The Jackson Era
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The Jackson Era

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The Jackson Era The Jackson Era Presentation Transcript

  • 1 The Jackson Era 1824-1845
  • 2 Main Idea The political system of the United States changed under Andrew Jackson. As you read, ask yourself: What changes in the political system of the United States occurred under Andrew Jackson?
  • 3 Andrew Jackson Background knowledge President •  7th President •  1829 - 1837 Early Life •  Parents emigrated from Ireland •  Father died before his birth •  Mother died when he was 14 •  Two brothers also died
  • 4 Andrew Jackson Background knowledge Career - Military •  At 13 joined Continental Army •  Major General of Tennessee Militia •  Lead campaign against Creek Indians in Georgia •  In 1815 lead military victory over British at the Battle of New Orleans
  • 5 Andrew Jackson Background knowledge Career - Politician •  Lawyer •  US Representative •  US Senator •  Circuit Judge •  President
  • 6 Andrew Jackson Background knowledge Personal Life •  Married Rachel Jackson •  Two adopted children •  Owned large cotton plantation with 150 slaves •  Killed man in pistol duel
  • 7 Andrew Jackson Background knowledge •  Andrew Jackson’s likeness is found on every 20.00 bill •  The 20.00 bill is often referred to as a Jackson
  • 8 Andrew Jackson Facts •  The first assassination attempt on a sitting U.S. President occurred on January 30, 1835, when Robert Lawrence failed to slay Andrew Jackson. •  Andrew Jackson was the first U.S. President to represent the Democratic Party.
  • 9 Andrew Jackson Facts •  Andrew Jackson was the first President to articulate that as President he represented all the people. •  Andrew Jackson was the first person to serve as a U.S. Representative, Senator, and President.
  • The Jacksonian Era Democrats and Whigs: The Second Party System
  • The “Era of Good Feelings” •  James Monroe (1817-1825) was the last Founder to serve as President •  Federalist party had been discredited after War of 1812 •  Monroe unopposed for reelection in 1820 •  Foreign policy triumphs: –  Adams-Onís Treaty (1819) settled boundary with Mexico & added Florida –  Monroe Doctrine warned Europeans against further colonization in Americas James Monroe, By Gilbert Stuart
  • The Election of 1824 & the Split of the Republican Party •  “Era of Good Feelings” collapsed under weight of sectional & economic differences •  New generation of politicians •  Election of 1824 saw Republican party split into factions –  Andrew Jackson received plurality of popular & electoral vote –  House of Representatives chose John Quincy Adams to be president –  Henry Clay became Secretary of State – accused of “corrupt bargain” •  John Quincy Adams’ Inaugural Address called in vain for return to unity
  • The National Republicans (Whigs) •  The leaders: – Henry Clay – John Quincy Adams – Daniel Webster •  The followers: – Middle class – Educated – Evangelical – Native-born – Market-oriented Henry Clay John Quincy Adams
  • Whig Issues •  Conscience Whigs – abolition, temperance, women’s rights, etc. •  Cotton Whigs – internal improvements & protective tariffs to foster economic growth (the “American System”)
  • The Democratic Republicans (Democrats) •  The leaders: –  Martin Van Buren –  Andrew Jackson –  John C. Calhoun •  The followers: –  Northern working class & Southern planter aristocracy –  Not well-educated –  Confessional churches –  Immigrants –  Locally-oriented Martin Van Buren John C. Calhoun
  • Democratic Issues •  Limited power for federal government & states’ rights •  Opposition to “corrupt” alliance between government & business •  Individual freedom from coercion
  • “King Andrew” & the “Monster Bank” •  Marshall’s decision in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) upheld 2nd Bank of the U.S. –  Constitutional under “necessary & proper” clause –  States can’t impede or nullify federal laws •  Nicholas Biddle & other directors openly boasted of their power •  Jackson vetoed bank recharter bill in 1832 “King Andrew” Bank of the U.S. note
  • Jackson Destroys the “Monster Bank”
  • The Beginning of Modern Politics •  Party nominating conventions •  Open campaigning, directed by party organizations •  Campaign financing scandals •  Whigs learned lesson with “log cabin & hard cider” campaign in 1840 William Henry Harrison Campaign Banner, 1840
  • Growing Sectional Conflict •  Missouri Compromise (1820) –  Missouri = slave state –  Maine = free state –  No slavery in rest of La. Purchase north of 36’30 •  Effects: –  Maintained balance of power between North (free states) & South (slave states) in Senate –  Continued two-tiered westward expansion –  Left little room for slavery to expand (Arkansas Territory) Missouri Compromise
  • Nullification Crisis •  “Tariff of Abominations” (1828) set very high protective tariffs –  Southern states opposed because exported cotton & imported manufactured goods –  John Calhoun anonymously wrote South Carolina Exposition & Protest (1829) asserting states’ right to nullify federal laws & secede from union –  South Carolina passed nullification ordinance in Nov. 1832 •  Daniel Webster’s “2nd Reply to Hayne” (1830) refuted state sovereignty & nullification •  Andrew Jackson’s Proclamation (Dec. 1832) vowed to enforce law & warned, “Disunion by armed force is treason” Sen. Daniel Webster (W-Mass.) Pres. Andrew Jackson (D-Tenn.)
  • Enforcing the Tariff Revenue cutter McLane enforcing tariff in Charleston harbor, 1833
  • Removal of the Southern Indians •  Removal Act (1830) began relocation of tribes on western reservations •  Supreme Court ruled in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia & Worcester v. Georgia (1832) that states had no authority over tribes •  Remaining Cherokees forced out on “Trail of Tears” in 1838 •  Black Hawk War (1832) resulted in defeat & removal of Sac & Fox
  • 24 Andrew Jackson Facts •  Andrew Jackson was the first President from a state west of the Appalachian Mountains.
  • 25 Videos •  www.history.com/topics/andrew-jackson •  Andrew Jackson’s Firsts •  Andrew Jackson, The Widower •  Jackson and the $20 bill •  Andrew Jackson’s Death
  • 26 Jacksonian Democracy The Election of 1824 Striking a Bargain The Adams Presidency The Election of 1828 Jackson Triumphs Jackson as President “Old Hickory” New Voters The Spoils System Electoral Changes The Tariff Debate The South Protests The Webster-Hayne Debate Jackson Takes a Stand The Nullification Crisis