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Put on by USC's Upsilon Pi Epsilon as part of Wonderful World of Web2.0 Workshop Series. http://pollux.usc.edu/~upe/

Put on by USC's Upsilon Pi Epsilon as part of Wonderful World of Web2.0 Workshop Series. http://pollux.usc.edu/~upe/

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PHP Workshop Notes PHP Workshop Notes Presentation Transcript

  • PHP A scripting language design to produce HTML pages
  • PHP Introduction
    • PHP serves the same purpose as Java Server Pages (JSP) and Active Server Pages (ASP)
    • All are server-side languages “parsed” by a web server
    • Script execution results are sent to a browser as an HTML page
    • PHP is a type-less language
  • PHP Structure
    • Tradition: Start with an HTML file
    • Add special tags to separate PHP code from HTML statements
    • Web server parses the PHP file, producing HTML
    • Now can be used to output XML, image, PDF, just by setting content-type
  • Example: myfirst.php
      • <html>
      • <body>
      • <?php
      • //A comment
      • /*Or comment like this*/
      • print(&quot;<b>Hello world</b>&quot;);
      • $v = 5;
      • print(&quot;<p>Hello again &quot; . $v );
      • print(&quot;<p>Hello a third time $v&quot;);
      • ?>
      • </body>
      • </html>
  • Variables
    • All variables start with a dollar sign, $
      • $u = 5;
      • $v = “hello”;
      • $w = 1.22;
      • $x = $u + $v; //arithmetic with + - ONLY
      • $y = $v . $v; //concatenation with period operator
      • $x = $u . $u; //produces 55, not 10
  • Printing
      • $u = 5;
      • print( “5 hello” ); //print anything in quotes
      • print( $u . “hello” ); //prints 5hello
      • print( “$u Hello” ); //prints 5 Hello
  • String-Related Functions
      • $v = “hello”;
      • strlen( $v); //returns 5
      • trim( $v); //trims any spaces on either side of a string
      • $x = strtolower ($v); //$x has hello
      • $x = strtoupper($v); //$x has HELLO
      • $str = “abcdef”;
      • $a = substr( $str, 3, 3 );
    # of characters to copy Start position, zero indexed Source string “ def” Can be negative to start from right side
  • Getting HTML Form Data
    • There are 3 ways to get form data in PHP
      • Global variables – this is a bad way because of security problems. PHP creates a variable with a name matching the form field name in the source HTML.
      • POST variable associative array
        • Prior to version 4.1, $HTTP_POST_VARS
        • 4.1 and after, $_POST
      • GET variable associative array
        • Same as POST, but use GET
  • Examples
    • Global variables (HTML has field with name ‘abc’)
        • print ($abc);
    • POST
        • print($_POST(‘abc’)); //4.1 and after
    • GET
        • print($_GET(‘abc’)); //4.1 and after
  • Comparing Strings
    • strcmp( $a, $b ); //works like C function
    • Returns:
    • – 1 if first string less than second string
    • 0 if the same
    • 1 if first string greater than second string
    • It is case sensitive
  • PHP Syntax Similarities
    • Has a switch statement
    • for loop is the same, but uses PHP variable syntax
      • for ($i=0; $i < 10; $i++ ){ …. }
    • while and if are also what you’d expect
    • Standard logical operators: ==, &&, <, > …
  • Other Useful Functions
    • round ($a); //rounds a number
    • is_numeric($v); //returns true/false
    • rand($start, $end); //Produces int rand
  • Current Date/Time
    • Use date function to get the current date.
    • Takes a format string to provide the date in a format you want. See http://php.net/date .
    • Use time function to get the current time.
    • Returns the current time measured in the number of seconds since the Unix Epoch (January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT).
  • Creating Functions
      • function myfunc( $a, $b, $c ) {
      • //this is my code
      • return $x;
      • }
  • External PHP Files
    • Can use require or include
      • Require will produce a fatal error if the file cannot be found
      • Include will just ignore a missing script file
      • require(‘my.php’);
      • include(‘my.php’);
      • The files can contain PHP and/or HTML
  • Arrays
    • Creating an array
      • $a = array(1,2,3,4,5);
    • Accessing array elements
      • $v = $a[2];
      • $a[2] = 5;
      • $a[] = 1; $a[] = 2; $a[] = 3; //appends to array
  • Iterating Over Arrays
      • for ($i=0; $i<count($a); $i++ ) {
      • print ($a[i]);
      • }
      • foreach( $a as $item ) {
      • print( “<p>$item”);
      • }
    Array variable Local variable. Set to next array element each iteration.
  • Other Array Functions
      • $m = max($a); //returns max value in array
      • $m = min($a); //returns min value in array
      • $s = array_sum($a); //returns sum or array values
      • sort($a); //sorts the items in the array. Changes
      • //the array itself
      • Optional second argument is “sort flags” to control the sort.
  • Associative Arrays
    • Arrays containing key/value pairs
      • $s = array( ‘a’=>’alpha’, ‘b’=>’beta’, … );
      • print ( $s[‘b’] );
    • The parameter to the left of => is the key.
    • The right parameter is the value.
  • SQL – Structured Query Language
    • A language for accessing relational databases
    • Relational databases have tables
    • Tables have fields and contain rows of data
  • SQL Syntax – SELECT
    • Used for retrieving data from a database
      • SELECT [fields] FROM [tables] WHERE [expr]
      • Examples
      • select * from users
      • select abc, def from mytable where ghi=5
  • SQL Syntax – INSERT
    • Used to insert new data in a table
      • INSERT INTO [table] [field names] VALUES [values]
      • Examples
      • insert into users (abc,def,ghi) values (‘111’,22,’cc)
      • insert into xyz values (1,2,3,4,5)
  • SQL Syntax – UPDATE
    • Updating one or more values in existing rows in a table
      • UPDATE [table] SET [name=value pairs] WHERE [expression]
      • Examples
      • update mytable set a=‘aaa’, b=55 where c=11
  • PHP and Mysql Database
    • 5 steps
      • Connect to the Mysql DBMS
      • Pick a database
      • Execute an SQL statement
      • If the SQL was a ‘select’, retrieve the data
      • Close the connection
  • Connecting to Mysql DBMS
      • $con = mysql_connect( /* 3 arguments */ );
      • Your Mysql DBMS server process network location
      • Your Mysql user ID
      • Your Mysql user password
      • For tonight only,
      • mysql_connect(‘www.freesql.org’,’upeworkshop’,’upeworkshop’);
  • Selecting a Database
      • mysql_select_db( ‘upeworkshop’ );
  • Executing an SQL Statement
      • mysql_query( /*SQL statement*/ );
      • Proper form for any SQL not a Select
      • if ( !mysql_query ( “update a ….” ); ) {
      • echo mysql_error(); //for easy debugging, not for final user-oriented website
      • } //returns true/false if it worked, or not
  • For Select SQL Statements
      • $r = mysql_query( ‘select * from abc’ );
      • while ( $row = mysql_fetch_row( $r ) ) { … }
      • $row contains a row of data
      • returns false when no more rows available
      • Iterating through the fields in the row
      • foreach ( $row as $item ) { … }
      • OR access the fields using index position (zero indexed)
      • OR put results in an associative array – less error prone
      • while ($row = mysql_fetch_assoc($r)){
      • echo $row[‘firstname’];
      • }
  • Closing a Connection
      • mysql_close( $con );