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The Phrase A phrase is a group of related words.  It does NOT create a sentence.
I.  Verb Phrase <ul><li>A. A group of words that creates a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Every word in a verb phrase is a ver...
II.  The Prepositional Phrase <ul><li>Anatomy of a Prepositional Phrase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preposition…[adv….adj]…noun/...
A.  The Adjective Phrase <ul><li>Definition:  A Prepositional phrase used as an adjective. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </l...
The truth about adjective phrases -- They… <ul><li>1.  answer the questions “which one?”  or “what kind?” </li></ul><ul><l...
Find the adjective phrases <ul><li>The man in the story had no friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge was the man in the story...
Find the adjective phrases <ul><li>The man  in the story  had no friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge was the man  in the st...
More Practice finding  Adjective Phrases <ul><li>During the night, a fire truck came down my street. </li></ul><ul><li>A f...
More Practice finding  Adjective Phrases <ul><li>During the night, a fire truck came down my street. </li></ul><ul><li>A f...
More Practice finding  Adjective Phrases <ul><li>Sandy didn’t know about the computer experiment in the lab. </li></ul><ul...
More Practice finding  Adjective Phrases <ul><li>Sandy didn’t know about the computer experiment  in the lab . </li></ul><...
B. The Adverb Phrase <ul><li>Definition:  A Prepositional Phrase used as an adverb </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><...
The truth about adverb phrases:  They… <ul><li>1.  can  begin a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>2.  will not immediately follow...
THINK LOGICALLY… <ul><li>There are only two kinds of prepositional phrases – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADJECTIVE  and ADVE...
Find the adverb phrases <ul><li>For many years, Scrooge and Marley were business partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge ran h...
Find the adverb phrases <ul><li>For many years , Scrooge and Marley were business partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge ran ...
More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>When my dad was young, he had a little transistor radio that he kept  ...
More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>When my dad was young, he had a little transistor radio that he kept  ...
More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>What’s the matter with my clothes? </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle of ...
More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>What’s the matter  with my clothes ? </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle  ...
III. The Appositive Phrase A group of words containing a noun that renames another noun in a sentence
The Appositive Phrase... <ul><li>A.  is centered around a noun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob,  a  boy  in my class , sits next...
The Appositive Phrase... <ul><li>D.  will be surrounded by commas 99% of the time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob, my  friend ,...
The Appositive Phrase... <ul><li>F.  will  not  begin with a pronoun like “who,” “which,” “whose,” “that,” etc.  </li></ul...
The Appositive Phrase... <ul><li>H.  will  not  begin with a verb form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy  calling  out my nam...
Find the appositive phrases <ul><li>My best friend Mona lives down the street. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeremy, the boy next door...
Find the appositive phrases <ul><li>My best friend  Mona  lives down the street. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeremy,  the boy next d...
Practice with PREP And APP phrases <ul><li>1. Excellent athletes, the WA 7th grade boys and girls basketball teams both ha...
Practice with PREP And APP phrases <ul><li>6. Mrs. Williams wants chocolate with nuts and caramel tomorrow. </li></ul><ul>...
Practice with APP phrases <ul><li>1.  Mack Sennett, the movie producer, gave us the Keystone Kops. </li></ul><ul><li>2.  H...
Name the part of speech of each word: <ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>bark </li></ul><ul><li>well </li></ul><ul><li>lead <...
IV.  Verbal Phrases <ul><li>A phrase that is centered around a verb form. </li></ul><ul><li>This verb form is NOT used as ...
3 Kinds of Verbal Phrases <ul><li>Gerund Phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitive Phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Participial Phrase <...
A.  Gerund Phrase <ul><li>Centers around a verb form of -ING </li></ul><ul><li>Is always used as a noun </li></ul><ul><li>...
Not all -ING words are Gerunds: <ul><li>Morning </li></ul><ul><li>evening </li></ul><ul><li>something </li></ul><ul><li>no...
Examples: Gerund Phrases <ul><li>Swimming the mile is my best event. </li></ul><ul><li>I like swimming the mile. </li></ul...
Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>His sister was dancing in the show. </li></ul><ul><li>I hate practicing the piano. </li></u...
Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>His sister was dancing in the show. </li></ul><ul><li>I hate  practicing the piano . </li><...
Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study. </li></ul><ul><li>Kino’s specialty is cooki...
Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>Becoming a doctor  takes years of serious study. </li></ul><ul><li>Kino’s specialty is  coo...
Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>Traveling to new and interesting places is fun. </li></ul><ul><li>The smiling child amused ...
Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>Traveling to new and interesting places  is fun. </li></ul><ul><li>The smiling child amused...
B.  Infinitive Phrases
Infinitive Phrases <ul><li>Center around TO + verb </li></ul><ul><li>Verb is “naked” – No form </li></ul><ul><li>Examples:...
Find the infinitives <ul><li>I wanted to go to the mall today. </li></ul><ul><li>My mom went to bed early. </li></ul><ul><...
Infinitive Phrases <ul><li>I went to the pond to fish for bass. </li></ul><ul><li>I have to go to the mall before supper. ...
Infinitive Phrases as Nouns <ul><li>I want to get a car for my birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>My goal is to get a car for my ...
Infinitive Phrases as Adjectives <ul><li>The movie to see is  Snow Dogs . </li></ul><ul><li>I missed the road to take to t...
Infinitive Phrases as Adverbs <ul><li>I went to the pond to fish. </li></ul><ul><li>To get into Harvard, you must study. <...
Some famous Infinitives: <ul><li>“ To be or not to be, that is the question.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ To know me is to love me...
C.  Participial Phrases
Participles... <ul><li>Are verb forms used as ADJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>can be taken out of the sentence </li></ul><ul>...
Some participial verb forms: <ul><li>-ing as in “The  pouring  rain…” </li></ul><ul><li>-ed as in “The  soiled  carpet…” <...
Participles... <ul><li>Will come as close as they can to noun they modify </li></ul><ul><li>can come BEFORE or AFTER the n...
Examples: <ul><li>The  frowning  clown fell down. </li></ul><ul><li>The clown,  frowning at the crowd , fell down. </li></...
If the participial phrase comes first in the sentence... <ul><li>It is separated from the sentence with a comma </li></ul>...
Caution: <ul><li>If a participle is not close to the noun it modifies, it can become misplaced. </li></ul><ul><li>I saw a ...
Find the participles <ul><li>The fallen tree blocked the road. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary had to replace the soiled carpet. </...
Find the participles <ul><li>The  fallen  tree blocked the road. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary had to replace the  soiled  carpet...
Find the participial phrases <ul><li>Running quickly, the puppy caught up with the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing my fam...
Find the participial phrases <ul><li>Running quickly , the puppy caught up with the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing my fa...
Find more participial phrases <ul><li>Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring. </li></ul><ul>...
Find more participial phrases <ul><li>Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring. </li></ul><ul>...
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7P Phrases

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Transcript of "7P Phrases"

  1. 1. The Phrase A phrase is a group of related words. It does NOT create a sentence.
  2. 2. I. Verb Phrase <ul><li>A. A group of words that creates a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Every word in a verb phrase is a verb </li></ul><ul><li>C. Can you think of any examples? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is walking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shall be talking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may sit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>should have been studying </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. II. The Prepositional Phrase <ul><li>Anatomy of a Prepositional Phrase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preposition…[adv….adj]…noun/pronoun (obj) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A. The Adjective Phrase <ul><li>Definition: A Prepositional phrase used as an adjective. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy with red hair is sitting next to me. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The girl sat next to the wall with windows . </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The truth about adjective phrases -- They… <ul><li>1. answer the questions “which one?” or “what kind?” </li></ul><ul><li>2. always come after the nouns they modify </li></ul><ul><li>3. are ALWAYS adj. phrases after a subject </li></ul><ul><li>4. never begin a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>5. never come right after a verb </li></ul>
  6. 6. Find the adjective phrases <ul><li>The man in the story had no friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge was the man in the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge was a friend to Marley. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge hated charity of any kind. </li></ul><ul><li>Marley became a ghost with clanking chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Marley frightened Scrooge when he came to visit. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Find the adjective phrases <ul><li>The man in the story had no friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge was the man in the story . </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge was a friend to Marley . </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge hated charity of any kind . </li></ul><ul><li>Marley became a ghost with clanking chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Marley frightened Scrooge when he came to visit. </li></ul>
  8. 8. More Practice finding Adjective Phrases <ul><li>During the night, a fire truck came down my street. </li></ul><ul><li>A fire truck came down my street during the night. </li></ul><ul><li>Sid dropped his pencil on the sidewalk. </li></ul><ul><li>The cat in the tree suddenly meowed with all its might. </li></ul>
  9. 9. More Practice finding Adjective Phrases <ul><li>During the night, a fire truck came down my street. </li></ul><ul><li>A fire truck came down my street during the night. </li></ul><ul><li>Sid dropped his pencil on the sidewalk. </li></ul><ul><li>The cat in the tree suddenly meowed with all its might. </li></ul>
  10. 10. More Practice finding Adjective Phrases <ul><li>Sandy didn’t know about the computer experiment in the lab. </li></ul><ul><li>In a flash, the twins were transported to another world. </li></ul><ul><li>The short man in the wilderness seemed afraid of the twins at first. </li></ul><ul><li>The twins sat down and wondered where they were. </li></ul>
  11. 11. More Practice finding Adjective Phrases <ul><li>Sandy didn’t know about the computer experiment in the lab . </li></ul><ul><li>In a flash, the twins were transported to another world. </li></ul><ul><li>The small man in the wilderness seemed afraid of the twins at first. </li></ul><ul><li>The twins sat down and wondered where they were. </li></ul>
  12. 12. B. The Adverb Phrase <ul><li>Definition: A Prepositional Phrase used as an adverb </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I sat with Sally at the seashore . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We fished for hours . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I dropped my coke can into the water . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the spring I go to the beach . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The truth about adverb phrases: They… <ul><li>1. can begin a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>2. will not immediately follow the subject </li></ul><ul><li>3. can follow VERBS, ADVERBS and ADJECTIVES (and modify them) </li></ul><ul><li>4. answer questions like “when?” “where?” “why?” “how?” </li></ul>
  14. 14. THINK LOGICALLY… <ul><li>There are only two kinds of prepositional phrases – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADJECTIVE and ADVERB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If a phrase is not ADJECTIVE, then it must be ADVERB! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Find the adverb phrases <ul><li>For many years, Scrooge and Marley were business partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge ran his business in a miserly way. </li></ul><ul><li>Bob Cratchit worked for Scrooge. </li></ul><ul><li>Bob had very little heat while he worked. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge and Marley had been partners for many years. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Find the adverb phrases <ul><li>For many years , Scrooge and Marley were business partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge ran his business in a miserly way. </li></ul><ul><li>Bob Cratchit worked for Scrooge . </li></ul><ul><li>Bob had very little heat while he worked. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge and Marley had been partners for many years . </li></ul>
  17. 17. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>When my dad was young, he had a little transistor radio that he kept </li></ul><ul><li>by his bed to listen to music. </li></ul><ul><li>“When you wish upon a star, your dreams come true.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>When my dad was young, he had a little transistor radio that he kept </li></ul><ul><li>by his bed to listen to music . </li></ul><ul><li>“When you wish upon a star , your dreams come true.” </li></ul>
  19. 19. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>What’s the matter with my clothes? </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle of the floor was a pile of dirty clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>While you clean up this mess, I will go to the store and buy some new clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>Since last May, you have worn those same jeans for days and days. </li></ul><ul><li>With a little bit of luck, you will get to go to the mall. </li></ul>
  20. 20. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>What’s the matter with my clothes ? </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle of the floor was a pile of dirty clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>While you clean up this mess, I will go to the store and buy some new clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>Since last May , you have worn those same jeans for days and days . </li></ul><ul><li>With a little bit of luck , you will get to go to the mall. </li></ul>
  21. 21. III. The Appositive Phrase A group of words containing a noun that renames another noun in a sentence
  22. 22. The Appositive Phrase... <ul><li>A. is centered around a noun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob, a boy in my class , sits next to me. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. renames another noun in the main sentence . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bob is renamed with boy . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>C. can be removed from the sentence . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bob sat next to me. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Appositive Phrase... <ul><li>D. will be surrounded by commas 99% of the time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob, my friend , is nice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My friend Bob is nice. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E. Will MOST likely come AFTER the noun it renames. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob, my best friend , is nice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A friend at all times, Bob is always there. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[Sometimes it comes before the noun] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Appositive Phrase... <ul><li>F. will not begin with a pronoun like “who,” “which,” “whose,” “that,” etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy who sits next to me is Bob. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No appositive in the above sentence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>G. may have a pronoun + verb later in the phrase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bob, my friend who lives in LA , is nice. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Appositive Phrase... <ul><li>H. will not begin with a verb form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy calling out my name is Bob. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Find the appositive phrases <ul><li>My best friend Mona lives down the street. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeremy, the boy next door, is moving to Hawaii. </li></ul><ul><li>The man who came to dinner is my uncle. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Jo, the girl who likes sushi, is sitting over there. </li></ul><ul><li>My brother, who eats all day, never gains weight. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Find the appositive phrases <ul><li>My best friend Mona lives down the street. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeremy, the boy next door , is moving to Hawaii. </li></ul><ul><li>The man who came to dinner is my uncle. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Jo, the girl who likes sushi , is sitting over there. </li></ul><ul><li>My brother, who eats all day, never gains weight. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Practice with PREP And APP phrases <ul><li>1. Excellent athletes, the WA 7th grade boys and girls basketball teams both had winning seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Before Monday, please type your English paper again. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mrs. Barber, our seventh grade English teacher, is an avid reader. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Your next meeting will take place in Mr. Lee’s room. </li></ul><ul><li>5. We went to Charlotte last Christmas. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Practice with PREP And APP phrases <ul><li>6. Mrs. Williams wants chocolate with nuts and caramel tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The purpose of the Valentine is to show love. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Ms. Kramlich was careful to include the entire class in the discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>9. C.S. Lewis, an English author, wrote The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe . </li></ul><ul><li>10. You should boil the water before putting in the pasta. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Practice with APP phrases <ul><li>1. Mack Sennett, the movie producer, gave us the Keystone Kops. </li></ul><ul><li>2. He also introduced America to an English film comic, Charlie Chaplin. </li></ul><ul><li>3. One of American’s best female comics, Mae West made movies with W.C. Fields. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Buster Keaton, another silent movie comedian, was called the Great Stoneface. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, a famous pair of fools, made many movies together. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Have you ever seen Richard Pryor, the comedian and movie star? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Name the part of speech of each word: <ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>bark </li></ul><ul><li>well </li></ul><ul><li>lead </li></ul>
  32. 32. IV. Verbal Phrases <ul><li>A phrase that is centered around a verb form. </li></ul><ul><li>This verb form is NOT used as a verb in the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>It is used as a noun, adj. Or adv. </li></ul>
  33. 33. 3 Kinds of Verbal Phrases <ul><li>Gerund Phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitive Phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Participial Phrase </li></ul>
  34. 34. A. Gerund Phrase <ul><li>Centers around a verb form of -ING </li></ul><ul><li>Is always used as a noun </li></ul><ul><li>Is never surrounded by commas except for appositives </li></ul><ul><li>Caution: -ING verb forms can be verbs or adjs (these are NOT gerunds) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in each of the 6 noun positions </li></ul>
  35. 35. Not all -ING words are Gerunds: <ul><li>Morning </li></ul><ul><li>evening </li></ul><ul><li>something </li></ul><ul><li>nothing </li></ul><ul><li>anything </li></ul><ul><li>everything </li></ul><ul><li>She is driving to school today. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Examples: Gerund Phrases <ul><li>Swimming the mile is my best event. </li></ul><ul><li>I like swimming the mile. </li></ul><ul><li>My best event is swimming the mile. </li></ul><ul><li>I gave swimming the mile a try. </li></ul><ul><li>He lectured us about swimming the mile. </li></ul><ul><li>My best event, swimming the mile, was canceled. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>His sister was dancing in the show. </li></ul><ul><li>I hate practicing the piano. </li></ul><ul><li>I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10. </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing. </li></ul><ul><li>Wishing upon a star, Sue made a wish. </li></ul><ul><li>While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>His sister was dancing in the show. </li></ul><ul><li>I hate practicing the piano . </li></ul><ul><li>I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10. </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing. </li></ul><ul><li>Wishing upon a star, Sue made a wish. </li></ul><ul><li>While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study. </li></ul><ul><li>Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home. </li></ul><ul><li>Carla decided on writing about famous women in history. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study. </li></ul><ul><li>Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms . </li></ul><ul><li>The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home. </li></ul><ul><li>Carla decided on writing about famous women in history. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>Traveling to new and interesting places is fun. </li></ul><ul><li>The smiling child amused his parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Give playing golf another chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Pam is studying for her French exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Find the gerund phrase <ul><li>Traveling to new and interesting places is fun. </li></ul><ul><li>The smiling child amused his parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Give playing golf another chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Pam is studying for her French exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut. </li></ul>
  43. 43. B. Infinitive Phrases
  44. 44. Infinitive Phrases <ul><li>Center around TO + verb </li></ul><ul><li>Verb is “naked” – No form </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: to go, to sit, to talk, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used as noun, adj. Or adv. </li></ul><ul><li>Caution: do not confuse with prep. Phrase with “to” </li></ul>
  45. 45. Find the infinitives <ul><li>I wanted to go to the mall today. </li></ul><ul><li>My mom went to bed early. </li></ul><ul><li>Your cat ate too much food today. </li></ul><ul><li>To sleep all day is unhealthy. </li></ul><ul><li>I want to ask you a question. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Infinitive Phrases <ul><li>I went to the pond to fish for bass. </li></ul><ul><li>I have to go to the mall before supper. </li></ul><ul><li>To make good grades, one must study. </li></ul><ul><li>My goal is to make good grades. </li></ul><ul><li>I sat with the team to give them my support. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to get out of here too fast. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Infinitive Phrases as Nouns <ul><li>I want to get a car for my birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>My goal is to get a car for my birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>To get a car for my birthday would be wonderful. </li></ul><ul><li>My goal, to get a car for my birthday, may never happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Which two noun positions are not used? </li></ul>
  48. 48. Infinitive Phrases as Adjectives <ul><li>The movie to see is Snow Dogs . </li></ul><ul><li>I missed the road to take to the beach. </li></ul><ul><li>The place to see moose is Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>I need a place to keep my bookbag. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective IP will come directly after a noun and modify it by saying “which” or “what kind.” </li></ul>
  49. 49. Infinitive Phrases as Adverbs <ul><li>I went to the pond to fish. </li></ul><ul><li>To get into Harvard, you must study. </li></ul><ul><li>I am happy to be here. </li></ul><ul><li>I am sad to see you go. </li></ul><ul><li>An IP that comes first in a sentence MAY be an adverb, but it will have a comma after it. Adverb IP usually answer “why” or “how” </li></ul>
  50. 50. Some famous Infinitives: <ul><li>“ To be or not to be, that is the question.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ To know me is to love me.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ You’ve got to live a little.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I vant to drink your bloooooood.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I wanna hold your hand.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’ve only just begun to fight.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ To boldly go where no man has gone before…” (split infinitive) </li></ul>
  51. 51. C. Participial Phrases
  52. 52. Participles... <ul><li>Are verb forms used as ADJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>can be taken out of the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>have several forms </li></ul>
  53. 53. Some participial verb forms: <ul><li>-ing as in “The pouring rain…” </li></ul><ul><li>-ed as in “The soiled carpet…” </li></ul><ul><li>-n or -en as in “The broken arrow…” </li></ul><ul><li>-t as in “The bent tree…” </li></ul>
  54. 54. Participles... <ul><li>Will come as close as they can to noun they modify </li></ul><ul><li>can come BEFORE or AFTER the noun </li></ul>
  55. 55. Examples: <ul><li>The frowning clown fell down. </li></ul><ul><li>The clown, frowning at the crowd , fell down. </li></ul><ul><li>Frowning at the crowd , the clown fell down. </li></ul>
  56. 56. If the participial phrase comes first in the sentence... <ul><li>It is separated from the sentence with a comma </li></ul><ul><li>Bent by the wind , the tree finally fell over. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Caution: <ul><li>If a participle is not close to the noun it modifies, it can become misplaced. </li></ul><ul><li>I saw a dollar walking home… should be… </li></ul><ul><li>Walking home , I saw a dollar. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Find the participles <ul><li>The fallen tree blocked the road. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary had to replace the soiled carpet. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies. </li></ul><ul><li>The running water eroded the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>We finally got our own swimming pool. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Find the participles <ul><li>The fallen tree blocked the road. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary had to replace the soiled carpet. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies. </li></ul><ul><li>The running water eroded the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>We finally got our own swimming pool. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Find the participial phrases <ul><li>Running quickly, the puppy caught up with the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing my family made me feel safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Bending in the wind, the tree finally fell. </li></ul><ul><li>The wind, whipping through the valley, did extensive damage. </li></ul><ul><li>I saw my uncle waiting for me. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Find the participial phrases <ul><li>Running quickly , the puppy caught up with the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing my family made me feel safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Bending in the wind , the tree finally fell. </li></ul><ul><li>The wind, whipping through the valley , did extensive damage. </li></ul><ul><li>I saw my uncle waiting for me . </li></ul>
  62. 62. Find more participial phrases <ul><li>Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting by the dock, Bob felt lonely. </li></ul><ul><li>The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin. </li></ul><ul><li>Not watching his steps, the toddler fell down. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Find more participial phrases <ul><li>Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting by the dock , Bob felt lonely. </li></ul><ul><li>The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin. </li></ul><ul><li>Not watching his steps , the toddler fell down. </li></ul>
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