7P Phrases
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  • 1. The Phrase A phrase is a group of related words. It does NOT create a sentence.
  • 2. I. Verb Phrase
    • A. A group of words that creates a verb.
    • B. Every word in a verb phrase is a verb
    • C. Can you think of any examples?
      • is walking
      • shall be talking
      • may sit
      • should have been studying
  • 3. II. The Prepositional Phrase
    • Anatomy of a Prepositional Phrase
      • Preposition…[adv….adj]…noun/pronoun (obj)
  • 4. A. The Adjective Phrase
    • Definition: A Prepositional phrase used as an adjective.
    • Examples:
      • The boy with red hair is sitting next to me.
      • The girl sat next to the wall with windows .
  • 5. The truth about adjective phrases -- They…
    • 1. answer the questions “which one?” or “what kind?”
    • 2. always come after the nouns they modify
    • 3. are ALWAYS adj. phrases after a subject
    • 4. never begin a sentence
    • 5. never come right after a verb
  • 6. Find the adjective phrases
    • The man in the story had no friends.
    • Scrooge was the man in the story.
    • Scrooge was a friend to Marley.
    • Scrooge hated charity of any kind.
    • Marley became a ghost with clanking chains.
    • Marley frightened Scrooge when he came to visit.
  • 7. Find the adjective phrases
    • The man in the story had no friends.
    • Scrooge was the man in the story .
    • Scrooge was a friend to Marley .
    • Scrooge hated charity of any kind .
    • Marley became a ghost with clanking chains.
    • Marley frightened Scrooge when he came to visit.
  • 8. More Practice finding Adjective Phrases
    • During the night, a fire truck came down my street.
    • A fire truck came down my street during the night.
    • Sid dropped his pencil on the sidewalk.
    • The cat in the tree suddenly meowed with all its might.
  • 9. More Practice finding Adjective Phrases
    • During the night, a fire truck came down my street.
    • A fire truck came down my street during the night.
    • Sid dropped his pencil on the sidewalk.
    • The cat in the tree suddenly meowed with all its might.
  • 10. More Practice finding Adjective Phrases
    • Sandy didn’t know about the computer experiment in the lab.
    • In a flash, the twins were transported to another world.
    • The short man in the wilderness seemed afraid of the twins at first.
    • The twins sat down and wondered where they were.
  • 11. More Practice finding Adjective Phrases
    • Sandy didn’t know about the computer experiment in the lab .
    • In a flash, the twins were transported to another world.
    • The small man in the wilderness seemed afraid of the twins at first.
    • The twins sat down and wondered where they were.
  • 12. B. The Adverb Phrase
    • Definition: A Prepositional Phrase used as an adverb
    • Examples:
      • I sat with Sally at the seashore .
      • We fished for hours .
      • I dropped my coke can into the water .
      • In the spring I go to the beach .
  • 13. The truth about adverb phrases: They…
    • 1. can begin a sentence
    • 2. will not immediately follow the subject
    • 3. can follow VERBS, ADVERBS and ADJECTIVES (and modify them)
    • 4. answer questions like “when?” “where?” “why?” “how?”
  • 14. THINK LOGICALLY…
    • There are only two kinds of prepositional phrases –
        • ADJECTIVE and ADVERB
    • If a phrase is not ADJECTIVE, then it must be ADVERB!
  • 15. Find the adverb phrases
    • For many years, Scrooge and Marley were business partners.
    • Scrooge ran his business in a miserly way.
    • Bob Cratchit worked for Scrooge.
    • Bob had very little heat while he worked.
    • Scrooge and Marley had been partners for many years.
  • 16. Find the adverb phrases
    • For many years , Scrooge and Marley were business partners.
    • Scrooge ran his business in a miserly way.
    • Bob Cratchit worked for Scrooge .
    • Bob had very little heat while he worked.
    • Scrooge and Marley had been partners for many years .
  • 17. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases
    • When my dad was young, he had a little transistor radio that he kept
    • by his bed to listen to music.
    • “When you wish upon a star, your dreams come true.”
  • 18. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases
    • When my dad was young, he had a little transistor radio that he kept
    • by his bed to listen to music .
    • “When you wish upon a star , your dreams come true.”
  • 19. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases
    • What’s the matter with my clothes?
    • In the middle of the floor was a pile of dirty clothes.
    • While you clean up this mess, I will go to the store and buy some new clothes.
    • Since last May, you have worn those same jeans for days and days.
    • With a little bit of luck, you will get to go to the mall.
  • 20. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases
    • What’s the matter with my clothes ?
    • In the middle of the floor was a pile of dirty clothes.
    • While you clean up this mess, I will go to the store and buy some new clothes.
    • Since last May , you have worn those same jeans for days and days .
    • With a little bit of luck , you will get to go to the mall.
  • 21. III. The Appositive Phrase A group of words containing a noun that renames another noun in a sentence
  • 22. The Appositive Phrase...
    • A. is centered around a noun
      • Bob, a boy in my class , sits next to me.
    • B. renames another noun in the main sentence .
        • Bob is renamed with boy .
    • C. can be removed from the sentence .
          • Bob sat next to me.
  • 23. The Appositive Phrase...
    • D. will be surrounded by commas 99% of the time.
      • Bob, my friend , is nice.
      • My friend Bob is nice.
    • E. Will MOST likely come AFTER the noun it renames.
      • Bob, my best friend , is nice.
      • A friend at all times, Bob is always there.
          • [Sometimes it comes before the noun]
  • 24. The Appositive Phrase...
    • F. will not begin with a pronoun like “who,” “which,” “whose,” “that,” etc.
      • The boy who sits next to me is Bob.
        • No appositive in the above sentence.
    • G. may have a pronoun + verb later in the phrase
      • Bob, my friend who lives in LA , is nice.
  • 25. The Appositive Phrase...
    • H. will not begin with a verb form.
      • The boy calling out my name is Bob.
  • 26. Find the appositive phrases
    • My best friend Mona lives down the street.
    • Jeremy, the boy next door, is moving to Hawaii.
    • The man who came to dinner is my uncle.
    • Mary Jo, the girl who likes sushi, is sitting over there.
    • My brother, who eats all day, never gains weight.
  • 27. Find the appositive phrases
    • My best friend Mona lives down the street.
    • Jeremy, the boy next door , is moving to Hawaii.
    • The man who came to dinner is my uncle.
    • Mary Jo, the girl who likes sushi , is sitting over there.
    • My brother, who eats all day, never gains weight.
  • 28. Practice with PREP And APP phrases
    • 1. Excellent athletes, the WA 7th grade boys and girls basketball teams both had winning seasons.
    • 2. Before Monday, please type your English paper again.
    • 3. Mrs. Barber, our seventh grade English teacher, is an avid reader.
    • 4. Your next meeting will take place in Mr. Lee’s room.
    • 5. We went to Charlotte last Christmas.
  • 29. Practice with PREP And APP phrases
    • 6. Mrs. Williams wants chocolate with nuts and caramel tomorrow.
    • 7. The purpose of the Valentine is to show love.
    • 8. Ms. Kramlich was careful to include the entire class in the discussion.
    • 9. C.S. Lewis, an English author, wrote The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe .
    • 10. You should boil the water before putting in the pasta.
  • 30. Practice with APP phrases
    • 1. Mack Sennett, the movie producer, gave us the Keystone Kops.
    • 2. He also introduced America to an English film comic, Charlie Chaplin.
    • 3. One of American’s best female comics, Mae West made movies with W.C. Fields.
    • 4. Buster Keaton, another silent movie comedian, was called the Great Stoneface.
    • 5. Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, a famous pair of fools, made many movies together.
    • 6. Have you ever seen Richard Pryor, the comedian and movie star?
  • 31. Name the part of speech of each word:
    • Light
    • bark
    • well
    • lead
  • 32. IV. Verbal Phrases
    • A phrase that is centered around a verb form.
    • This verb form is NOT used as a verb in the sentence
    • It is used as a noun, adj. Or adv.
  • 33. 3 Kinds of Verbal Phrases
    • Gerund Phrase
    • Infinitive Phrase
    • Participial Phrase
  • 34. A. Gerund Phrase
    • Centers around a verb form of -ING
    • Is always used as a noun
    • Is never surrounded by commas except for appositives
    • Caution: -ING verb forms can be verbs or adjs (these are NOT gerunds)
    • Can be used in each of the 6 noun positions
  • 35. Not all -ING words are Gerunds:
    • Morning
    • evening
    • something
    • nothing
    • anything
    • everything
    • She is driving to school today.
  • 36. Examples: Gerund Phrases
    • Swimming the mile is my best event.
    • I like swimming the mile.
    • My best event is swimming the mile.
    • I gave swimming the mile a try.
    • He lectured us about swimming the mile.
    • My best event, swimming the mile, was canceled.
  • 37. Find the gerund phrase
    • His sister was dancing in the show.
    • I hate practicing the piano.
    • I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10.
    • Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing.
    • Wishing upon a star, Sue made a wish.
    • While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar.
  • 38. Find the gerund phrase
    • His sister was dancing in the show.
    • I hate practicing the piano .
    • I gave my mom’s cooking a perfect 10.
    • Sitting by the pool is quite relaxing.
    • Wishing upon a star, Sue made a wish.
    • While I was walking on the beach, I found a sand dollar.
  • 39. Find the gerund phrase
    • Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study.
    • Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms.
    • The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home.
    • Carla decided on writing about famous women in history.
    • Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening.
  • 40. Find the gerund phrase
    • Becoming a doctor takes years of serious study.
    • Kino’s specialty is cooking mushrooms .
    • The subtle squeaking of the door hinges told Mira that her sister was home.
    • Carla decided on writing about famous women in history.
    • Mr. Riley enjoys the crackling of a campfire on a winter’s evening.
  • 41. Find the gerund phrase
    • Traveling to new and interesting places is fun.
    • The smiling child amused his parents.
    • Give playing golf another chance.
    • Pam is studying for her French exam.
    • Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut.
  • 42. Find the gerund phrase
    • Traveling to new and interesting places is fun.
    • The smiling child amused his parents.
    • Give playing golf another chance.
    • Pam is studying for her French exam.
    • Holding onto the kite, Jeremy received a cut.
  • 43. B. Infinitive Phrases
  • 44. Infinitive Phrases
    • Center around TO + verb
    • Verb is “naked” – No form
    • Examples: to go, to sit, to talk, etc.
    • Can be used as noun, adj. Or adv.
    • Caution: do not confuse with prep. Phrase with “to”
  • 45. Find the infinitives
    • I wanted to go to the mall today.
    • My mom went to bed early.
    • Your cat ate too much food today.
    • To sleep all day is unhealthy.
    • I want to ask you a question.
  • 46. Infinitive Phrases
    • I went to the pond to fish for bass.
    • I have to go to the mall before supper.
    • To make good grades, one must study.
    • My goal is to make good grades.
    • I sat with the team to give them my support.
    • Don’t try to get out of here too fast.
  • 47. Infinitive Phrases as Nouns
    • I want to get a car for my birthday.
    • My goal is to get a car for my birthday.
    • To get a car for my birthday would be wonderful.
    • My goal, to get a car for my birthday, may never happen.
    • Which two noun positions are not used?
  • 48. Infinitive Phrases as Adjectives
    • The movie to see is Snow Dogs .
    • I missed the road to take to the beach.
    • The place to see moose is Canada.
    • I need a place to keep my bookbag.
    • Adjective IP will come directly after a noun and modify it by saying “which” or “what kind.”
  • 49. Infinitive Phrases as Adverbs
    • I went to the pond to fish.
    • To get into Harvard, you must study.
    • I am happy to be here.
    • I am sad to see you go.
    • An IP that comes first in a sentence MAY be an adverb, but it will have a comma after it. Adverb IP usually answer “why” or “how”
  • 50. Some famous Infinitives:
    • “ To be or not to be, that is the question.”
    • “ To know me is to love me.”
    • “ You’ve got to live a little.”
    • “ I vant to drink your bloooooood.”
    • “ I wanna hold your hand.”
    • “ I’ve only just begun to fight.”
    • “ To boldly go where no man has gone before…” (split infinitive)
  • 51. C. Participial Phrases
  • 52. Participles...
    • Are verb forms used as ADJECTIVES
    • can be taken out of the sentence
    • have several forms
  • 53. Some participial verb forms:
    • -ing as in “The pouring rain…”
    • -ed as in “The soiled carpet…”
    • -n or -en as in “The broken arrow…”
    • -t as in “The bent tree…”
  • 54. Participles...
    • Will come as close as they can to noun they modify
    • can come BEFORE or AFTER the noun
  • 55. Examples:
    • The frowning clown fell down.
    • The clown, frowning at the crowd , fell down.
    • Frowning at the crowd , the clown fell down.
  • 56. If the participial phrase comes first in the sentence...
    • It is separated from the sentence with a comma
    • Bent by the wind , the tree finally fell over.
  • 57. Caution:
    • If a participle is not close to the noun it modifies, it can become misplaced.
    • I saw a dollar walking home… should be…
    • Walking home , I saw a dollar.
  • 58. Find the participles
    • The fallen tree blocked the road.
    • Mary had to replace the soiled carpet.
    • Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies.
    • The running water eroded the soil.
    • We finally got our own swimming pool.
    • Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful.
  • 59. Find the participles
    • The fallen tree blocked the road.
    • Mary had to replace the soiled carpet.
    • Mike’s goal was hiking the Rockies.
    • The running water eroded the soil.
    • We finally got our own swimming pool.
    • Eating jalapeno peppers can be painful.
  • 60. Find the participial phrases
    • Running quickly, the puppy caught up with the family.
    • Seeing my family made me feel safe.
    • Bending in the wind, the tree finally fell.
    • The wind, whipping through the valley, did extensive damage.
    • I saw my uncle waiting for me.
  • 61. Find the participial phrases
    • Running quickly , the puppy caught up with the family.
    • Seeing my family made me feel safe.
    • Bending in the wind , the tree finally fell.
    • The wind, whipping through the valley , did extensive damage.
    • I saw my uncle waiting for me .
  • 62. Find more participial phrases
    • Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring.
    • Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family.
    • Sitting by the dock, Bob felt lonely.
    • The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin.
    • Not watching his steps, the toddler fell down.
  • 63. Find more participial phrases
    • Granny’s goal, quilting a huge quilt, will have to wait until spring.
    • Martha’s hobby is sewing for the family.
    • Sitting by the dock , Bob felt lonely.
    • The boy sitting by the bay was my cousin.
    • Not watching his steps , the toddler fell down.