Conceptual framework It is the researcher ’ s own position on the problem and gives direction to the study. It may be an adaptation of a model used in a previous study, with modifications to suit the inquiry. Aside from showing the direction of the study, through the conceptual framework, the researcher can be able to show the relationships of the different constructs that he wants to investigate.
Conceptual Framework. News values, and the pressures and constraints shape the newspapers and television newscasts. The result of this relationship is selective reporting of events. Conceptual Framework
Operational Framework. Foreign news sections of Philippine newspapers and foreign news segments of television newscasts are shaped by the interests of owners, editorial policies, audience and advertisements. The criteria for selection of foreign news, the news values, also affect the foreign news coverage. These factors result in unequal treatment of stories and paved way for the dominance of some topics and of some regions in foreign news coverage of media.
Based on the foregoing example, how should the conceptual framework formulated?
cite your conceptual framework or paradigm;
Identify your variables;
Point out the dependent and intervening variables;
Show the direction of the study.
Once the conceptual framework has been determined, the next for the researcher is to determine what research methods to employ to best answer the research problem through the proposed framework.
Research design depends on the nature of the data to analyzed. Quantitative data – when your thesis problem requires numerical measurements of traits, trends, characteristics or attributes of the subject matter;
Analysis leads researcher to:
depict what is typical and atypical among the data;
show the degree of difference or relationship between two or more variables;
determine the likelihood that the findings are real for the population as opposed to having occurred only by chance in the sample.
Qualitative data – when your thesis problem focuses on the meanings, perceptions, symbols or description of the subject matter.
Analysis leads researcher to:
observe behaviors, situations, interactions and environments;
scrutinize these observations for patterns and categories;
answer research questions based on what can be deduced from the findings.
Interrelated set of constructs formed into propositions that specify the relationships among variables
Describes how and why variables are related
Set of hypotheses
Series of if-then statements
The Deductive Approach Used in Quantitative Research Researcher measures or observes variables using an instrument to obtain scores Researcher defines and operationalizes variables derived from the theory Researcher tests hypotheses or research questions from the theory Researcher tests or verifies a theory
Placing Theory in a Quantitative Study Placement Advantages Disadvantages In the introduction Common approach; familiar to readers; conveys a deductive approach Difficult for a reader to isolate theory base from other components of the research process In the literature review Including theories in a literature review is a logical extension or part of the literature Difficult for a reader to see the theory in isolation from the larger literature After hypotheses or research questions The theory discussion explains how and why variables are related May leave out an extended discussion about the origin and use of the theory In a separate section Clearly separates the theory from other components of the research process, enables a reader to better identify and to understand the theory base The theory discussion is isolated and may not easily connect with other components of the research process
Researcher may also choose not to employ theory in a qualitative study
The Inductive Logic of Research in a Qualitative Study Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants or records fieldnotes Researcher analyzes data to form themes or categories Researcher looks for broad patterns, generalizations, or theories from themes or categories Researcher poses generalizations, or theories, and compares to past experiences and literature Researcher gathers information
Ask 1-2 central questions and no more than 5-7 subquestions
These questions should:
Relate the central question to the strategy of inquiry
Begin with "what" or "how"
Focus on a single phenomenon or concept
Use exploratory verbs like discover or describe
Avoid directional words such as "affect" or "impact"
Evolve during the study
Be open-ended without reference to the literature
Specify the participants and research site (unless stated previously)
A Script for Writing a Qualitative Central Question
(How or What) is the ( “story for” for narrative research; “meaning of” the phenomenon for phenomenology; “theory that explains the process of ” for grounded theory; “culture-sharing pattern” for ethnography; “issue” in the “case” for case study) of (central phenomenon) for (participants) at (research site) .
Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses
Quantitative researchers pose research questions or hypotheses to focus the study's purpose
Quantitative research questions:
Questions about the relationships among variables that the investigator seeks to know
Predictions that the researcher makes about the expected relationships among variables
Predictions about the population values that the researcher will estimate based on data from a sample
Indicate a study's goals
Used frequently in proposals for funding
Writing Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses
Write questions or hypotheses, not both
Consider 3 approaches to the variables for a question or hypothesis:
Specify questions and hypotheses based on theory if possible
Measure the independent and dependent variables separately
Generally use demographic information as intervening variables
Use consistent words and ordering for independent and dependent variables
Scripts for Writing Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses
Does ( name the theory ) explain the relationship between (independent variable) and (dependent variable) , controlling for the effects of (control variable) ?
There is no significant difference between (the control and experimental groups on the independent variable) on (dependent variable) .
Forms for Writing Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses
If writing hypotheses, use a consistent form:
Null hypotheses (predict no difference or no relationship)
Directional hypotheses (predict direction of difference or relationship)
Nondirectional hypotheses (predict a difference or relationship, but not its direction)
If writing research questions:
First, specify descriptive questions for each important variable
Next, state inferential questions that relate variables or compare groups
Finally, add questions in which variables are controlled
Mixed Methods Research Questions and Hypotheses
Advance both qualitative and quantitative research questions (or hypotheses)
Use guidelines for writing good qualitative and quantitative questions and hypotheses
Order questions to match the mixed methods design
In a two-phase design, order to match the phases
In a one-phase design, order according to the method given the most weight
Include a mixed methods research question that
Directly addresses the mixing of the two strands
Is written to convey the procedures or the content of the study
Different Ways to Write Questions and Hypotheses into a Mixed Methods Study
Write separate qualitative questions and quantitative questions or hypotheses:
At the beginning or as they emerge in phases
This places emphasis on the two approaches
Write separate questions or hypotheses followed by a mixed methods question:
This highlights the two approaches as well as their combined strength
Write only a mixed methods question:
This emphasizes the integration and not the individual parts