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PHP Workshop Notes
 

PHP Workshop Notes

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Put on by USC's Upsilon Pi Epsilon as part of Wonderful World of Web2.0 Workshop Series. http://pollux.usc.edu/~upe/

Put on by USC's Upsilon Pi Epsilon as part of Wonderful World of Web2.0 Workshop Series. http://pollux.usc.edu/~upe/

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    PHP Workshop Notes PHP Workshop Notes Presentation Transcript

    • PHP A scripting language design to produce HTML pages
    • PHP Introduction
      • PHP serves the same purpose as Java Server Pages (JSP) and Active Server Pages (ASP)
      • All are server-side languages “parsed” by a web server
      • Script execution results are sent to a browser as an HTML page
      • PHP is a type-less language
    • PHP Structure
      • Tradition: Start with an HTML file
      • Add special tags to separate PHP code from HTML statements
      • Web server parses the PHP file, producing HTML
      • Now can be used to output XML, image, PDF, just by setting content-type
    • Example: myfirst.php
        • <html>
        • <body>
        • <?php
        • //A comment
        • /*Or comment like this*/
        • print(&quot;<b>Hello world</b>&quot;);
        • $v = 5;
        • print(&quot;<p>Hello again &quot; . $v );
        • print(&quot;<p>Hello a third time $v&quot;);
        • ?>
        • </body>
        • </html>
    • Variables
      • All variables start with a dollar sign, $
        • $u = 5;
        • $v = “hello”;
        • $w = 1.22;
        • $x = $u + $v; //arithmetic with + - ONLY
        • $y = $v . $v; //concatenation with period operator
        • $x = $u . $u; //produces 55, not 10
    • Printing
        • $u = 5;
        • print( “5 hello” ); //print anything in quotes
        • print( $u . “hello” ); //prints 5hello
        • print( “$u Hello” ); //prints 5 Hello
    • String-Related Functions
        • $v = “hello”;
        • strlen( $v); //returns 5
        • trim( $v); //trims any spaces on either side of a string
        • $x = strtolower ($v); //$x has hello
        • $x = strtoupper($v); //$x has HELLO
        • $str = “abcdef”;
        • $a = substr( $str, 3, 3 );
      # of characters to copy Start position, zero indexed Source string “ def” Can be negative to start from right side
    • Getting HTML Form Data
      • There are 3 ways to get form data in PHP
        • Global variables – this is a bad way because of security problems. PHP creates a variable with a name matching the form field name in the source HTML.
        • POST variable associative array
          • Prior to version 4.1, $HTTP_POST_VARS
          • 4.1 and after, $_POST
        • GET variable associative array
          • Same as POST, but use GET
    • Examples
      • Global variables (HTML has field with name ‘abc’)
          • print ($abc);
      • POST
          • print($_POST(‘abc’)); //4.1 and after
      • GET
          • print($_GET(‘abc’)); //4.1 and after
    • Comparing Strings
      • strcmp( $a, $b ); //works like C function
      • Returns:
      • – 1 if first string less than second string
      • 0 if the same
      • 1 if first string greater than second string
      • It is case sensitive
    • PHP Syntax Similarities
      • Has a switch statement
      • for loop is the same, but uses PHP variable syntax
        • for ($i=0; $i < 10; $i++ ){ …. }
      • while and if are also what you’d expect
      • Standard logical operators: ==, &&, <, > …
    • Other Useful Functions
      • round ($a); //rounds a number
      • is_numeric($v); //returns true/false
      • rand($start, $end); //Produces int rand
    • Current Date/Time
      • Use date function to get the current date.
      • Takes a format string to provide the date in a format you want. See http://php.net/date .
      • Use time function to get the current time.
      • Returns the current time measured in the number of seconds since the Unix Epoch (January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT).
    • Creating Functions
        • function myfunc( $a, $b, $c ) {
        • //this is my code
        • return $x;
        • }
    • External PHP Files
      • Can use require or include
        • Require will produce a fatal error if the file cannot be found
        • Include will just ignore a missing script file
        • require(‘my.php’);
        • include(‘my.php’);
        • The files can contain PHP and/or HTML
    • Arrays
      • Creating an array
        • $a = array(1,2,3,4,5);
      • Accessing array elements
        • $v = $a[2];
        • $a[2] = 5;
        • $a[] = 1; $a[] = 2; $a[] = 3; //appends to array
    • Iterating Over Arrays
        • for ($i=0; $i<count($a); $i++ ) {
        • print ($a[i]);
        • }
        • foreach( $a as $item ) {
        • print( “<p>$item”);
        • }
      Array variable Local variable. Set to next array element each iteration.
    • Other Array Functions
        • $m = max($a); //returns max value in array
        • $m = min($a); //returns min value in array
        • $s = array_sum($a); //returns sum or array values
        • sort($a); //sorts the items in the array. Changes
        • //the array itself
        • Optional second argument is “sort flags” to control the sort.
    • Associative Arrays
      • Arrays containing key/value pairs
        • $s = array( ‘a’=>’alpha’, ‘b’=>’beta’, … );
        • print ( $s[‘b’] );
      • The parameter to the left of => is the key.
      • The right parameter is the value.
    • SQL – Structured Query Language
      • A language for accessing relational databases
      • Relational databases have tables
      • Tables have fields and contain rows of data
    • SQL Syntax – SELECT
      • Used for retrieving data from a database
        • SELECT [fields] FROM [tables] WHERE [expr]
        • Examples
        • select * from users
        • select abc, def from mytable where ghi=5
    • SQL Syntax – INSERT
      • Used to insert new data in a table
        • INSERT INTO [table] [field names] VALUES [values]
        • Examples
        • insert into users (abc,def,ghi) values (‘111’,22,’cc)
        • insert into xyz values (1,2,3,4,5)
    • SQL Syntax – UPDATE
      • Updating one or more values in existing rows in a table
        • UPDATE [table] SET [name=value pairs] WHERE [expression]
        • Examples
        • update mytable set a=‘aaa’, b=55 where c=11
    • PHP and Mysql Database
      • 5 steps
        • Connect to the Mysql DBMS
        • Pick a database
        • Execute an SQL statement
        • If the SQL was a ‘select’, retrieve the data
        • Close the connection
    • Connecting to Mysql DBMS
        • $con = mysql_connect( /* 3 arguments */ );
        • Your Mysql DBMS server process network location
        • Your Mysql user ID
        • Your Mysql user password
        • For tonight only,
        • mysql_connect(‘www.freesql.org’,’upeworkshop’,’upeworkshop’);
    • Selecting a Database
        • mysql_select_db( ‘upeworkshop’ );
    • Executing an SQL Statement
        • mysql_query( /*SQL statement*/ );
        • Proper form for any SQL not a Select
        • if ( !mysql_query ( “update a ….” ); ) {
        • echo mysql_error(); //for easy debugging, not for final user-oriented website
        • } //returns true/false if it worked, or not
    • For Select SQL Statements
        • $r = mysql_query( ‘select * from abc’ );
        • while ( $row = mysql_fetch_row( $r ) ) { … }
        • $row contains a row of data
        • returns false when no more rows available
        • Iterating through the fields in the row
        • foreach ( $row as $item ) { … }
        • OR access the fields using index position (zero indexed)
        • OR put results in an associative array – less error prone
        • while ($row = mysql_fetch_assoc($r)){
        • echo $row[‘firstname’];
        • }
    • Closing a Connection
        • mysql_close( $con );