Classical and Operant Conditioning


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Classical and Operant Conditioning: Therapies and counseling Techniques based on Conditioning techniques

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Classical and Operant Conditioning

  4. 4. Counseling and psychotherapy are concerned with behavior change The purpose of behavioral counseling is to change ineffective and self-defeating behavior into effective and winning behavior To behavioral counselor, the individual is a product of conditioning.
  6. 6. CONDITIONING “A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to associate a desired behavior with a previously unrelated stimulus is called conditioning.”
  7. 7. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING “Classical conditioning is defined as learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus; because of pairing the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus with the same power as the unconditioned stimulus to elicit the response in the organism.”
  8. 8. Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning
  9. 9. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND EMOTIONAL RESPONSES  Learning experiences of the average individual can be explained through the classical conditioning.  Important of these experiences, from the counselor’s point of view, are the maladaptive or neurotic learning experiences.  Eysenck and Rachman have suggested a three-stage explanation of the development of abnormal behavior.
  10. 10. FACTORS AFFECTING CLASSICAL CONDITIONIG Relationship In Time : Contiguity Contiguity refers to the degree to which the NS/CS and US occur close together in time. Forward (delay) conditioning: CS comes first, but CS continues until US starts. Conditioning occurs US readily Forward (trace) conditioning: CS comes first CS ends before start of US. Conditioning occurs readily US but response is somewhat weak. Forward trace conditioning with longer delay: CS Conditioning is weaker US Simultaneous conditioning: CS and US co-occur. CS In most cases, conditioning is weak or hard to US demonstrate. Backward conditioning: CS follows US. After a CS few repetitions, CS becomes inhibitory- that is a US signal for a time of absence of the US-and conditioning is weak.
  11. 11. Consistency And Reliability: Contingency Conditioning also requires contingency, which refers to the degree to which the NS/CS reliably signals that US is going to be presented.
  12. 12.  Acquisition  Higher Order Conditioning  Expectancies  Extinction  Spontaneous Recovery  Generalization  Discrimination
  13. 13. COUNTERCONDITIONING A fear reduction technique in which pleasant stimuli are associated with fear-evoking stimuli so that the fear-evoking stimuli lose their aversive significance is called as counterconditioning.
  15. 15. SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION  Counseling Intention Counseling intentions is to teach anxiety reduction strategies and self-control skills to clients.  Definition Systematic Desensitization therapy, developed by Joseph Wolpe, involves having the extinction process occur while the client is in a state of relaxation. The relaxation response, in combination with exposure, is presumed to reduce levels of anxiety.
  16. 16. Components of systematic desensitization Identification of Anxiety-Provoking Situations Construction of Hierarchy of Stimulus Situations Selection and Teaching of Counterconditioning or Coping Responses
  17. 17. Evaluation of Client’s Capacity to Generate Images Steps in Gradually Prolonging Exposure to an Anxiety-Provoking Situation Homework and Follow-up
  18. 18. AVERSION THERAPY Another counseling intervention based on counterconditioning principles is aversion therapy. When a client has had a strong positive association to something, the pursuit of which has brought about negative consequences for the client, aversion therapy can help the client develop a negative association to that thing. Types of Aversion therapy Overt sensitization Covert sensitization
  19. 19. EXPOSURE THEARPIES Flooding Flooding therapy constitutes either an in vivo or imaginal exposure to anxietyevoking stimuli for a prolonged period of time. The principles underlying flooding are similar to those for desensitization. Imaginal Flooding IN Vivo Flooding Implosive Therapy Implosive therapy was developed by Stampfl (1970). Implosive therapy is a variation of flooding therapy that uses exaggerated imagined scenes that often draw upon hypothesized psychoanalytic sources of anxiety.
  20. 20. Senate Focus  Senate focus, a technique based on the classical conditioning involves in vivo desensitization. This technique is common for couples with sexual disorders.  In summary, senate focus is used to reduce sexual performance anxiety by having couples learn to associate pleasurable sensations (relaxation) with what were once anxiety producing situations Assertion Training  Wolpe and Andres Salter were responsible for the development of this therapy. Assertion training therapy is also known as Practice and Rehearsal Approach.  Clients are taught to express their feelings without interfering with the expression of feelings of others. Often relaxation, behavioral rehearsal, in vivo, and modeling are combined with assertion training
  21. 21. Therapeutic graded exposure is similar to the systematic desensitization; except the relaxation training not involved and treatment is carried out in a real life context that is the individual must brought on contact with the warning stimulus to learn firsthand that no dangerous consequences will ensure .exposure is graded according to the hierarchy.
  22. 22. There are many advantages of classical condition techniques some them are listed below which are  Short duration of therapy  Easy to train the clients  Cost effective  Duration of treatment is usually 6-8 weeks  Widely used in mental health setting and for the treatment of various problems like Phobia, Anxiety disorder, Obsessive compulsive disorder, Alcohol and drug abuse, smoking, Certain sexual disorder such as paraphilia, Physical disability, Chronic pain, and Rehabilitation center.
  23. 23. OPERANT CONDITIONING “Phrase applied by B.F Skinner to a process in which behavioral change (and presumably learning) occurs due to reinforcing (rewarding) certain desired behavior and withholding rewards or punishing undesired behavior. Operant conditioning is also known as instrumental conditioning”.
  25. 25. REINFORCEMENT The process of reinforcement means that the strengthening of a response that occurs when the response is rewarded
  26. 26.  In Positive reinforcement, the behavior leads to the addition of something pleasant to the environment of the organism.  The counselor who wishes to use positive reinforcement is confronted at the outset by a number of questions.  Which behavior should be rewarded?  What type of rewarded should be used and how should it be dispensed? frequently  Should the positive reinforcement be combined with another technique, such as extinction, punishment, or modeling?
  27. 27. NEGATIVEREINFORCEMENT Negative reinforcement involves the escape from or avoidance of aversive (unpleasant) stimuli. The individual is motivated to exhibit a desired behavior to avoid the unpleasant condition.
  28. 28. PUNISHMENT
  29. 29. POSTIVE PUNISHMENT  In positive punishment an aversive stimulus is added after the behavior to decrease the frequency of behavior NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT  In negative punishment a reinforcing stimulus is removed following the behavior to decrease the frequency of the target behavior.
  30. 30. Primary reinforcers produce comfort, end discomfort, or fill an immediate physical need. They are natural, nonlearned, and rooted in biology, Food, water and Sex are obvious examples.  Money, praise, attention, approval, success, affection, grade s, and the like, all serve as learned or secondary reinforcers. There are two types of secondary reinforcers:
  31. 31. Schedule provides reinforcement in different ways according to different criteria, and work well in different situations. CONTINOUS REINFORCEMENT A schedule in which every correct response is followed by a reinforcer is called as continuous reinforcement. PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT In partial reinforcement, the response is reinforced only part of the time
  32. 32.  Fixed-ratio schedules  Variable-ratio schedules  Fixed-interval schedules  Variable-interval schedules
  33. 33. OPERANT CONDITIONING TECHNIQUES  Behavioral therapies based on operant conditioning principles are usually described as behavior modification.  Mode of Action of behavior Modification
  34. 34. TOKEN ECONOMY  It is a technique in which subjects are given tokens for good performance or behavior which they can exchange for treats or other primary reinforcers.  Counselors use token economy to shape client behavior when approval and other reinforcers do not work.
  35. 35. MODE OF ACTION  The target behavior is identified  The nature of the token is identified  The unconditioned reinforcers are identified.  The schedule of reinforcement  The schedule of reinforcement  Keep records.
  36. 36. SHAPING Based on operant conditioning, each step towards the desired final goal or behavior is rewarded. This technique is known as shaping. Shaping is a technique which involves reinforcing behavior that approximates the desired goals.
  37. 37. CHAINING In chaining, complex task is broken down into sub tasks. Starting with the simplest task, each next step is built on the previous one. For example, to teach a child brush his teeth, the task is broken in to small tasks such as holding a brush, applying the paste, putting the brush in to mouth and so on.
  38. 38. MODELING Modeling involves one person demonstrating some voluntary behavior and another person imitating the model. In counseling, clients seeking to develop certain operant responses imitate models who demonstrate the response.
  39. 39. PREMACK PRICINPLE The Premack principle can be useful when it is difficult to come up with reinforcers for a client, and it is the reinforcement of low-frequency behaviors with the high –frequency behaviors. This is the performance of low-frequency before high frequency behaviors.
  40. 40.  Time-out is a simple procedure in which individual is removed from the area where the inappropriate behavior is reinforced.  Most of the studies indicated that the effect of repeated applications of TO was to produce rapid decreases in rate of coercive social behaviors in children.
  41. 41. GUIDELINE FOR USING TO  Be clear in advance with the child about what behavior warrants a TO.  War the child that a TO is imminent if the specific behavior does not cease.  Have a specific spot (e.g. room or quiet space) where the child will be sent if behavior does not cease.  Be clear on the amount of time that will be spent in TO. One minute per age has been traditional.  Praise compliance when the child complete TO and positively reinforce appropriate behaviors.  Time-out area should not be reinforcing
  42. 42. RESPONSE COST  Response cost is a punishment procedure based primarily on assessing fines or withdrawing positive reinforcers.  Typically, response cost is one part of token economy systems. If the individual exhibits inappropriate or maladaptive behavior, tokens will be removed or fines assessed
  43. 43. CONTINGENT ELECTRIC STIMULATION Although rarely used, brief electric shock to suppress a behavior that has been causing self-harm has shown dramatic results. the use of this type of punishment needs to be seriously considered only when it can remarkably improve an individual’s wellbeing and in consultation with parents and experts in this kind of technique
  44. 44. OVERCORRECTION  Azrin and Foxx introduced overcorrection in the early 1970s as a viable method to reduce maladaptive behavior.  The purpose of overcorrection is to decrease the frequency, duration, and/or intensity of the inappropriate behavior that precedes the application of the overcorrection technique, it is, by definition of punishment.
  45. 45. STIMULUS CONTROL  Stimulus control occurs when a stimulus is altered and the new, healthier behavior that results from the altered stimulus is reinforced  Altering the sight of drug, alcohol, food to reduce an addiction; or rearranging furniture in a house to make it easier for older person to live in his or her home.  When practicing stimulus control, it is critical to ensure that the individual is reinforced as a result of the changed stimulus. For instance, the sole act of removing alcohol from the home may not result in the new desired behavior (reduction in drinking). At the very least, positive reinforcement for new, non-drinking behaviors should be occurring also.
  47. 47. Evaluation Classical and Operant Conditioning Therapy  These therapies prove to be its greatest advantage in the counseling setting; namely, it deals directly with the symptoms  Most of the difficulties that counselor is confronted with take the form of behavioral problems.  In this respect, behavioral counseling, with emphasis on the symptom itself, offers a practical bonus.