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Legislative and Executive Branches

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  • Congressional policymaking takes place within the context of bicameralism . Members of the House (representatives) are elected by direct popular vote; the size of a state ’s delegation depends on the state’s population. Senators are chosen in statewide at-large elections, two per state. Because of their different constitutional structures and responsibilities, the House and Senate have developed into distinct legislative bodies.
  • The U.S. Constitution specifies age, citizenship, and residency requirements for each body. The Voting Rights Act and changing social and cultural values have helped elect an increasingly diverse Congress. Profile of the Membership Although most members of Congress are older and relatively affluent, the institution is more diverse today than at any time in U.S. history. Compensation In recent years, members of Congress have increased their salaries substantially, sometimes without having to go on record in favor of higher pay.
  • The U.S. Constitution specifies age, citizenship, and residency requirements for each body. The Voting Rights Act and changing social and cultural values have helped elect an increasingly diverse Congress. Profile of the Membership Although most members of Congress are older and relatively affluent, the institution is more diverse today than at any time in U.S. history. Compensation In recent years, members of Congress have increased their salaries substantially, sometimes without having to go on record in favor of higher pay.
  • Personal Styles Traditionally, members of Congress got things done and advanced their careers by building relationships with colleagues, deferring to senior members, and bargaining. In today ’s Congress, some members are particularly skilled in the use of the media to independently establish themselves as national political figures and promote their agendas.
  • Membership Turnover Incumbents seeking reelection usually win. Nonetheless, retirement and election defeats have produced significant turnover in recent years.
  • The House and Senate choose leaders, establish committees, and hire staff assistance. Organization of the Floor The organization of the floor is based on party strength in each chamber. Real power on the floor of the Senate is in the hands of the Majority Leader ; the Speaker is the most powerful figure in the House. The Senate Majority Leader and the Speaker hold positions of visibility and prestige.
  • Because party leadership posts are elected internally, the Senate Majority Leader and the Speaker maintain power by helping members achieve their goals: reelection, political influence, policy enactment, and election to higher office. Congressional party leadership style depends much upon the occupant of the White House
  • Committee and Subcommittee Organization The detailed work of Congress takes place in standing committees and subcommittees. When members are first elected, they request assignments to particular committees that they believe will help them win reelection, gain influence, and affect policy.
  • Origin and Introduction Congress conducts much of its work through the legislative process. Once a member introduces a bill or resolution , that chamber ’s presiding officer refers it to one or more committees for consideration. In 2007, members of Congress introduced 9,227 bills and resolutions. Congressional committees reported 908 measures to the floor (a report rate of 9.8%) and 138 were enacted into law.
  • Committee and Subcommittee Action In the House, most important pieces of legislation that pass standing committees go to the Rules Committee, which must grant a rule before the measure can go to the floor. Floor Action Because Senate rules do not limit the amount of time a senator or the chamber as a whole can spend discussing a measure, a bill ’s opponents may filibuster , that is, attempt to defeat the measure through prolonged debate. The procedure for forcing an end to a filibuster is known as cloture .
  • Conference Committee Action A bill doesn ’t pass Congress until it clears both the House and the Senate in identical form. Should legislation pass each chamber in different forms, one house can simply agree to accept the changes made by the other. A conference committee is a joint committee created to negotiate differences on similar pieces of legislation passed by the House and Senate.
  • Conference Committee Action A bill doesn ’t pass Congress until it clears both the House and the Senate in identical form. Should legislation pass each chamber in different forms, one house can simply agree to accept the changes made by the other. A conference committee is a joint committee created to negotiate differences on similar pieces of legislation passed by the House and Senate.
  • Presidential Action The president can sign a bill, allow it to become law without his signature (if Congress is in session), kill the bill by refusing to sign it (if Congress has adjourned), or veto the measure. Unlike most state governors, the president has no line-item veto.
  • Qualifications and Backgrounds Although the constitutional qualifications for the office of president are broad, most presidents have come from fairly narrow social circles. As of this writing, all the nation ’s presidents have been white males of Western European ancestry. Term of Office The president ’s constitutional term of office is four years. The Twenty-second Amendment, ratified in 1951, limits the president to two terms.
  • Impeachment and Removal Presidents who seriously abuse power or fail to discharge their duties can face impeachment (a formal accusation against an executive or judicial officeholder). The process of impeachment and removal involves both houses of Congress. Presidential Succession and Disability The Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, reformed and clarified the process of presidential succession
  • The Vice Presidency As the importance of the presidency has grown, so has the significance of the vice presidency, and men and women of stature are more willing to accept the position. Recent presidents have actively involved their vice presidents in their administrations.
  • Constitutional Powers and Duties Diplomatic Powers: The Constitution gives the president, as chief of state (the official head of government), broad diplomatic authority to conduct foreign relations. The president has the power to negotiate treaties with other nations, subject to a two-thirds vote of ratification by the Senate. Executive agreements , which are international understandings between the president and foreign nations that do not require Senate ratification, are more numerous than treaties.
  • Military Powers: The Constitution names the president commander in chief of the armed forces ( civilian supremacy of the armed forces , which is the concept that the armed forces should be under the direct control of civilian authorities). Congress responded to what it considered an infringement of its constitutional power to declare war by passing the War Powers Act in 1973, which limited the president ’s ability to commit American armed forces to combat abroad without consultation with Congress and congressional approval. Judicial Powers: The president also has a role in judicial policymaking. The president nominates all federal judges pending majority-vote confirmation by the Senate.
  • Executive Powers: The president is the nation ’s chief executive , that is, the head of the executive branch of government. Presidents sometimes issue executive orders to manage the federal bureaucracy. An executive order is a directive issued by the president to an administrative agency or executive department.
  • Legislative Powers: The Constitution gives the president sufficient legislative authority to participate in the legislative process but not enough legislative tools to dictate policy. The president shall “give to Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” The president can use the veto power to shape the content of legislation.
  • The development of the modern presidency has been accompanied by significant growth in both the size and power of the presidential bureaucracy. The White House Staff The White House staff consists of personal aides, assistants, and advisors to the president. Political loyalty is usually the foremost criterion the president uses in selecting a staff. The Executive Office of the President Congress established the Executive Office of the President in 1939. Today, the major agencies of the Executive Office are the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) , the National Security Council (NSC) , and the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA). The Presidential Bureaucracy and Presidential Influence The presidential bureaucracy is essential to the effective operation of the modern presidency.
  • Political scientists take different approaches to describing and explaining presidential leadership Presidential Character James David Barber believes that a president ’s performance in office depends on personality traits formed primarily during childhood, a adolescence, and early adulthood. Leadership Style Fred I. Greenstein believes the ability to effectively use the powers of the office depends on leadership style. The Power to Persuade Richard Neustadt believes that presidents succeed or fail based on their skills as political bargainers and coalition builders. Going Public The mass media has become an important political tool for presidents. Samuel Kernell illustrates that contemporary presidents use both political bargaining and going public, depending on the issue.
  • Political scientists take different approaches to describing and explaining presidential leadership Presidential Character James David Barber believes that a president ’s performance in office depends on personality traits formed primarily during childhood, a adolescence, and early adulthood. Leadership Style Fred I. Greenstein believes the ability to effectively use the powers of the office depends on leadership style. The Power to Persuade Richard Neustadt believes that presidents succeed or fail based on their skills as political bargainers and coalition builders. Going Public The mass media has become an important political tool for presidents. Samuel Kernell illustrates that contemporary presidents use both political bargaining and going public, depending on the issue.
  • What role does the presidency play in America ’s policymaking process? First, presidential influence depends on a number of factors, including the president ’s constitutional position, the role of the presidential bureaucracy, the political skills and personality of the incumbent officeholder, the president’s popular standing, and a broad range of contextual factors. Second, presidential influence varies, depending on the issue and the time.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Executive and Legislative Branches Chapter 12-13
    • 2. Chapter 12 Congress Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite
    • 3. Bicameralism
      • House Members
        • Elected by direct popular vote
        • Size of a state ’s delegation depends on state’s population
      • Senators
        • Chosen in statewide at-large elections, two per state
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 4. Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. AP Photo/Susan Walsh
    • 5. Membership
      • U.S. Constitution specifies
        • Age, citizenship, and residency requirements for each body
        • The Voting Rights Act and changing social and cultural values have helped to elect an increasingly diverse Congress
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 6. Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. Membership
      • Profile of the Membership
        • Although most members of
        • Congress are older and relatively affluent, the institution is more diverse today than at any time in U.S. history.
      • Compensation
        • In recent years, members of Congress have increased their salaries substantially, sometimes without having to go on record in favor of higher pay. In 2010, Members of the House and Senate made $174,000 a year.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 8. Membership
      • Personal Styles
        • Traditionally, Congress members,
          • got things done and advanced their careers by
            • building relationships with colleagues,
            • deferring to senior members, and
            • bargaining.
        • Home Styles
          • Many members of Congress believe they have a duty to “vote their district.”
            • Reelection depends on their constituency.
            • Constituency service is major part of the job.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 9. Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 10. Membership
      • Membership Turnover
        • Incumbents seeking reelection usually win.
        • Nonetheless, retirement and election defeats have produced significant turnover in recent years.
        • Senators are more likely to be defeated for reelection because they tend to draw more substantial challengers than do House members.
        • Critics have called for term limits on Congress for decades.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 11. Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 12. Organization
      • The House and Senate choose leaders, establish committees, and hire staff assistance.
      • Organization of the Floor
        • The organization of the floor is based on party strength in each chamber.
        • Real power on the floor of the Senate is in the hands of the Majority Leader; the Speaker is the most powerful figure in the House.
        • The Senate Majority Leader and the Speaker hold positions of visibility and prestige.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Kevin Dietsch/Upi/Landov Media
    • 13. Organization
        • The party in the minority in each house also elects a minority leader.
        • Both parties elect whips who serve as assistant leaders.
        • Because party leadership posts are elected internally,
          • Senate Majority Leader and the Speaker maintain power by helping members achieve their goals.
            • Reelection
            • Political influence
            • Policy enactment
            • Election to higher office
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 14. Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 15. Organization
      • Committee and Subcommittee Organization
        • The detailed work of Congress takes place in standing committees and subcommittees.
        • When members are first elected, they request assignments to particular committees that they believe will help them win reelection, gain influence, and affect policy.
        • Committee positions
        • are given by the party
        • leadership
        • Party membership on
        • each committee is
        • determined by the party
        • numbers in Congress.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chip Somodevilla/ Getty Images
    • 16. The Legislative Process
      • Origin and Introduction
        • Congress conducts much of its work through the legislative process.
        • Once a member
        • introduces a bill or
        • resolution, that
        • chamber ’s presiding
        • officer refers it to one
        • or more committees
        • for consideration.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Ian Tragen/Shutterstock
    • 17. Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Ian Tragen/Shutterstock
    • 18. The Legislative Process
      • Committee and Subcommittee Action
        • In the House, the most important pieces
        • of legislation that pass standing
        • committees go to the Rules Committee.
      • Floor Action
        • In the Senate rules do not limit the amount of time a Senator or the chamber as a whole can spend discussing a measure — a bill ’s opponents may filibuster.
        • The procedure for forcing an end to a filibuster is known as cloture.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 19. The Legislative Process
      • Filibuster
        • A filibuster is maneuver in the Senate based on the unlimited debate rule that allows Senators to speak about a bill for as long as they please.
        • Generally, it is member so the minority party who filibuster to prevent passage of a bill they do not like.
        • A filibuster is not an option in the House
        • because of the House Rules Committee
        • which sets the parameters of debate.
        • Ending a filibuster in the Senate requires
        • a vote of cloture by 60 Senators.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 20. The Legislative Process
      • Conference Committee Action
        • A bill doesn ’t pass Congress until it clears both the House and the Senate in identical form.
        • Should legislation pass each chamber in different forms, one house can simply agree to accept the changes made by the other.
        • A conference committee is a joint committee created to negotiate differences on similar pieces of legislation passed by the House and Senate.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 21. The Legislative Process
      • Presidential Action
        • Sign a bill
        • Allow it to become law without his signature (if Congress is in session)
        • Kill the bill by refusing to sign it (if Congress has adjourned)
        • Veto the measure — unlike most state governors, the president has no line-item veto.
        • The veto can be overridden by a vote of 2/3 of each house of Congress.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 22. Review Time!!!!!!!!!
    • 23. Impeachment, the formal accusation of wrongdoing by an executive or judicial branch officeholder, can only be done by
      • The House of Representatives, by a majority vote.
      • The Senate, by a majority vote.
      • A majority vote of both the House and the Senate.
      • A majority vote of the Supreme Court.
    • 24. Impeachment, the formal accusation of wrongdoing by an executive or judicial branch officeholder, can only be done by
    • 25. The most powerful position in the House of Representatives is
      • Majority Leader.
      • Minority Leader.
      • Speaker of the House.
      • Majority Whip.
    • 26. The most powerful position in the House of Representatives is
    • 27. If the President does not sign a bill and the Congress has adjourned, the bill dies. This action is known as a
      • Adjournment veto.
      • Pocket veto.
      • Rider veto.
      • Modified veto.
    • 28. If the President does not sign a bill and the Congress has adjourned, the bill dies. This action is known as a
    • 29. Break!
    • 30. Chapter 13 The Presidency Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Doug Mills/The New York Times/Redux Pictures Associated Press
    • 31. The Constitutional Presidency
      • Qualifications and Backgrounds
        • Most presidents have come from fairly narrow social circles even though the qualifications are broad.
        • Until now, all the nation ’s presidents have been white males of Western European ancestry.
      • Term of Office
        • Four-year terms
        • The 22nd Amendment, ratified in 1951, limits the president to two terms.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 32. Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chicago Tribune/MCT/Newscom
    • 33. The Constitutional Presidency
      • Impeachment and Removal
        • The process of impeachment and removal involves both houses of Congress.
        • Presidential Succession and Disability
        • The 25th Amendment,
          • ratified in 1967,
          • reformed and
          • clarified the process
          • of presidential
          • succession.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Martin H. Simon/Corbis
    • 34. The Constitutional Presidency
      • The Vice Presidency
        • As the importance of the presidency has grown, so has the significance of the vice presidency.
        • - Recent presidents have actively involved their vice presidents in their administrations.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. AP Images Brooks Kraft/Corbis News/Corbis
    • 35. Presidential Powers
        • Diplomatic Powers
          • Chief of State
            • The president has the
            • power to negotiate
            • treaties with other
            • nations, subject
            • to a two-thirds vote of
            • ratification by the
            • Senate.
            • Executive Agreements
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. AP Photo
    • 36. Presidential Powers
        • Military Powers:
          • President is commander in
          • chief of the armed forces.
          • War Powers Act
        • Inherent Powers:
          • Powers vested in the national government which do not depend on a specific grant of authority.
        • Judicial Powers:
          • President nominates all federal judges pending majority-vote confirmation by the Senate.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 37. Presidential Powers
        • Executive Powers
          • Chief Executive
            • Head of the executive branch of government
            • Issues executive orders to manage federal bureaucracy
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. AP Photo/Lynne Sladky
    • 38. Presidential Powers
        • Legislative Powers
          • The Constitution gives the president sufficient legislative authority to participate in the legislative process but not enough legislative tools to dictate policy.
            • Executive Orders
            • State of the Union Address
            • Veto Power
            • Presidential Signing Statements
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 39. Development of the Modern Presidency
      • Modern presidential development has been accompanied by significant growth in both the size and power of the presidential bureaucracy.
        • White House Staff
        • Executive Office of the President
        • Presidential Bureaucracy and Presidential Influence
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library/Pearson Education
    • 40. Organization of the Presidency
      • Development of the modern presidency has been accompanied by significant growth in the size and power of the presidential bureaucracy.
      • White House Staff:
        • Consists of personal aides, assistants, and advisors to the president.
        • Political loyalty is usually the foremost criterion the president uses in selecting a staff.
      • Executive Office of the President:
        • Congress established the Executive Office of the President in 1939 to develop and implement president ’s policies and programs.
        • Major agencies of the Executive Office are the
          • Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
          • National Security Council (NSC)
          • Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 41. Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 42. Theories of Presidential Leadership
      • Political scientists take different approaches to describing and explaining presidential leadership.
        • Presidential Character
        • Leadership Style
        • Power to Persuade
        • Going Public
      • Unilateral Tools of Presidential Power
      • Executive Agreements
      • Presidential Signing Statements
      • Recess Appointments
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 43. Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. (bl):CORBIS;(br):ASSOCIATED PRESS; (tl):Franklin D. Roosevelt Library/Pearson Education;(tr): AP Photo
    • 44. Presidential Popularity
      • Popular support for a president can influence presidential power.
        • Honeymoon Effect
        • Rally Effect
      • Role of the presidency in the policymaking process can also be explained by focusing on contextual factors:
        • international environment
        • state of the nation ’s economy
        • party balance in Congress.
      Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 45. Copyright © 2011, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 46. Review Time!!!!!!!!!
    • 47. In addition to allowing the president to fill a vacant vice presidency, the 25 th Amendment
      • Establishes procedures for the vice president to become acting president if the president is disabled.
      • Establishes procedures for the Speaker of the House to become president if the offices for both the president and vice president are vacant.
      • Establishes procedures for presidential impeachment.
      • Establishes procedures for the Supreme Court to declare the president disabled.
    • 48. In addition to allowing the president to fill a vacant vice presidency, the 25 th Amendment
    • 49. When President Obama committed troops to Afghanistan, he was acting in his presidential role of
    • 50. When President Obama committed troops to Afghanistan, he was acting in his presidential role of
      • Chief of State.
      • Commander in Chief.
      • Chief of Party.
      • Chief Executive.
    • 51. Which of the following tools of presidential power allows the president to adopt a policy without legislative approval?
      • Executive order
      • Executive agreement
      • Presidential signing statement
      • Recess appointment
    • 52. Which of the following tools of presidential power allows the president to adopt a policy without legislative approval?