LEA Section 3  Enterprise Knowledge management planning  John Chi-Zong Wu [email_address]
Presentation Goals  <ul><li>Knowledge is power. </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit and tacit knowledge.  </li></ul><ul><li>Knowled...
EA & Knowledge management  <ul><li>What does EA have to do with knowledge management ? </li></ul><ul><li>EA, as the archit...
<ul><li>Documenting As-is has been the first step in the traditional EA approach.  </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the enterpris...
<ul><li>Formalized knowledge is the wealth of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>To be an asset, knowledge should be materi...
<ul><li>“ Knowledge Management  ( KM ) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, ...
<ul><li>The knowledge that you do not know that you do not know.  </li></ul><ul><li>tacit knowledge  and  explicit knowled...
David’s Seven Principles of KM   <ul><li>“The  Cynefin  Framework” and “Seven Principles of Knowledge Management”…  by Dav...
<ul><ul><li>Enterprise knowledge consist of tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge as shown on the knowledge iceberg.  </l...
Architecting the enterprise knowledge   <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture is a method to orderly arrange the parts to enterp...
Enterprise Knowledge model   <ul><li>Architecting the enterprise knowledge in a bottom up approach from the elements of da...
“ Enterprise” means “holistic” <ul><li>“ Enterprise”  means “holistic”.  </li></ul><ul><li>System architecture serve a spe...
Zachman framework for holistic consideration  <ul><li>The enterprise knowledge management is holistic.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Explicitly define the enterprise.  <ul><li>Enterprise map define the enterprise explicitly utilizing the Zachman framework...
<ul><li>It is important to know that Zachman framework is not an EA approach framework.  It is a framework to describe the...
The KM approach framework  x x x x Share  x x x x Evaluate  x x x x Evolve  x x x x x Capitalize x x x x x Capture x x x x...
<ul><li>Institutional knowledge management approach from  Knowledge Corp  </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of knowledge ne...
<ul><li>EA as the enterprise framework to support enterprise knowledge management. </li></ul><ul><li>The LEA Enterprise ma...
<ul><li>Capture the explicit knowledge via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data call  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>“ Knowledge capital  is a concept which asserts that ideas have intrinsic value which can be shared and leveraged ...
<ul><li>“ Knowledge sharing  is an activity through which  knowledge  (i.e.  information ,  skills , or  expertise ) is ex...
<ul><li>“ Knowledge evaluation or auditing  help organizations identify their knowledge-based assets and develop strategie...
<ul><li>Knowledge is organic, it change  constantly.  Ontologies need to change as fast as the parts of the changing world...
<ul><li>Planning  </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire knowledge from existing documentation analogy to archeology approach. </li></u...
<ul><li>Enterprise Architects apply archeological approach to acquire knowledge from existing documents.  </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>The basic technique of knowledge management is to ask for the explicit information and knowledge via:  </li></ul><...
Collaboration  <ul><li>There are more tacit knowledge than explicit knowledge in the enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowled...
Jigsaw puzzle  <ul><li>Knowledge management via jigsaw puzzle strategy.  </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management is analogy...
<ul><li>“ With the maturation of the Internet, collaboration and knowledge sharing have become a standard way of conductin...
KMC technology solution example <ul><li>The Microsoft Sharepoint  </li></ul><ul><li>The SAP Knowledge Management &  Collab...
Conclusion  <ul><li>EA is more valuable for enterprise to leverage on the power of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge ...
References  <ul><li>Intellegence  hierarchy: Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Knoco  stories: Sol...
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Enterprise knowledge managment planning

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  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • The key of Enterprise Architecture is to clearly define what is the enterprise from the aspect of why, how, what, who, where and when. In application development, the business concern has been on function break down and business processes. In enterprise architecture, it is not only about the functions and process but also about the enterprise definition of who, where and when. The big picture is the collection of institutional knowledge. In an organization, there are a group of individuals have established very rich institutional knowledge. Most of the knowledge has gone with their departure from the organization . The big picture serve as a tool to collect valuable institutional knowledge. The enterprise architect serve as the facilitator to bring out the hidden treasure. ITCE adopt the concept from the folk story of stone soup. “ System implementations make business and break through process change possible and business managers should partner with IT, not the reverse. But the reality is that when there is not clear business vision driving decisions with an organization, it is often difficult for IT to decline the leadership role in Enterprise Engineering efforts.  As a result, IT is often blamed for the failure to successfully transform an organization through implementation of systems when in fact, it is the lack of strategic business vision and leadership from the outset that led to the failure to achieve desired outcomes. Thus IT managers and organizations should not accept responsibility for driving an organization transformation without understanding the accompany risks and only after failing to recruit the necessary business leadership and vision to lead the effort.” -   Susan Grovant [Grovant, 1998 ]
  • Enterprise knowledge managment planning

    1. 1. LEA Section 3 Enterprise Knowledge management planning John Chi-Zong Wu [email_address]
    2. 2. Presentation Goals <ul><li>Knowledge is power. </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit and tacit knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is organic. </li></ul><ul><li>EA to architecture Enterprise Knowledge via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The knowledge management model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Knowledge management framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge management approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge management techniques. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. EA & Knowledge management <ul><li>What does EA have to do with knowledge management ? </li></ul><ul><li>EA, as the architecture design, serve as the framework and guideline for enterprise knowledge management. </li></ul><ul><li>EA, as a process, architect the enterprise knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Enterprise Architecture is really a specialized knowledge domain and of knowledge management” Ed Vail, Ptech Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>“ In effect, EA is a special category of knowledge-management: the EA community within an enterprise develops and maintains a body of knowledge about enterprise structure and purpose, and assists others in putting that knowledge to practical use, to enhance enterprise effectiveness .” Tom Graves </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Documenting As-is has been the first step in the traditional EA approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the enterprise architects also overlook documenting as-is as a EA no-brainer clerical work by assuming all knowledge is explicit. </li></ul><ul><li>The fact is that there are more tacit knowledge than explicit knowledge in the enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>Document As-is is not a no-brainer work, it is requires a careful enterprise knowledge management planning. </li></ul>Enterprise knowledge management planning
    5. 5. <ul><li>Formalized knowledge is the wealth of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>To be an asset, knowledge should be materialized or formalized. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal know-how - or intangible capital - is a temporary wealth because the company does not possess it, and loses it when its employees leave. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is living and always undergoing changes. To promote the exchange and sharing of knowledge, formalized knowledge has to be shared at the right place at the right time. </li></ul>Knowledge is power
    6. 6. <ul><li>“ Knowledge Management ( KM ) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences . Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge , either embodied in individuals or embedded in organizational processes or practice.” from Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>KM is “a more organic and holistic way of understanding and exploiting the role of knowledge in the processes of managing and doing work, and an authentic guide for individuals and organizations in coping with the increasingly complex and shifting environment of the modern economy.” Source: Denning S. What is knowledge management? Definitions . www.stevedenning.com </li></ul>What is knowledge management?
    7. 7. <ul><li>The knowledge that you do not know that you do not know. </li></ul><ul><li>tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge . </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is a living thing which change constantly. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking privacy and security into consideration. </li></ul>The challenge
    8. 8. David’s Seven Principles of KM <ul><li>“The Cynefin Framework” and “Seven Principles of Knowledge Management”… by David Snowden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Knowledge can only be volunteered it cannot be conscripted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. We only know what we know when we need to know it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. In the context of real need few people will withhold their knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Everything is fragmented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Tolerated failure imprints learning better than success. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. The way we know things is not the way we report we know things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. We always know more than we can say; we will always say more than we can write down. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Enterprise knowledge consist of tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge as shown on the knowledge iceberg. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tacit knowledge represents internalized knowledge that an individual may not be consciously aware of, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the opposite end of the spectrum, explicit knowledge represents knowledge that the individual holds consciously in mental focus, </li></ul></ul></ul>Explicit and tacit knowledge Source : Sharing knowledge by David Bartholomew Associate (DBA)
    10. 10. Architecting the enterprise knowledge <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture is a method to orderly arrange the parts to enterprise knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>EA is conceived in the information age, therefore, many people have the perception that EA is all about IT. </li></ul><ul><li>However, EA is initiated to overcome the challenge of stovepipe culture. </li></ul><ul><li>It is really a matter of stovepipe culture and holistic consideration rather than a IT or not IT. </li></ul><ul><li>The same enterprise architecture method can be used to overcome stovepipe culture in human resources, financing and many other subjects. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Enterprise Knowledge model <ul><li>Architecting the enterprise knowledge in a bottom up approach from the elements of data to information, knowledge and wisdom as shown in the knowledge management model. </li></ul><ul><li>DIKW model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data are the basic ingredients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is inferred from data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge refer to information having been processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom is knowing the right things to do </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. “ Enterprise” means “holistic” <ul><li>“ Enterprise” means “holistic”. </li></ul><ul><li>System architecture serve a specific sets of requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise architecture does not serve a specific set of requirements, instead it serve the entire enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the key of enterprise architecture is to define the “enterprise” rather than focus on “Architecture”. </li></ul><ul><li>However, many EA experts have overlooked the enterprise definition. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Zachman framework for holistic consideration <ul><li>The enterprise knowledge management is holistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Zachman framework serve well as the check list for holistic consideration in the notion of Enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables a systematic approach to divide and concur the challenge of enterprise wide knowledge management. </li></ul>data Information knowledge Wisdom When Where Who How What why
    14. 14. Explicitly define the enterprise. <ul><li>Enterprise map define the enterprise explicitly utilizing the Zachman framework. </li></ul><ul><li>The enterprise describe the enterprise from the aspect of why, what, how, who, where and when. </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>It is important to know that Zachman framework is not an EA approach framework. It is a framework to describe the enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>Critics of Zachman framework get frustrated by trying to implement the framework as an EA approach. </li></ul><ul><li>To implement EA, the Enterprise Architects have to establish an approach framework to implement EA. </li></ul><ul><li>LEA propose the knowledge management approach framework as show in the next slide. </li></ul><ul><li>It is composed of the row of knowledge management lifecycle and the columns of different techniques. </li></ul>The approach framework
    16. 16. The KM approach framework x x x x Share x x x x Evaluate x x x x Evolve x x x x x Capitalize x x x x x Capture x x x x Identify Technology Jigsaw puzzle Collaboration Asking Archeology Planning
    17. 17. <ul><li>Institutional knowledge management approach from Knowledge Corp </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of knowledge needs </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of existing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Storage and organization of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Use and application of knowledge. </li></ul>knowledge management lifecycle
    18. 18. <ul><li>EA as the enterprise framework to support enterprise knowledge management. </li></ul><ul><li>The LEA Enterprise map practice serve well to identify knowledge needs in the enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of knowledge domain based on Line business. </li></ul><ul><li>For example use the ITIL framework to identify knowledge domain in IT management industry. </li></ul>Identification of knowledge needs
    19. 19. <ul><li>Capture the explicit knowledge via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archeological approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data capture software. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capture the tacit knowledge via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Induction </li></ul></ul>Knowledge Capture
    20. 20. <ul><li>“ Knowledge capital is a concept which asserts that ideas have intrinsic value which can be shared and leveraged within and between organizations” from wikipedia. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge capitalization via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consolidation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleansing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business intelligence </li></ul></ul>Knowledge Capitalization
    21. 21. <ul><li>“ Knowledge sharing is an activity through which knowledge (i.e. information , skills , or expertise ) is exchanged among people, friends , or members of a family , a community (e.g. Wikipedia ) or an organization .” From Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management and Collaboration Create Knowledge Sharing by Guy Currier in Baseline </li></ul><ul><li>The knowledge sharing funcutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy & security. </li></ul></ul>Knowledge sharing
    22. 22. <ul><li>“ Knowledge evaluation or auditing help organizations identify their knowledge-based assets and develop strategies to manage them.” from Auditing Knowledge by Olivier Ser </li></ul><ul><li>A knowledge audit can have multiple purposes, but the most common is to provide tangible evidence of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what knowledge an organization needs, where that knowledge is, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how it is being used, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what problems and difficulties exist, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and what improvements can be made. </li></ul></ul>Knowledge Evaluation
    23. 23. <ul><li>Knowledge is organic, it change constantly. Ontologies need to change as fast as the parts of the changing world. </li></ul><ul><li>However, changes have to be captured and applied by skilled knowledge engineers, preferably the original creators of the ontology. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a bottleneck which causes unacceptable delays in the ontology maintenance process. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Most information on web site is not maintained due to the bottleneck of a webmaster. </li></ul><ul><li>A reasonable assumption on how to reduce maintenance is collaboration from community-based participation </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage of collaboration automation system. </li></ul><ul><li>Source : Fostering knowledge evolution through community-based participation </li></ul>Knowledge Evolution
    24. 24. <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire knowledge from existing documentation analogy to archeology approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Asking for information </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Jigsaw puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>Technology. </li></ul>Knowledge management techniques
    25. 25. <ul><li>Enterprise Architects apply archeological approach to acquire knowledge from existing documents. </li></ul><ul><li>The mass of project documents which exist in any design should be a knowledge asset. </li></ul><ul><li>The discipline involves surveyance, excavation and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past </li></ul><ul><li>The process demands significant amounts of experts effort. </li></ul>Exploit existing documentation
    26. 26. <ul><li>The basic technique of knowledge management is to ask for the explicit information and knowledge via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site interview </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is significant limitation for capture information in this approach as explained in the Dave Snowdon’s seven principle. </li></ul><ul><li>In the story of stone soup, the soldiers will not get any food by asking. </li></ul>Ask for information
    27. 27. Collaboration <ul><li>There are more tacit knowledge than explicit knowledge in the enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge evolve constantly, it is not possible to keep knowledge with a few knowledge managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration is the only way to capture the explicit and keep the evolving knowledge up to date. </li></ul><ul><li>The folk story of stone soup is a good example for collaboration. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Jigsaw puzzle <ul><li>Knowledge management via jigsaw puzzle strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management is analogy to a large jigsaw puzzle without a picture on the box. </li></ul><ul><li>Like there are so many disparate pieces to the puzzle that we’re not even sure what they all are sometimes. </li></ul><ul><li>The fascination of jigsaw puzzle lead to successful knowledge management. </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>“ With the maturation of the Internet, collaboration and knowledge sharing have become a standard way of conducting business, to the point where enabling technologies require functionality to address these activities,” says Steve Cranford, a director in PricewaterhouseCoopers’ Advisory Practice. </li></ul><ul><li>It does not only allow company to leverage on the power of knowledge but also facilitate the collaboration culture in the organization. </li></ul>Knowledge management technology
    30. 30. KMC technology solution example <ul><li>The Microsoft Sharepoint </li></ul><ul><li>The SAP Knowledge Management & Collaboration platform (KMC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The KMC application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repository </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the IBM Social Business platform </li></ul>
    31. 31. Conclusion <ul><li>EA is more valuable for enterprise to leverage on the power of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management facilitate the enterprise collaboration culture. </li></ul><ul><li>EA beyond the enterprise mechanic of business architecture, IT architecture to architect enterprise field of the enterprise knowledge. </li></ul>
    32. 32. References <ul><li>Intellegence hierarchy: Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Knoco stories: Solving the KM jigsaw puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>The seven principle of knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li> DIKW model </li></ul><ul><li> Knowledge management approach </li></ul><ul><li>The role of knowledge managment in enhancing the competitieness of small amd medium-sized Enterprise ( SMEs ) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management research matters </li></ul><ul><li> Knowledge Managment & Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Big EA, Little EA and personal EA by Tom Graves </li></ul><ul><li>Auditing Knowledge by Olivier Ser </li></ul>
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