Complex Adaptive IT EA
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Complex Adaptive IT EA



Enterprise is organic and it is futile to EA in a big bang approach. The organic enterprise requires three direction of vertical alignment, horizontal SOA and circular coherence instead of in a ...

Enterprise is organic and it is futile to EA in a big bang approach. The organic enterprise requires three direction of vertical alignment, horizontal SOA and circular coherence instead of in a simple architecture approach. The EA community adopting to change in a three tiers approach of Notional EA, Execution-able EA and Daily EA instead of a big bang EA approach.



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Complex Adaptive IT EA Complex Adaptive IT EA Presentation Transcript

  • 3x3 Complex Adaptive ITEA by John Chi-Zong Wu Version: 2/20/2014
  • Presentation goals    Enterprise is organic, It is futile to EA as an enterprise wide solution architecture. Propose an adaptive IT architecture method to architect the organic Enterprise. To take away:      EA is an emerging paradigm, EA without significant investment of time and resources. SOA in a Horizontal Architecture approach. Decision making is based on influence relation rather then structure relation. EA in a three tier approach rather a big bang.
  • EA lack of value   EA, after decades of effort, have not delivery value. As Ian Rowland said in Why Isn’t Enterprise Architecture In The Big Time? The myth of EA have contributed to the limitation of EA:     The myth of enterprise wide solution architecture. The myth of business process centric EA. The myth of vertical architecture mind set. The myth of command and control.
  • The myth of Enterprise solution architecture      EA is frequently mistaken as a enterprise wide solution architecture in a big bang approach. Solution architects automatically become an enterprise architects by building enterprise wide system. CAD/CAM System engineering packages get a new name and become EA tools to generate software code. The enterprise wide solution architecture become obsolete before the ink dry. EA is an emerging paradigm with the skill of learning experience of the other, reuse, sharing, collaboration and coherence.
  • The myth of top down and bottom up     EA version 1 in the myth of vertical architecture mind set. The EA model follows the vertical architecture theory as shown in the EA model. Architect the enterprise blueprint in a top down and water fall. In this approach, the Enterprise Architects have no need to learn experiences of the others.
  • The myth of business process centric EA   Many EA projects make significant investment in business process modeling and EA become a “The paralysis of analysis”. There are three level of business process in EA as shown in the left.    Concept of operation in notional architecture. Activity Modeling in segment architecture. Business process modeling and reengineering in solution architecture. Concept Of Operation Activity Modeling Business Processes Modeling and reengineering
  • The myth of command and control      Enterprise Architecture is the blueprint for every one to follow in a command and control approach. There are multiple owners in an Enterprise. After all the hard work, enterprise architects have realize that buy-in from the stake holders is not warrantied. Enterprise Architects are not the “Guru”, they are the “Glue” to bundle an organization. An enterprise is the collection of many small organization which function as a whole.
  • Architect Enterprise in a 3X3 adaptive method     It is futile to architect the organic enterprise in a simple system approach. The 3x3 complex adaptive EA approach is designed to supporting the organic enterprise. Adapting to change in the three direction of vertical (Alignment), horizontal (Crosscut) and circular (Coherence) instead of in vertical mind set. Adapting to change in the three tiers of Notional, Executable and Daily instead of a big bang.
  • The three architecture theory   Solution Architecture is base on vertical architecture concept. Enterprise is a complex system which requires vertical, horizontal and circular architecture theoretical direction.  Alignment architecture in top down and vertical direction.  Service Oriented Architecture in cross cutting architecture direction.  Adapting to constant change in circular Direction .
  • 1: The vertical Alignment Architecture      EA to align technology with business need. Business-IT alignment is a dynamic state in which a business organization is able to use information technology (IT) effectively to achieve business objectives (wiki). Align technologies to business needs in a vertical direction from the aspect of who, what, how, who, where and when. It is not only automation but also new technologies such as mobile, multimedia, bio and social technologies. Align technologies and minimize redundant effort.
  • To align not to build    Alignment Architecture is to align technology with business, in a layman’s term it is to find the right vehicle rather than building vehicle. Alignment Architecture does not requires significant investment of time and resources. It is not the enterprise wide solution architecture which only creating larger stovepipe system.
  • 2: The Horizontal direction    EA to overcome stovepipe system by learning experience of the others, reuse, consolidation. It is a cross cutting architecture in horizontal direction as shown in the following figure. It identify the common enterprise primitives and building blocks for service oriented architecture design.
  • EA to learn experiences of the others       EA is about learning the right experiences of the others. “What has been will be again, what has been done will be done again; there is nothing new under the sun.” (Ecclesiastes 1:9 ). Human is the only creature with the gift to learn the experiences of the others. However, it is frequently shadowed by human ego and most people have decline to do so. The concept of “learning experiences of the others” does not exist in stovepipe culture where every one want to be the “Guru”. EA enables every one to learn the right experiences of the others via reference model. The risk of learn experiences of the others is to learn the wrong experience of the others by comparing apple to orange.
  • SOA and Cloud in a horizontal direction     SOA, Cloud and mobile computing with a horizontal architecture direction. The information age have evolved to Service Oriented Architecture, cloud and mobile computing environment, it is all about reuse, sharing, consolidation. Yet, The vertical architecture theory of top down and bottom up without learning experience of the other. In stead of thinking SOA as a bottom up approach, SOA, Cloud and Mobile computing should be treated as a horizontal architecture approach rather than a by product of the vertical architecture method.
  • 3: The circular direction    Solution architecture as an automation system is business process centric. Enterprise Architecture is a holistic approach from the aspect of why, what, how, who, where and when. EA seeking the coherence of why, what, how, who, where and where in the organic enterprise environment as shown in the next figure.
  • Circular direction is influence based     EA version 1 have overlooked that business community making decision based on influence relation rather the structure relation. EA support decision and Decision. The Circular Architecture incorporate influence diagram in EA to support decision making. It also introduce the concept of coherence which is new to the atomistic EA community. Simple influence diagram for making decision about vacation activity (Wikipedia)
  • The Three Tier Approach  EA adapt to change via a three tier architecture approach.  The Notional EA is the high level architecture concept.  The executable EA in segments is an continuous effort to close the business performance gaps.  The daily EA work with management daily in decision making.  The daily EA work with solution architect to enable agility in adopting to change. Source: US Federal Segment Architecture
  • Adapting to Change in three tiers     The world change constantly with ticking time, the challenge of an organization is adopting to change. EA enable the organization agility in adopting to change. There three types of change: Rapid change ( 易變 ), Gradual change( 簡變 ) and Unchange ( 不變 ) as said in the book of change (I-Ching) from China. The 3x3 approach managing the constant change  by sticking to the fundamental ( 以不变應萬变 ).
  • 1: Notional Architecture      Notional architecture provide an overall Enterprise Architecture concept. Notional Architecture prepare in architecture drawing form for every one to comprehend. Notional Architecture serve as the long term enterprise architecture guide line similar to a city plan Notional Architecture is not executable Notional Architecture consist of :   The vertical alignment architecture of business, application, data, technology and business activity modeling. The conceptual enterprise primitives, SOA, cloud and mobile computing.
  • Notional Architecture is not executable       The notional architecture is a high level architecture to give the audience an overall concept of business architecture, activity model, application architecture, data architecture and technology. It is not executable to support the transition planning from As-is to Target. This is different the big bang approach in the first version EA which identify the As-is, Design the target an planning transition for the entire enterprise. A big bang approach is an overwhelming effort which requires significant investment of resources and time. Transition planning for the entire enterprise in particular challenging on every EA project. The enterprise architect do not have to worry about adapting EAP, FEAF, DODAF, TOGAF at this point.
  • 2: Executional EA     Executional EA is the practical EA based on business segments. It is executable to support transition planning. Notional Architecture is enterprise wide but not executable for transition planning. It also include the vertical, horizontal and circular architecture direction as shown on the 3X3 approach.
  • Executional EA is segmental       Executional EA is the work horse of EA. It is segmental rather than a big bang approach. Executable EA identify a manageable scope with sufficient detail to support transition planning. Notional Architecture is enterprise wide but not executable for transition planning. Executional EA is not a segment wide solution architecture. It establish the section activity model, align technology to business in vertical direction, learn and reuse experiences of the others in horizontal direction and seeking coherence in the circular direction. .
  • Business Segment modeling     Enterprise segment modeling to identify the enterprise segments and their relation. For example the US federal government business segment model. Each organization establish their on business segment model. The EA segment is defined as the business segment base on Line of business defined in business reference. Using the business segment to learn experiences of the others and reuse.
  • The Scope of executional architecture      Executable consist of one or more business segments based to close the gaps of business performance. Enterprise conduct business segment performance measurement based on the established business segment model. Define the scope of segments by identifying the underperformed segments. The scope of segments should also take the related segments into consideration. This is different from the US Federal Government Segment Architecture which is a divide and conquer approach to architect a frozen blueprint.
  • The executional EA method  Executional EA adapt the traditional EA approach used as shown on the right:       Policies and standards As-is Target Transition planning Transition planning is not practical in the big bang EA approach. EAP, FEAF, TOGAF is more practical in Segments rather for the entire enterprise. Policy and Standards Target As-Is Transition
  • 3 : Daily EA      Enterprise Architects are the “Glue” not the “Guru”. Instead of live in an ivory tower, Enterprise Architects work with all level of organization daily to enable enterprise agility in adapting to change via reuse and sharing. However, EA can facilitate every one to see the whole and know the parts without the training from childhood. In a organization, every one have their job to do in dedicating to parts. Enterprise Architects can facilitate every one to see the whole.
  • EA are the “Glue” not the “Guru”    Enterprise architects are the “Glue” to facilitate collaboration rather than the “Guru” in a command and control approach. Enterprise need to establish a policy for Enterprise Architects to participate all level of planning and review meeting to support decision making and facilitate agility via sharing and reuse. For IT community, EA can save significant time and in       Strategic planning. Project Management. System development life cycle. Risk and security management. The work with both the Business and IT community. EA is a value not a burden.
  • EA as a value not a burden      The big bang EA approach requires significant investment of time and resources to become a burden/ The 3X3 approach deliver EA value at each tier. The Notional EA is conceptual and high level, it should take more than six months. The Executional EA is a continuous effort to align technologies with business need, learning experiences of the other. The Daily EA is flexible based on demand, the cost can be easily covered by the cost saving from daily EA effort.
  • 3X3 related to COBIT and ITIL    COBIT (IT governance) and ITIL (IT service management) has become popular in the IT community. However, the relation between IT architecture, IT governance and IT service management is not clear to the IT community. The model on the right clarify the context between IT Enterprise architecture, IT governance (COBIT) and IT service management (ITIL) IT Governance (Cobit) vice Ser ent IT em nag ) Ma ITIL (
  • Bridging between strategy and execution    Many business failed due to the gaps between strategy and execution rather than lack of good strategy. EA is the foundation to close the gaps between business strategy and execution as said In “Enterprise Architecture as strategy : creating a foundation for business execution.” by Jeanne W. Ross. Peter Weill and David C. Robertson, The 3X3 architecture illustrate how EA close the gaps between of strategy and execution in an organic EA.
  • Conclusion       EA is an emerging paradigm rather than an enterprise wide solution architecture. Adopting to change in a 3X3 architecture approach. Architecting the enterprise in vertical alignment, horizontal sharing and circular coherence direction. Adopting to change by sticking to the fundamental principle in three tiers of Notional EA, Executive EA and daily EA. The key is to make transition from solution architect to enterprise architect. It is a matter of a flipping of mind set.