleem …
  • 16. • Oplossingen (II) – Kopieer al de files in dezelfde directory ! – Dus als je perl start vanuit D:Perlbin met perl kan je wel verwijzen naar D:Temptest.pl maar dan moet ook de absolute verwijzing gebruikt worden voor $filename ofwel moet je pdb.fasta copieren naar D:PerlBin – Pas het zoekpad aan zodat je perl overal kan starten • Path (geeft het zoekpad) • Set Path (past het pad aan, Voorzichtig !). Gebruik de dos environment variabele %path% om een directory toe te voegen • Set path=%path%;d:Perlbin • (nadien kan de aanpassing controleren door “path” uit te voeren)
  • 17. Keyboard:  Standard input device Screen:  Standard output device Redirection Redirection . . .  changes output from monitor to somewhere else (usually file or printer).
  • 18. Textpad Minimal install: via Minerva save file textpad.be to your folder. Create system folder in the same location. In system folder save plumb.exe (Minerva) and perl syntax files (textpad.com) • Syntax Highlighting – Document Class • Launch Perl – Tools
  • 19. Perl
  • 20. • Perl is mostly a free format language: add spaces, tabs or new lines wherever you want. • For clarity, it is recommended to write each statement in a separate line, and use indentation in nested structures. • Comments: Anything from the # sign to the end of the line is a comment. (There are no multi-line comments). • A perl program consists of all of the Perl statements of the file taken collectively as one big routine to execute. General Remarks
  • 21. How does the real perl program look like: #!/usr/local/bin/perl print “Hello everyonen”; Mandatory first line (on UNIX) How to run it: 1. Save the text of your code as a file -- program.pl 2. Execute it: perl program.pl Hello everyone
  • 22. Three Basic Data Types • Scalars - $ • Arrays of scalars - @ • Associative arrays of scalers or Hashes - %
  • 23. 2+2 = ? $a = 2; $b = 2; $c = $a + $b; $ - indicates a variable ; - ends every command = - assigns a value to a variable $c = 2 + 2;or $c = 2 * 2;or $c = 2 / 2;or $c = 2 ^ 4;or 2^4 <-> 24 =16 $c = 1.35 * 2 - 3 / (0.12 + 1);or
  • 24. Ok, $c is 4. How do we know it? print “Hello n”; print command: $c = 4; print “$c”; “ ” - bracket output expression n - print a end-of-the-line character (equivalent to pressing ‘Enter’) print “Hello everyonen”; print “Hello” . ” everyone” . “n”; Strings concatenation: Expressions and strings together: print “2 + 2 = “ . (2+2) . ”n”; expression 2 + 2 = 4
  • 25. Loops and cycles (for statement): # Output all the numbers from 1 to 100 for ($n=1; $n<=100; $n+=1) { print “$n n”; } 1. Initialization: for ( $n=1 ; ; ) { … } 2. Increment: for ( ; ; $n+=1 ) { … } 3. Termination (do until the criteria is satisfied): for ( ; $n<=100 ; ) { … } 4. Body of the loop - command inside curly brackets: for ( ; ; ) { … }
  • 26. FOR & IF -- all the even numbers from 1 to 100: for ($n=1; $n<=100; $n+=1) { if (($n % 2) == 0) { print “$n”; } } Note: $a % $b -- Modulus -- Remainder when $a is divided by $b
  • 27. Two brief diversions (warnings & strict) • Use warnings • strict – forces you to „declare‟ a variable the first time you use it. – usage: use strict; (somewhere near the top of your script) • declare variables with „my‟ – usage: my $variable; – or: my $variable = „value‟; • my sets the „scope‟ of the variable. Variable exists only within the current block of code • use strict and my both help you to debug errors, and help prevent mistakes.
  • 28. Unary Arithmetic Operators eg. Autoincrement ++ • If you place one of the auto operators before the variable, it is known as a pre-incremented (pre-decremented) variable. Its value will be changed before it is referenced. If it is placed after the variable, it is known as a post-incremented (post- decremented) variable and its value is changed after it is used For example: • $a = 5; # $a is assigned 5 • $b = ++$a; # $b is assigned the incremented value of $a, 6 • $c = $a--; # $c is assigned 6, then $a is decremented to 5 #!e:perlbinperl.exe • $getal1 = 5; • print $getal1."n"; • print $getal1++."n"; • print ++$getal1."n";
  • 29. Logical and Comparison operators • Equal (True if $a is equal to $b) – Numeric: == – String: eq • And: && • Or: ||
  • 30. Schuifoperatoren • Schuifoperatoren zijn handing voor manipulaties op bit-niveau: bv 40 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 00 000 1 0 1 0 0 0 Program • $getal1 = 40; • print "/4 ".($getal1 >> 2)."n"; • print "*8 ".($getal1 << 3)."n"; >>2 <<3
  • 31. Text Processing Functions The substr function • Definition • The substr function extracts a substring out of a string and returns it. The function receives 3 arguments: a string value, a position on the string (starting to count from 0) and a length. Example: • $a = "university"; • $k = substr ($a, 3, 5); • $k is now "versi" $a remains unchanged. • If length is omitted, everything to the end of the string is returned.
  • 32. Random #!c:perlbinperl.exe -w #srand(time|$$); $x = rand(1); • srand – The default seed for srand, which used to be time, has been changed. Now it's a heady mix of difficult-to-predict system-dependent values, which should be sufficient for most everyday purposes. Previous to version 5.004, calling rand without first calling srand would yield the same sequence of random numbers on most or all machines. Now, when perl sees that you're calling rand and haven't yet called srand, it calls srand with the default seed. You should still call srand manually if your code might ever be run on a pre-5.004 system, of course, or if you want a seed other than the default
  • 33. • Oefening hoe goed zijn de random nummers ? • Als ze goed zijn kan je er Pi mee berekenen … • Een goede random generator is belangrijk voor goede randomsequenties die we nadien kunnen gebruiken in simulaties
  • 34. Bereken Pi aan de hand van twee random getallen 1 x y

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