What does EA have to do with knowledge management ?
EA, as the architecture design, serve as the framework and guideline for enterprise knowledge management.
EA, as a process, architect the enterprise knowledge.
“ Enterprise Architecture is really a specialized knowledge domain and of knowledge management” Ed Vail, Ptech Inc.
“ In effect, EA is a special category of knowledge-management: the EA community within an enterprise develops and maintains a body of knowledge about enterprise structure and purpose, and assists others in putting that knowledge to practical use, to enhance enterprise effectiveness .” Tom Graves
Documenting As-is has been the first step in the traditional EA approach.
Most of the enterprise architects also overlook documenting as-is as a EA no-brainer clerical work by assuming all knowledge is explicit.
The fact is that there are more tacit knowledge than explicit knowledge in the enterprise.
Document As-is is not a no-brainer work, it is requires a careful enterprise knowledge management planning.
Enterprise knowledge management planning
Formalized knowledge is the wealth of an organization
To be an asset, knowledge should be materialized or formalized.
Informal know-how - or intangible capital - is a temporary wealth because the company does not possess it, and loses it when its employees leave.
Knowledge is living and always undergoing changes. To promote the exchange and sharing of knowledge, formalized knowledge has to be shared at the right place at the right time.
Knowledge is power
“ Knowledge Management ( KM ) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences . Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge , either embodied in individuals or embedded in organizational processes or practice.” from Wikipedia
KM is “a more organic and holistic way of understanding and exploiting the role of knowledge in the processes of managing and doing work, and an authentic guide for individuals and organizations in coping with the increasingly complex and shifting environment of the modern economy.” Source: Denning S. What is knowledge management? Definitions . www.stevedenning.com
What is knowledge management?
The knowledge that you do not know that you do not know.
tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge .
Knowledge is a living thing which change constantly.
Taking privacy and security into consideration.
David’s Seven Principles of KM
“The Cynefin Framework” and “Seven Principles of Knowledge Management”… by David Snowden
1. Knowledge can only be volunteered it cannot be conscripted.
2. We only know what we know when we need to know it.
3. In the context of real need few people will withhold their knowledge.
4. Everything is fragmented.
5. Tolerated failure imprints learning better than success.
6. The way we know things is not the way we report we know things.
7. We always know more than we can say; we will always say more than we can write down.
Enterprise knowledge consist of tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge as shown on the knowledge iceberg.
Tacit knowledge represents internalized knowledge that an individual may not be consciously aware of,
At the opposite end of the spectrum, explicit knowledge represents knowledge that the individual holds consciously in mental focus,
Explicit and tacit knowledge Source : Sharing knowledge by David Bartholomew Associate (DBA)
Architecting the enterprise knowledge
Enterprise Architecture is a method to orderly arrange the parts to enterprise knowledge.
EA is conceived in the information age, therefore, many people have the perception that EA is all about IT.
However, EA is initiated to overcome the challenge of stovepipe culture.
It is really a matter of stovepipe culture and holistic consideration rather than a IT or not IT.
The same enterprise architecture method can be used to overcome stovepipe culture in human resources, financing and many other subjects.
Enterprise Knowledge model
Architecting the enterprise knowledge in a bottom up approach from the elements of data to information, knowledge and wisdom as shown in the knowledge management model.
Data are the basic ingredients.
Information is inferred from data
Knowledge refer to information having been processed
Wisdom is knowing the right things to do
“ Enterprise” means “holistic”
“ Enterprise” means “holistic”.
System architecture serve a specific sets of requirements.
Enterprise architecture does not serve a specific set of requirements, instead it serve the entire enterprise.
Therefore, the key of enterprise architecture is to define the “enterprise” rather than focus on “Architecture”.
However, many EA experts have overlooked the enterprise definition.
Zachman framework for holistic consideration
The enterprise knowledge management is holistic.
Zachman framework serve well as the check list for holistic consideration in the notion of Enterprise.
It enables a systematic approach to divide and concur the challenge of enterprise wide knowledge management.
data Information knowledge Wisdom When Where Who How What why
Explicitly define the enterprise.
Enterprise map define the enterprise explicitly utilizing the Zachman framework.
The enterprise describe the enterprise from the aspect of why, what, how, who, where and when.
It is important to know that Zachman framework is not an EA approach framework. It is a framework to describe the enterprise.
Critics of Zachman framework get frustrated by trying to implement the framework as an EA approach.
To implement EA, the Enterprise Architects have to establish an approach framework to implement EA.
LEA propose the knowledge management approach framework as show in the next slide.
It is composed of the row of knowledge management lifecycle and the columns of different techniques.
The approach framework
The KM approach framework x x x x Share x x x x Evaluate x x x x Evolve x x x x x Capitalize x x x x x Capture x x x x Identify Technology Jigsaw puzzle Collaboration Asking Archeology Planning
Institutional knowledge management approach from Knowledge Corp
Identification of knowledge needs
Discovery of existing knowledge
Acquisition of knowledge
Creation of new knowledge
Storage and organization of knowledge
Use and application of knowledge.
knowledge management lifecycle
EA as the enterprise framework to support enterprise knowledge management.
The LEA Enterprise map practice serve well to identify knowledge needs in the enterprise.
Identification of knowledge domain based on Line business.
For example use the ITIL framework to identify knowledge domain in IT management industry.
Identification of knowledge needs
Capture the explicit knowledge via:
Data capture software.
Capture the tacit knowledge via:
“ Knowledge capital is a concept which asserts that ideas have intrinsic value which can be shared and leveraged within and between organizations” from wikipedia.
Knowledge capitalization via:
“ Knowledge sharing is an activity through which knowledge (i.e. information , skills , or expertise ) is exchanged among people, friends , or members of a family , a community (e.g. Wikipedia ) or an organization .” From Wikipedia
Knowledge Management and Collaboration Create Knowledge Sharing by Guy Currier in Baseline
The knowledge sharing funcutions
Privacy & security.
“ Knowledge evaluation or auditing help organizations identify their knowledge-based assets and develop strategies to manage them.” from Auditing Knowledge by Olivier Ser
A knowledge audit can have multiple purposes, but the most common is to provide tangible evidence of
what knowledge an organization needs, where that knowledge is,
how it is being used,
what problems and difficulties exist,
and what improvements can be made.
Knowledge is organic, it change constantly. Ontologies need to change as fast as the parts of the changing world.
However, changes have to be captured and applied by skilled knowledge engineers, preferably the original creators of the ontology.
This is a bottleneck which causes unacceptable delays in the ontology maintenance process.
For example: Most information on web site is not maintained due to the bottleneck of a webmaster.
A reasonable assumption on how to reduce maintenance is collaboration from community-based participation
Leverage of collaboration automation system.
Source : Fostering knowledge evolution through community-based participation
Acquire knowledge from existing documentation analogy to archeology approach.
Asking for information
Knowledge management techniques
Enterprise Architects apply archeological approach to acquire knowledge from existing documents.
The mass of project documents which exist in any design should be a knowledge asset.
The discipline involves surveyance, excavation and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past
The process demands significant amounts of experts effort.
Exploit existing documentation
The basic technique of knowledge management is to ask for the explicit information and knowledge via:
There is significant limitation for capture information in this approach as explained in the Dave Snowdon’s seven principle.
In the story of stone soup, the soldiers will not get any food by asking.
Ask for information
There are more tacit knowledge than explicit knowledge in the enterprise.
Knowledge evolve constantly, it is not possible to keep knowledge with a few knowledge managers.
Collaboration is the only way to capture the explicit and keep the evolving knowledge up to date.
The folk story of stone soup is a good example for collaboration.
Knowledge management via jigsaw puzzle strategy.
Knowledge management is analogy to a large jigsaw puzzle without a picture on the box.
Like there are so many disparate pieces to the puzzle that we’re not even sure what they all are sometimes.
The fascination of jigsaw puzzle lead to successful knowledge management.
“ With the maturation of the Internet, collaboration and knowledge sharing have become a standard way of conducting business, to the point where enabling technologies require functionality to address these activities,” says Steve Cranford, a director in PricewaterhouseCoopers’ Advisory Practice.
It does not only allow company to leverage on the power of knowledge but also facilitate the collaboration culture in the organization.
Knowledge management technology
KMC technology solution example
The Microsoft Sharepoint
The SAP Knowledge Management & Collaboration platform (KMC)
The KMC application
the IBM Social Business platform
EA is more valuable for enterprise to leverage on the power of knowledge.
Knowledge management facilitate the enterprise collaboration culture.
EA beyond the enterprise mechanic of business architecture, IT architecture to architect enterprise field of the enterprise knowledge.
Intellegence hierarchy: Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom
Knoco stories: Solving the KM jigsaw puzzle
The seven principle of knowledge management
Knowledge management approach
The role of knowledge managment in enhancing the competitieness of small amd medium-sized Enterprise ( SMEs )