What to Know <ul><li>Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotheism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polytheism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Where are the Religions?
Judaism <ul><li>Early History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~1950 BC, Abraham’s Covenant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel to Cana...
Settlement and Diaspora <ul><li>Settlement in Palestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1250 BC – 1050 BC  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Jerusalem by Matisyahu [Chorus] Jerusalem, if I forget you, fire not gonna come from me tongue. Jerusalem, if I forget you...
Beliefs and Customs <ul><li>“ I keep the lord always before me.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of life is and act of worship <...
The Nicene Creed <ul><li>We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen ...
Basic Christianity <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 yrs ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Apostles </li></ul></...
Judaism Christianity Islam 1.      Book   1. Book 1. Book 2.      Founder   2. Founder 2. Founder 3.      Belief   3. Beli...
Islam: The 5 Pillars <ul><li>Faith  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger </li></u...
Hinduism Buddhism Number of gods   1. Location <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>2. Goal <ul><li>Belief </li></ul...
Hinduism <ul><li>4000 – 2500 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aryan Peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Tradition </li></ul><...
Buddhism   <ul><li>Siddartha Gautama, 560-490 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Buddha: The Enlightened One </li></ul></ul><ul...
BREAK!
Christianity  <ul><li>Early on in Pax Romana, a new religion,  Christianity  emerged in a distant corner of the Empire </l...
Christianity <ul><li>Romans allowed Jewish people to worship their one god </li></ul><ul><li>Many Jews reluctantly lived u...
Jesus -Born in 4 B.C. in  Bethlehem   -worshipped God and followed Jewish law -at 30 began preaching to villagers, used  p...
Christianity Spreads -Followers called  Christians -Disciples preach the messages of Christianity throughout the Roman wor...
Christianity Spreads He spread Christianity throughout the  Mediterranean -His letters became part of the New Testament in...
Christians Oppressed -Romans were not tolerant towards Christians because: -they refused to honor the emperor with  sacrif...
Early Christian Church <ul><li>Emperor  Constantine  issued the Edict of Milan in A.D. 313. </li></ul><ul><li>The Edict gr...
Structure of the Church The Christian Clergy Bishop Bishop Bishop Pope/Patriarch Diocese Priest + Community Diocese Priest...
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Early Christianity and the Medieval East

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Transcript of "Early Christianity and the Medieval East"

  1. 2. What to Know <ul><li>Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotheism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polytheism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moksha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dharma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caste System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reincarnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaspora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apostle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Noble Truths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eightfold Path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five Pillars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunni Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shi’a Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muhammed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siddhartha Gautama, Buddha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asoka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yaweh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babylon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dome of the Rock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texts/Writings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Testament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Koran (Quran) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vedas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upanishads </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Where are the Religions?
  3. 4. Judaism <ul><li>Early History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~1950 BC, Abraham’s Covenant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel to Canaan then to Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery in Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moses & the Exodus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moses on Mt. Sinai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The 10 Commandments (p. 32) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Torah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentateuch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old Testament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham’s History </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mishnah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writings of the Prophets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talmud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other Writings of the Jewish Tradition </li></ul></ul></ul>Abraham & Isaac Moses & the 10 Commandments Torah
  4. 5. Settlement and Diaspora <ul><li>Settlement in Palestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1250 BC – 1050 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worship of Yahweh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical Monotheism: God’s Laws are our Laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jerusalem: The Holy City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>586 BC: Solomon’s Temple Destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diaspora </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deported to Babylon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Temple destroyed in 70 AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabbi’s (Teachers) carry the faith throughout the world </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Jerusalem by Matisyahu [Chorus] Jerusalem, if I forget you, fire not gonna come from me tongue. Jerusalem, if I forget you, let my right hand forget what it's supposed to do. In the ancient days, we will return with no delay Picking up the bounty and the spoils on our way We've been traveling from state to state And them don't understand what they say 3,000 years with no place to be And they want me to give up my milk and honey Don't you see, it's not about the land or the sea Not the country but the dwelling of his majesty Chorus Rebuild the temple and the crown of glory Years gone by, about sixty Burn in the oven in this century And the gas tried to choke, but it couldn't choke me I will not lie down, I will not fall asleep They come overseas, yes they're trying to be free Erase the demons out of our memory Change your name and your identity Afraid of the truth and our dark history Why is everybody always chasing we Cut off the roots of your family tree Don't you know that's not the way to be Chorus Caught up in these ways, and the worlds gone craze Don't you know it's just a phase Case of the Simon says If I forget the truth then my words won't penetrate Babylon burning in the place, can't see through the haze Chop down all of them dirty ways, That's the price that you pay for selling lies to the youth No way, not ok, oh no way, not ok, hey Aint no one gonna break my stride Aint no one gonna pull me down Oh no, I got to keep on moving Stay alive http://youtu.be/H8ULIw0Zgaw
  6. 7. Beliefs and Customs <ul><li>“ I keep the lord always before me.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of life is and act of worship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religious Customs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer 3 x a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worship on the Sabbath day Saturday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whole Torah (Pentateuch) is read each year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food must be Kosher </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy Days & Festivals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passover (spring) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shabouth (fall) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rosh Hashanah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yom Kippur , the day of Atonement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hannukkah (Winter) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purim (March) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. The Nicene Creed <ul><li>We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen. </li></ul><ul><li>We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one being with the Father. Through him all things were made. For us and for our salvation he came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit he became incarnate from the Virgin Mary, and was made man. </li></ul><ul><li>For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. </li></ul><ul><li>We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father [and the Son]. With the Father and the Son he is worshipped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets. We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. AMEN. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Basic Christianity <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 yrs ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Apostles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christ’s Death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Nicaea, 325 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New Testament </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Holy Trinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immaculate Conception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Afterlife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customs & Holidays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly Worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy Week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palm Sunday </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maundy Thursday </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good Friday </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christmas </li></ul></ul>Icon depicting the First Council of Nicaea Christ on the Cross, Velazquez The Holy Trinity, Albrecht Duerer
  9. 10. Judaism Christianity Islam 1.      Book   1. Book 1. Book 2.      Founder   2. Founder 2. Founder 3.      Belief   3. Belief 3. Belief   4.      Holy Places   4. Establishment of Doctrine/Beliefs 4. Holy Places 5.      Location   5. Location 5. Location
  10. 11. Islam: The 5 Pillars <ul><li>Faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prayer (Salat) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 x daily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charity (Zakat) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Things belong to God so we should donate to the Needy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During Ramadan, form sun up to sundown. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage (Hajj) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once in a lifetime trip to Mecca and the Ka’ba </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Hinduism Buddhism Number of gods   1. Location <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>2. Goal <ul><li>Belief </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>3. Belief Class system   4. Founder Reincarnation based on   5. Path to Nirvana <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>6. Asoka
  12. 13. Hinduism <ul><li>4000 – 2500 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aryan Peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vedas & Upanishads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aryan Caste System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahmins: Priests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ksatriyas: Warriors & Rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaisyas: Merchants, Farmers, Artisans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudras: Manual Laborers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Untouchables: Dirty Work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hindu Beliefs: Hamster Wheel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reincarnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moksha </li></ul></ul>Hindu Gods: Many Forms of One God Brahma: The Creator Siva: The Destroyer Vishnu: The Preserver
  13. 14. Buddhism <ul><li>Siddartha Gautama, 560-490 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Buddha: The Enlightened One </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buddhist Beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Real Gods or Deities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Nirvana not Brahma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four Noble Truths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life is Suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffering is caused by desire & resistance to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can end suffering by ending desire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can end desire and suffering by following the eightfold path </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eight Fold Path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Livelihood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Mindfulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Concentration </li></ul></ul>Asoka: 273-232 BC
  14. 15. BREAK!
  15. 16. Christianity <ul><li>Early on in Pax Romana, a new religion, Christianity emerged in a distant corner of the Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Many different religions in the empire </li></ul><ul><li>By 63 B.C., Romans had conquered Judea where most Jewish people lived. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Christianity <ul><li>Romans allowed Jewish people to worship their one god </li></ul><ul><li>Many Jews reluctantly lived under Roman rule, however, some wanted a revolt against Rome and believed a messiah would come to lead their people to freedom </li></ul>
  17. 18. Jesus -Born in 4 B.C. in Bethlehem -worshipped God and followed Jewish law -at 30 began preaching to villagers, used parables -short stories with simple moral lessons to communicate his ideas -Recruited 12 disciples to help him spread his ideas, called apostles , in Jerusalem -Some Jews in Jerusalem welcomed Jesus, many of the priests felt he threatened their leadership - Roman authorities felt Jesus would lead the Jews in a revolt against their rule
  18. 19. Christianity Spreads -Followers called Christians -Disciples preach the messages of Christianity throughout the Roman world - Peter established Christianity in Rome itself - Paul played the most influential role in spreading Christianity
  19. 20. Christianity Spreads He spread Christianity throughout the Mediterranean -His letters became part of the New Testament in the Bible
  20. 21. Christians Oppressed -Romans were not tolerant towards Christians because: -they refused to honor the emperor with sacrifices -they refused to worship Roman gods to protect the state -Christians were used as scapegoats , blamed for social and economic problems -Many Christians became martyrs - or people who suffer or die for their beliefs -However, Christianity continued to spread due to the fact that all people were welcome
  21. 22. Early Christian Church <ul><li>Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in A.D. 313. </li></ul><ul><li>The Edict granted freedom of worship to all citizens of the Roman empire </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the century, Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire </li></ul>
  22. 23. Structure of the Church The Christian Clergy Bishop Bishop Bishop Pope/Patriarch Diocese Priest + Community Diocese Priest + Community Diocese Priest + Community
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