Chris Lock - Persuation, Emotion and Trust in Online Banking

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Pan-Baltic WUD 2012 presentation. http://wud.tlu.ee

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  • How can we motivate this guy?
  • We conduct PET and Usability/Performance in parallel with some activities undertaken jointly.
  • These are some of the main things we’re wanting to achieve with PET.
  • We interviewed people from banking customer segments to find drives and blocks in relation to security concerns
  • Here’s HFI’ job aid of PET toolsThere’s plenty of useful tools we can draw uponWe’ll have a look at some of these and how they might work in online banking.
  • Chris Lock - Persuation, Emotion and Trust in Online Banking

    1. 1. Human Factors International, Inc. User Experience for a Better World Persuasion, Emotion and Trust (PET) in Online Banking Chris Lock BSc, PhD, CUA 15th September 2012 2012.2© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Content of talk 1. What is PET? How does PET relate to usability? 2. How we do PET 3. Persuasion tools and how they might be used in online banking 4. Conclusions© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved.
    3. 3. What is PET? How does PET relate to usability?© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved.
    4. 4. How Does Usability Engineering Help? -.-. .-.. Usability is about:  Effectiveness: Can users achieve what they need by using the product?  Ease of learning: How fast can a new user learn to use it?  Efficiency of use: How fast can users complete tasks?  Memorability: Can users remember enough to reuse the interface effectively?  Error prevention: The best way to deal with errors is to design so users do not make errors.  Satisfaction: How much does the user like using the system?© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-4
    5. 5. Usability: Reducing the Shock! Lessons from the Columbia Obstruction Device… “It’s difficult to get to the cheese”© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-5
    6. 6. Persuasiveness: Making the cheese more tempting! Lessons from the Columbia Obstruction Device… “I’m desperate to get to the cheese”© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-6
    7. 7. It’s NOT Just About Efficient Information! -.-. .-.. Before After© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-7
    8. 8. Can Do vs. Will do Can Do. Will Do?© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-8
    9. 9. Will Do!© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-9
    10. 10. User-Experience (UX) Design Means Dealing with More… Emotion PET A mental and physiological state Persuasion associated with The process of a wide variety guiding people of feelings, toward the adoption thoughts, of an idea, attitude, and behaviors. or action It is a prime by rational and determinant symbolic of the sense of (though not always subjective logical) well-being. means. Trust Confidence in or reliance on some person, organization or© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. object. 1-10
    11. 11. PET Expands Our Horizons… CAN DO WILL DO Validation Design Assessment Performance Persuasion Design Strategy Design Science© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-11
    12. 12. The Study of Persuasion Is NOT New! In Advertising and In Psychological Warfare…© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-12
    13. 13. Emotion Since 1970 Would you buy this coffee maker? Why? Norman, D.A. (2004). Emotional Design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. Basic Books. ISBN-13: 978-0-465-05136—6.© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-13
    14. 14. User Interface Structural Design Version 7.0 Usability PET work work© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 14
    15. 15. The parts of our brain involved  Visual  Unconscious Learning  Intellectual  Motivation  Memory  Arousal  Motor  Emotion Usability PET© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-15
    16. 16. How we do PET • Define PET Objectives • Gather drives and blocks from users • Develop PET strategy • PET design© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-16
    17. 17. Determine PET Objectives Primary Pet Objectives must result in direct business value:  Return to a Website  Originate a bank account Primary  Ask Doctor About a Drug  Vote for a Candidate PET Objective If the user is persuaded, we reach our business objectives!© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-17
    18. 18. Precursor PET Objectives PRECURSOR OBJECTIVES move users toward a primary objective:  View a product description  Read product details Precursor  Compare products PET  Put the product in a shopping cart Objective Scenarios are formed by threading together precursor objectives.© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-18
    19. 19. Example PET Objectives Buy a product AND we make more sales revenue© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-19
    20. 20. Example PET Objectives Ask a physician about a drug AND we make more sales revenue…© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-20
    21. 21. Threading Precursor PET Objectives How do you thread precursor PET objectives to arrive at a primary PET objective?  The user is a teenage or young adult diabetic and by now is Visit pretty tired of taking injections 2-4 times a day. It is a bit painful, annoying, and socially embarrassing. Website  The insulin inhaler will be advertised as a better solution: less pain, less time, and more cool. Seeing the advertisements will mean the diabetic person will go to our website for more details. Go to Read  When they reach the site the patient will see images of cool young people using the inhaler device in a friendly and social environment Details (something you can’t have so easily with injections).  Seeing this will motivate the patient to go to a screen which shows details of the inhaler. Ask Doctor  When reading the description of the product the diabetic patient with Positive will reflect on how difficult and inconvenient injections can be. Interest The patient will also reflect on the social challenges associated with such injections. This will motivate the diabetic patient to ask their doctor if they can switch to our inhaler system. With the image of a socially better medication the patient will be positive and perhaps even insistent.© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-21
    22. 22. Example Primary PET Objectives in Online Banking Primary PET Objectives Business benefit Move existing customers to online Save the huge expense of running banking branches Cross-sell new products and services Generate new revenue streams from existing customers Up-sell products and services Increase revenue from existing customers Get new customers Get new revenue from new customers Increase account activity Generate more revenue from bank charges Improve the way customers manage Customers maintain larger funds with their money the bank. Customers pose less risk.© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-22
    23. 23. Example Pre-cursor PET Objectives in Online Banking Precursor PET Objectives Primary objective supported Reduce security concerns Move customers to online banking Persuade customers to provide • Cross sell banking needs-related information • Up sell Persuade customers to learn about • Cross sell bank’s products and services • Up sell Persuade customers it’s easy to pay Increase account activity multiple beneficiaries in one transaction Persuade customers to recommend Get new customers bank to friends Persuade customers to save more Improve the way customers manage their money© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-23
    24. 24. We Need to Understand DRIVES and BLOCKS BLOCKS Practicalities I’m Being Fear of Of Treatment Manipulated Vaccination DRIVES Reduce Protection Curiosity Effort and From To Learn Pain of Physical Risk More Vaccination© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-24
    25. 25. Drives and blocks come from our analysis of feelings and beliefs Protection From Physical Risk Protection From Physical Risk I Feel Confident in Asking My Doctor Hepatitis is Easy to Catch Information May I Feel Not Under Control Protect Me and My Family I Would Feel Guilty I Feel Scared for Giving Disease to Myself and My Family I Feel Under Others Control Because I can Prevent This© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-25
    26. 26. PET Analysis – Internet Banking 26 I don’t have internet or a computer. It doesn’t A paper receipt as a It makes me Anything can The internet is too make sense to invest in proof is more reliable anxious to know that happen on the complicated! Its them just for banking than an SMS or a email with a wrong click I internet. not for me! online may lose my money So, how do we generate this sort of information? Accessibility Lack of Accountability Safety and Security Fear of mistakes Complexity Positive Self Aligning with Effectiveness Efficiency Image Safety Control Peer Group Banking online boosts my ego. I can plan my When I bank online I feel more comfortable I feel lost when I feel in control finances better everything is a click performing banking I don’t know what I feel good when I know when I can access away and I don’t have operations when there is my friends are about myself exactly what is my account to waste time on no one around me. talking about. when I can use going on in my anytime queues new technology. account I feel more productive, more work can get done© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-26
    27. 27. We do this with in-depth interview methods© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-27
    28. 28. Customer personas Of interest in looking at banking security concerns Pieter van Anholt Nomusa Ngoma Thomas Bangizwe The Sage The Dancer The Wrestler© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-28
    29. 29. The Dancer Drives and Blocks Drives and Blocks for TRUSTING around SECURITY a person / service Inconsistency Dishonesty Inconsistency Being Looked Familiarity Physical Financial After Safety Safety Reliability Reciprocation Emotional Familiarity Security Value Transparency© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-29
    30. 30. Develop a PET strategy Often this is around a frame. An example from banking needs analysis could be: “Allow us get to know you better, so we can do what’s right for you.” Being treated as Being Looked Familiarity “just a number” After This frame reinforces the drives and mitigates the blocks© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-30
    31. 31. Strategy may incorporate a range of persuasion tools For example: 1. Social proof – “32,000 customers have benefited from our needs assessment this year” 2. Reciprocation – “We have already provided you with 1000 reward points. We’re hoping you’ll help us get to know you better by completing this brief form” 3. Social learning - testimonial – “I now have the banking solutions I need for my business, thanks to the bank’s new needs analysis service” We’ll look at more persuasion tools in a moment© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-31
    32. 32. Design When we have….. • understood the drives and blocks • developed a strategy • identified the types of persuasion tools we’ll use…. we can work on our PET designs. PET designs require attention to detail at the content level, for example: • Precise wording of messages • Careful selection of images PET and performance design needs to work in concert There is sometimes a (hopefully healthy) tension between PET and performance© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-32
    33. 33. Conflict with Classic Usability Usable? Persuasive?© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-33
    34. 34. Designing for social learning strategy© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-34
    35. 35. Norman’s model of emotional design Visceral – Designing for our gut instincts – Initial appearance Behavioural - Designing for pleasure and effectiveness of use Reflective – designing for self image, personal satisfaction and memories© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-35
    36. 36. Viscerally Negative Creepy Crawly….oooh err!© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-36
    37. 37. Viscerally Negative Threat….aaargh!© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-37
    38. 38. Viscerally Negative Disgusting….yuck!© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-38
    39. 39. Viscerally Positive Smooth, curvaceous objects….oooh, nice!© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-39
    40. 40. Viscerally Positive Bright, primary colours…wow!© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-40
    41. 41. Viscerally Positive Symmetrical, beautiful faces….yummy!© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-41
    42. 42. Reflective I’m rich and famous© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-42
    43. 43. Reflective I’m a tough fighter pilot© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-43
    44. 44. Persuasion tools and how they might be used in online banking© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-44
    45. 45. A great read! - Some useful/fun books on persuasion© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-45
    46. 46. HFI’s Job Aid of PET Tools© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-46
    47. 47. Decidophobia – Paradox of choice We think we want more choice, but…. • We are bewildered and confused by too many choices • When we make a choice we worry it might have been the wrong one • If you offer too many choices, people might not make any decision at all© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-47
    48. 48. Try Some Jam… 6 Jams 24 Jams Approach 40% 60% Try 1.4 jams 1.5 jams Buy ? 30% ? 3% Iyengar, Sheena S. and Mark Lepper (2000). “When Choice is Demotivating: Can One Desire Too Much of a Good Thing?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76: 995-1006.© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-48
    49. 49. Avoiding Decidophobia in online banking Offer only a limited Banking needs choice of highly relevant analysis banking products and services Learn about Provide faceted navigation so customers products and can home in only on services what is relevant to them© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-49
    50. 50. Social proof There are loads of people doing this. Go on! You do it too!© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-50
    51. 51. Social proof If we think lots of other people are doing it, we’ll be persuaded to do it ourselves. “3.5 million Australians are now successfully banking online with xxx Bank” “Yesterday, 500,000 xxx Bank customers paid their utility bills at the click of a button”© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-51
    52. 52. Pressure by People We Like From whom would you buy Tupperware?© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-52
    53. 53. Pressure by people we like We feel obliged to respond to recommendations from family and friends. “Recommend our current account special offer to your nearest and dearest . We’ll give you 1000 extra reward points in return, if they sign up.” Find out more However, Extrins ic Reward kills Intrinsic Reward!© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-53
    54. 54. Sensitivity of Reciprocation? Hotel Cards asking Guests to Reuse Their Towels…. If you reuse your towel, we will make a donation to an environmental group on your behalf. +0% We have made a donation to an environmental group +45% on your behalf. Please reuse your towel. Goldstein, Noah J., Martin, Steve J. and Cialdini, Robert B. (2008). Yes!: 50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive (Hardcover), Free Press. ISBN-10: 1416570969, ISBN-13: 978-1416570967.© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-54
    55. 55. Reciprocation We feel a strong obligation to return a favour. “In recognition of your interest in xxx Bank, we’ve already allocated you 1000 reward points. Please now help us by filling in this brief form”© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-55
    56. 56. Intrinsic Motivation – Money management and gamification PNC Bank helps younger customers manage money better through ‘Virtual Wallet’: • Fun to use UX features • You decide on your financial goals • You get to see progress towards meeting these goals. Punch the pig Every time you’ve got a bit of money to save, you click on (punch) the pig. • Set or select amount • Transferred automatically from spend to savings account • You design your own pig symbol • Pig can appear regularly, or spontaneously • Goes ‘oink!’ when you ‘punch’ it© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-56
    57. 57. Discovery Optimization Demonstrate the experience of online banking to persuade people to sign up… “This is what it’ll be like for you” Cross and up-sell by showing customers the products and services they could have, alongside the ones they’ve already got Ikea’s guided path© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-57
    58. 58. Compliance laddering It’s easier to persuade people to take small steps than giant leaps© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-58
    59. 59. Use Compliance Laddering from ATM and Branch Would you like Check your to know your account balance account balance? anytime on your You have withdrawn phone by.. 200 Pounds Example transaction: Withdrawing money from an ATM Would you like the receipt to be Shift customers sent to your to Digital - Email - Channels for Mobile Banking Seducible Past transactions Moment xx/xx/xxx Joe cheque xxx xx/xx/xxx xxxx ATM xxx xx/xx/xxx Joe cheque xx ATM transaction Transfer funds to Joe You have withdrawn You can view all through net banking 200 Pounds. your past transactions here© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-59
    60. 60. Conclusions© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-60
    61. 61. Conclusions To really achieve business goals we need to attend to both the • ‘CAN DO’ and • ‘WILL DO’ aspects of what makes a design great Many UX consultants already recognise and address design persuasiveness, but PET provides: • A strong methodology for formalising the science and craft of persuasive design • A set of researched and proven persuasion tools • A language and terminology by which we can articulate what we are doing© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-61
    62. 62. Articulating what makes a design persuasive• An experienced wine taster can explain exactly what the characteristics of great-tasting wine are• An experienced PET consultant can articulate exactly what makes a design truly persuasive© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-62
    63. 63. Coordinating PET and Usability work PET and performance work needs to go hand in hand, all the way© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-63
    64. 64. Thank You… Thank You… Human Factors International, Inc. User Experience for a Better World hfi@humanfactors.com Corporate Headquarters. 410 West Lowe, P.O. Box 2020 Fairfield, IA 52556 USA800-242-4480 / +1-641-472-4480© 2012 Human Factors International, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-64

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