Gerunds 8


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Gerunds 8

  1. 1. Gerunds Another fabulous VERBAL!
  2. 2. <ul><li>Do you remember what a verbal is? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a verb that is acting like another part of speech! </li></ul><ul><li>There are only three verbals! </li></ul><ul><li>Participles…..act as adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Gerunds….. act as nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitives…..act as nouns, adjectives, </li></ul><ul><li>or adverbs </li></ul>
  3. 3. The bottom line <ul><li>Gerunds always act like NOUNS. </li></ul><ul><li>They are very difficult to remove from sentences. Because unlike adjectives, nouns are not optional accessories. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about it like this…….. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gerunds vs. Participles <ul><li>Participles are like TONSILS or APENDENDIXES. They can be REMOVED without a lot of problems. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>If you remove a person’s HEART, LIVER, or BRAIN, they won’t do as well, right?  </li></ul><ul><li>These major organs are similar to the role of gerunds in sentences! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Another analogy…. <ul><li>Participles are like accessories (earrings.) They act as adjectives, very removable. In fact, you can forget them and that is fine! </li></ul><ul><li>Gerunds are like pants or shirts. If you leave them out… a problem ensues…. </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns/gerunds are too important to forget or leave out! </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is the point? <ul><li>If you are having trouble differentiating between participles and gerunds, try and remove the phrase! </li></ul><ul><li>If the phrase is easily removable, it is probably a participial phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>If you remove the phrase and the sentence does not make much sense, then it is most likely a gerund phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Simply because NOUNS are harder to remove than adjectives! </li></ul>
  7. 7. GERUNDS <ul><li>They ALWAYS end in “ING.” </li></ul><ul><li>If the word does not end in “ING,” it is not a gerund! PERIOD! </li></ul><ul><li>ing ing ing ing ing ing </li></ul>
  8. 8. Review Roles of Nouns in Sentences! <ul><li>Nouns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects (My dog ran away.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicate nominatives (He is my dog .) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects of prepositions (There is a flea on my dog .) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct objects (John hit my dog !) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect objects (Mom gave John a spanking.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appositives (My dog Rover is fine.) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Examples of Gerunds in these same roles…. <ul><li>Subject: Jogging is good exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>PN: Her favorite sport is skating . </li></ul><ul><li>Obj. of prep.: I was grounded from skateboarding. </li></ul><ul><li>DO: Did you go hiking ? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Once you know it is a gerund, how can you decide what “role” it is playing? <ul><li>Here are some hints to help you…. </li></ul><ul><li>If the word/phrase is at the beginning of the sentence, it is likely to be acting as the subject of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Running is a great form of exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>If the word/phrase directly follows a preposition, it is probably acting as the object of the preposition. </li></ul><ul><li>I am tired of getting up early every morning . </li></ul>
  11. 11. More Hints….. <ul><li>If the word/phrase comes after the verb, it is probably a complement. (DO or PN) </li></ul><ul><li>If it follows an action verb and answers the question “What?”…… a Direct Object! </li></ul><ul><li>She loves shouting at her brother! </li></ul><ul><li>If it follows a linking verb and renames the subject of the sentence…a Predicate Nominative! </li></ul><ul><li>My favorite sport is skiing. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tips of the Trade <ul><li>Do not confuse gerunds with verbs acting as verbs or adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Pausing, the deer was sniffing the wind before stepping into the open meadow. </li></ul><ul><li>Copy this sentence. Highlight all the verbs you find? Label how each is being used. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Pausing , the deer was </li></ul><ul><li>sniffing the wind before </li></ul><ul><li>stepping into the open </li></ul><ul><li>meadow. </li></ul>
  14. 14. More examples <ul><li>Sharon’s pleading did not convince her dad at all. </li></ul><ul><li>He got a ticket for running a red-light. </li></ul><ul><li>We enjoyed the slow swaying of the boat. </li></ul><ul><li>She is considering dating that cute guy. </li></ul><ul><li>My dog’s favorite activity is chewing shoes! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Verbals… One more time!!!  <ul><li>Participles act as adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerunds act as nouns. Nouns act as subjects, predicate nominatives, objects of prepositions, direct objects, indirect objects and appositives. </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitives act as adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. </li></ul>