Counseling and psychotherapy are concerned with behavior
The purpose of behavioral counseling is to change
ineffective and self-defeating behavior into effective and
To behavioral counselor, the individual is a product of
“A process of behavior modification by which
a subject comes to associate a desired
behavior with a previously unrelated
stimulus is called conditioning.”
“Classical conditioning is defined as learning that occurs
when a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with an
unconditioned stimulus; because of pairing the neutral
stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus with the same
power as the unconditioned stimulus to elicit the response
in the organism.”
AND EMOTIONAL RESPONSES
Learning experiences of the average individual can be
explained through the classical conditioning.
Important of these experiences, from the counselor’s
point of view, are the maladaptive or neurotic learning
Eysenck and Rachman have suggested a three-stage
explanation of the development of abnormal behavior.
Relationship In Time : Contiguity
Contiguity refers to the degree to which the NS/CS and US occur
close together in time.
Forward (delay) conditioning: CS comes first, but
continues until US starts. Conditioning occurs
Forward (trace) conditioning: CS comes first
ends before start of US. Conditioning occurs readily
but response is somewhat weak.
Forward trace conditioning with longer delay:
Conditioning is weaker
Simultaneous conditioning: CS and US co-occur.
In most cases, conditioning is weak or hard to
Backward conditioning: CS follows US. After a
few repetitions, CS becomes inhibitory- that is a
signal for a time of absence of the US-and
conditioning is weak.
Consistency And Reliability:
Conditioning also requires contingency, which refers
to the degree to which the NS/CS reliably signals that
US is going to be presented.
A fear reduction technique in which pleasant
stimuli are associated with fear-evoking stimuli
so that the fear-evoking stimuli lose their
aversive significance is called as
Counseling intentions is to teach anxiety reduction strategies
and self-control skills to clients.
Systematic Desensitization therapy, developed by Joseph
Wolpe, involves having the extinction process occur while the
client is in a state of relaxation. The relaxation response, in
combination with exposure, is presumed to reduce levels of
Components of systematic
Identification of Anxiety-Provoking
Construction of Hierarchy of Stimulus
Selection and Teaching of
Counterconditioning or Coping Responses
Evaluation of Client’s Capacity to
Steps in Gradually Prolonging Exposure
to an Anxiety-Provoking Situation
Homework and Follow-up
Another counseling intervention based on
counterconditioning principles is aversion therapy.
When a client has had a strong positive association to
something, the pursuit of which has brought about
negative consequences for the client, aversion therapy
can help the client develop a negative association to that
Types of Aversion therapy
Flooding therapy constitutes either an in vivo or imaginal exposure to anxietyevoking stimuli for a prolonged period of time. The principles underlying flooding
are similar to those for desensitization.
IN Vivo Flooding
Implosive therapy was developed by Stampfl (1970).
Implosive therapy is a variation of flooding therapy that uses exaggerated
imagined scenes that often draw upon hypothesized psychoanalytic sources of
Senate focus, a technique based on the classical
conditioning involves in vivo desensitization. This
technique is common for couples with sexual disorders.
In summary, senate focus is used to reduce sexual
performance anxiety by having couples learn to
associate pleasurable sensations (relaxation) with what
were once anxiety producing situations
Wolpe and Andres Salter were responsible for the
development of this therapy. Assertion training therapy
is also known as Practice and Rehearsal Approach.
Clients are taught to express their feelings without
interfering with the expression of feelings of others.
Often relaxation, behavioral rehearsal, in vivo, and
modeling are combined with assertion training
Therapeutic graded exposure is similar to the systematic
desensitization; except the relaxation training not involved
and treatment is carried out in a real life context that is the
individual must brought on contact with the warning
stimulus to learn firsthand that no dangerous consequences
will ensure .exposure is graded according to the hierarchy.
There are many advantages of classical condition techniques
some them are listed below which are
Short duration of therapy
Easy to train the clients
Duration of treatment is usually 6-8 weeks
Widely used in mental health setting and for the treatment
of various problems like Phobia, Anxiety disorder, Obsessive
compulsive disorder, Alcohol and drug
abuse, smoking, Certain sexual disorder such as
paraphilia, Physical disability, Chronic pain, and
“Phrase applied by B.F Skinner to a process in which
behavioral change (and presumably learning) occurs
due to reinforcing (rewarding) certain desired behavior
and withholding rewards or punishing undesired
behavior. Operant conditioning is also known as
The process of reinforcement
means that the strengthening of
a response that occurs when the
response is rewarded
In Positive reinforcement, the behavior leads to the addition of
something pleasant to the environment of the organism.
The counselor who wishes to use positive reinforcement is
confronted at the outset by a number of questions.
Which behavior should be rewarded?
What type of rewarded should be used and how
should it be dispensed?
Should the positive reinforcement be combined with another
technique, such as extinction, punishment, or modeling?
Negative reinforcement involves the escape
from or avoidance of aversive (unpleasant)
stimuli. The individual is motivated to exhibit
a desired behavior to avoid the unpleasant
In positive punishment
an aversive stimulus is
added after the behavior
to decrease the
frequency of behavior
In negative punishment
a reinforcing stimulus is
removed following the
behavior to decrease the
frequency of the target
Primary reinforcers produce comfort, end discomfort, or fill
an immediate physical need. They are natural, nonlearned, and rooted in biology, Food, water and Sex are
Money, praise, attention, approval, success, affection, grade
s, and the like, all serve as learned or secondary
reinforcers. There are two types of secondary reinforcers:
Schedule provides reinforcement in different ways according
to different criteria, and work well in different situations.
A schedule in which every correct response is followed by
a reinforcer is called as continuous reinforcement.
In partial reinforcement, the response is reinforced
only part of the time
Behavioral therapies based on operant conditioning
principles are usually described as behavior
Mode of Action of behavior Modification
It is a technique in which subjects are given
tokens for good performance or behavior which
they can exchange for treats or other primary
Counselors use token economy to shape client
behavior when approval and other reinforcers do
MODE OF ACTION
The target behavior is identified
The nature of the token is identified
The unconditioned reinforcers are identified.
The schedule of reinforcement
The schedule of reinforcement
Based on operant conditioning, each step
towards the desired final goal or behavior is
rewarded. This technique is known as
shaping. Shaping is a technique which
involves reinforcing behavior that
approximates the desired goals.
In chaining, complex task is broken down into
sub tasks. Starting with the simplest task, each
next step is built on the previous one. For
example, to teach a child brush his teeth, the
task is broken in to small tasks such as holding
a brush, applying the paste, putting the brush in
to mouth and so on.
Modeling involves one person demonstrating some
voluntary behavior and another person imitating the model.
In counseling, clients seeking to develop certain operant
responses imitate models who demonstrate the response.
The Premack principle can be useful when it is
difficult to come up with reinforcers for a client, and
it is the reinforcement of low-frequency behaviors
with the high –frequency behaviors. This is the
performance of low-frequency before high frequency
Time-out is a simple procedure in which individual is
removed from the area where the inappropriate behavior
Most of the studies indicated that the effect of repeated
applications of TO was to produce rapid decreases in rate
of coercive social behaviors in children.
GUIDELINE FOR USING TO
Be clear in advance with the child about what behavior
warrants a TO.
War the child that a TO is imminent if the specific
behavior does not cease.
Have a specific spot (e.g. room or quiet space) where
the child will be sent if behavior does not cease.
Be clear on the amount of time that will be spent in TO.
One minute per age has been traditional.
Praise compliance when the child complete TO and
positively reinforce appropriate behaviors.
Time-out area should not be reinforcing
Response cost is a punishment procedure based
primarily on assessing fines or withdrawing positive
Typically, response cost is one part of token economy
systems. If the individual exhibits inappropriate or
maladaptive behavior, tokens will be removed or fines
Although rarely used, brief electric shock to suppress
a behavior that has been causing self-harm has
shown dramatic results. the use of this type of
punishment needs to be seriously considered only
when it can remarkably improve an individual’s wellbeing and in consultation with parents and experts in
this kind of technique
Azrin and Foxx introduced overcorrection in the early
1970s as a viable method to reduce maladaptive
The purpose of overcorrection is to decrease the
frequency, duration, and/or intensity of the inappropriate
behavior that precedes the application of the
overcorrection technique, it is, by definition of
Stimulus control occurs when a stimulus is altered and the
new, healthier behavior that results from the altered stimulus
Altering the sight of drug, alcohol, food to reduce an
addiction; or rearranging furniture in a house to make it
easier for older person to live in his or her home.
When practicing stimulus control, it is critical to ensure that
the individual is reinforced as a result of the changed
stimulus. For instance, the sole act of removing alcohol from
the home may not result in the new desired behavior
(reduction in drinking). At the very least, positive
reinforcement for new, non-drinking behaviors should be
Evaluation Classical and Operant
These therapies prove to be its greatest advantage
in the counseling setting; namely, it deals directly
with the symptoms
Most of the difficulties that counselor is confronted
with take the form of behavioral problems.
In this respect, behavioral counseling, with
emphasis on the symptom itself, offers a practical