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    • St. Catherine University Libraries More on citing: http://libguides.stkate.edu/citationguides APA 6th Citation StyleThese pages provide citing guidance for various formats according to the Publication Manual of the American PsychologicalAssociation (6th ed., 2009-10). Please refer to this manual for formats not mentioned here. Copies of the APA manual are available atthe Library’s Reference Desk, and in the Reference collection, call number REF. BF 76.7 .P83. Chapter 6 is about Crediting Sourcesand Chapter 7 gives Reference Examples. You may also ask a Reference Librarian for assistance.The 6th edition requires just a few changes in citation style from the 2001, 5th edition. Many of the changes have to do with plagiarism,non-biased language, addressing participants, headings, labeling of graphic materials, and references for electronic formats.The References listBegin a new page labeled References (centered and in lower case letters with a capital R). Entries should be alphabetized and have ahanging indent. The entire reference list MUST BE DOUBLE SPACED (examples below are not double-spaced to save space).Alphabetize entries by the first word (excluding The, A or An) in the entry.APA requires that references cited in the text must appear in the reference list; conversely, each entry on the reference list must becited in the text. Be sure that each source appears in both places and that entries in both places are identical in spelling and year. Volume Page (in italics) numbers1. Periodicals: Journal, magazine and newspaper articlesGeneral form Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2009). Title of the article. Title of Periodical, x(xx), xxx-xxx. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx Issue (no italics) • If one is available, provide the digital object identifier (doi) for all formats. • If no doi is available and you retrieved the complete article online, provide homepage URL of the online version of the journal or the name of the database. Many SCU professors prefer the latter, but you should ask your professor for her/his preferences. Examples are below. • Professors may prefer that online articles include the name of the database (rather than the doi). Be sure to ask! • Include an issue number (after the volume, in parentheses, not italicized) only if each issue in the volume begins with page 1.One author Simpson, A. (2007). The impact of team processes on psychiatric case management. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60, 409-418. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04402.x In-text: Simpson (2007) states that… or …other research (Simpson, 2007).Two authors Sands, L., & Shaevitz, B. (2007). Kale in every pot. Orion, 26(4), 12. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database. In-text: (Sands & Shaevitz, 2007). or According to Sands and Shaevitz (2007),…Three to 5 authors Geller, L. A., Schrader, K., & Nansel, T. R. (2007). Healthy eating practices: Perceptions, facilitators, and barriers among youth with diabetes. Diabetes Educator, 33, 671-679. doi:10.1177/0145721707303807 In-text: (Geller, Schrader, & Nansel, 2007). or Research by Geller, Schrader and Nansel (2007)… Note: After the first time the citation is used, shorten to first author’s name and et al. Example: Geller et al. (2007). Six to 7 authors Follow the general form, including all authors in the reference list citation. In-text: Firstauthor et al. (year). (Use this form each time it is used in the paper)Magazine article Padgett, T. (2007, July 16). Gay family values. Time, 170, 51-52. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/ In-text: …other people (Padgett, 2007). or …research by Padgett (2007).Daily newspaper, no author Driving + talking = drain on brain? (2001, July 31). Star Tribune [Minneapolis-St. Paul], pp. A1, A9. Retrieved from ProQuest Newspapers database. Note: Use author if provided. If no author, move the article title to the first position and alphabetize in the reference list by the first word. Give all page numbers, separated by a comma, on which article appears. In-text: (“Driving,” 2001). or According to “Driving + talking” (2001)...Online newspaper article Tommasini, A., Kozinn, A., Smith, S., & Scheitzer, V. (2009, September 10). Haydn recordings: A legacy reconsidered. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
    • Review of a book or motion picture Blake, R. A. (2004). Lovers in the ruins [Review of the motion picture, Cold mountain, 2003]. America, 190, 22. Retrieved from MegaFile database. Elliot, P. (2004). [Review of the book Music library instruction, by D. K. Sloan]. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 30, 508-509. Retrieved from http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/620207/descriptionAbstracts from an online database Unterhalter, G., Farrell, S., & Mohr, C. (2007). Selective memory biases for words reflecting sex-specific body image concerns. Eating Behaviors, 8, 382-38 [Abstract]. Retrieved from PsycINFO database.2. Books and reference booksGeneral form Author, A. A. (2006). Title of the book. Location: Publisher.One author Dillard, A. (1974). Pilgrim of truth. New York, NY: Harper and Row. In-text: …of learning (Dillard, 1974). or ...according to a study by Dillard (1974) the… American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author. In-text: (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). first time it is used in paper. Afterward: (APA, 2000).Two authors Kerrigan, W., & Braden, G. K., Jr. (1989). The idea of progress (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: Avalon Press. In-text: (Kerrigan & Braden, 1989). or …Kerrigan and Braden (1989) …Three to five authors Follow the general form, including the names of all authors. In-text: Cite the surnames of all authors the first time the reference occurs in your paper. In subsequent citations, use only the first author followed by et al. and the year. Examples: Rott, Rickert, Newsome and Humeston (2005) reported … (Use as first citation in text) Rott et al. (2005) found substantial evidence… (Next time citation is used) Rott et al. also concluded… (Omit year from next citation if it is within the same paragraph)More than 5 authors Please see the examples for Periodicals, above.Edited books Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1998). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. In-text: (Gibbs & Huang, 1998). or Gibbs and Huang (1998) contend…No author or editor Webster’s new explorer dictionary and thesaurus (2nd ed.). (1999). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. In-text: (Webster’s new explorer dictionary and thesaurus, 1999). You may also shorten the name: … according to Webster’s (1999)…Articles in compilations Rose, P. (1987). Modernism: The case of Willa Cather. In H. Bloom (Ed.), American fiction 1914 to 1945 (pp. 123-197). New York, NY: Chelsea House. In-text: (Rose, 1987). or …Rose (1987) contends that…Entry in encyclopedia Smith, T. (1991). Drug addiction. In The encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 4, pp. 16-21). New York, NY: Grolier. In-text: (Smith, 1991). or Smith (1991) writes that… Leary, Timothy (1920-1996). (1997). In N. A. Hamilton (Ed.), The ABC-CLIO companion to the 1960s counterculture in America (pp. 178-182). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. In-text: …about Timothy Leary’s beliefs (“Leary,” 1997).Online book, dictionary or encyclopedia General form: Author, A. (2007). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxx.com Author, A. B. (2009). Title of work. doi:xx.xxxxxx Author, B. C. (2005). Title of chapter. In D. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp.xxx-xxx). Retrieved from xxxx database. Brophy, J. E. (2004). Motivating students to learn. Retrieved from NetLibrary database. 2
    • Feminism. (2005). Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved from http://encyclopedia.com In-text: (“Feminism,” 2005). or According to “Feminism” (2005), the most… Moore, H. (1898-1986). (2005). The concise Oxford dictionary of quotations. Retrieved from Oxford Reference Online database. In-text: …(“Moore,” 2005). or …whereas “Moore” (2005) tells us that… Moulakis, A. (2007). Civic humanism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2008 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/humanism-civic Phye, G. D. (2004). Learning. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied psychology. Retrieved from Credo Reference database. (Note: give pages if available; none were given in this case) Social Networks. (2001). In Concise encyclopedia of sociolinguistics. Retrieved from Credo Reference database. In-text: (“Social networks,” 2001) or In “Social networks” (2001), we learn….3. Bible or other classical works According to the APA manual, the Bible or other classical works are not given entries on the References list, but are cited in the text of the paper. However, check with your professor to see what is required by her or him.Using the in-text/parenthetical reference, give the book, chapter, and verse of the passage with the version of the Bible you used. Thisis required for the first citation only; you do not need to identify the version in later citations unless you switch to a different version. (John 3:16 New Revised Standard Version) or …as read in the Bible in John 3:16 (New Revised Standard Version).4. Personal communications Examples of personal communications may include personal or telephone interviews, letters, memos, e-mail messages, chat or other types of discussion formats. Personal communications are cited in the text of the paper only (because they are not considered recoverable, they are not included in the reference list). Provide the date as exact as is possible. J. M. Newsome (personal communication, May 28, 2007) expressed concern regarding…. …of their lives and their jobs (V. P. DeLuca, personal communication, November 9, 2007).5. Motion pictures and videos General form: Name, A. B. (Producer), & Name, D. (Director). (Year). Title of the motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. ** Donnelly, L. (Producer), & Raisz, K. (Field Producer/Director). (1994). Toxic racism [DVD]. Boston, MA: WGBH Boston. In-text: …was clearly shown in the video Toxic Racism (Donnelly & Raisz, 1994). Nayar, D., & Chadha, G. (Producers), & Chadha, G. (Director). (2005). Bride and prejudice [DVD]. United States: Miramax. In-text: (Nayar & Chadha, 2005). ** Note: use [DVD] if you viewed this on a DVD. Use [Motion picture] if you viewed it in a theater.6. Citing specific parts of a source To cite a specific part of a source, APA requires that the page number be included in the in-text citation. This includes references to specific pages, chapters, figures, tables or equations. (See pages 170-173 of the APA 6th manual for more on quotations.) Examples: … (Edeline & Weinberg, 1991, p. 302). or According to Edeline and Weinberg (1991, p. 302)… … (Pepperberg, 1998, chapter 21). or Research by Pepperberg (1998, chapter 21) found… Most electronic sources do not provide page numbers (unless they are PDF reproductions of printed material). If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers. Use the abbreviation para. Examples: As Myers (2000, para. 5) phrased it . . or …(Jostad, 2001, para. 6). If there are headings in the document and neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph within this section where the information was found. Example: (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1) Headings may be shortened, as long as the intended heading is still apparent to the reader. If neither numbers nor headings are present, it is acceptable to omit a location reference altogether. 3
    • 7. Other Electronic ResourcesWeb sites There is much variation in Web sites - follow the examples as closely as you can. If the source gives no copyright or “last updated” date, use (n.d.) -- no date. Do not end the URL with a period, and remove underlines on URLs. General form: Author, A. B. (2006). Title of the page. Retrieved from http://www.source.html American Academy of Pediatrics. (1994, March). Guidelines on foregoing life-sustaining medical treatment (RE 9406). Retrieved from http://www.aap.org/policy/00118.html In text: (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1994) if using source just once. OR: (American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], 1994). first time, thereafter: (AAP, 1994) Latex allergy. (2007, December 1). Retrieved from http://mayoclinic.com In text: (“Latex allergy,” 2007). Lindsley, C. (2001). Cal Ripkens retirement highlights life-transition issues. Retrieved from http://www.umm.edu/features/ripken.html In text: (Lindsley, 2001). National Families in Action. (2004). A guide to drugs and the brain. Retrieved from http://www.nationalfamilies.org In text citation: (National Families in Action, 2004) Note: When a site has many pages, it is acceptable to give a URL for the home (or entry) page for the site.Daily newspaper article, from the Web site of the newspaper Jostad, K. G. (2001, October 13). Helping out: Friends honor teacher by helping kids. Star Tribune [Minneapolis-St. Paul]. Retrieved from http://startribune.com/ In text: (Jostad, 2001).Brochure (in PDF form) United States Department of Agriculture. (2006). Avian influenza: Protecting the United States [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.usda.gov/documents/AvianFluBrochure.pdf In text: (United States Department of Agriculture, 2006).Reference to entire Web site When referring to an entire site, give the URL in the text but do not include it in the reference list. Example: The Web site Witchcraft in Europe and America (http://www.witchcraft.psmedia.com/) presents the full text of many essential works in the literature of witchcraft and demonology.…Stand-alone document, with no author identified and no date given Faculty survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://faculty.maryvillecollege.edu/library/libreview/faculty_survey.PDF In-text: (“Faculty survey,” n.d.).Blog post Library News. (2009, June 18). Fall book club: A graphic novel [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://stkatescheckitout.blogspot.com/2009/06/fall-book-club-graphic-novel.html In text: (Library News, 2009).Video blog post (such as YouTube) Arizona State University. (2006, May 26). RefWorks: The ultimate tool for bibliographies [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0MFTvX5PqQ8 In text: (Arizona State University, 2006)PowerPoint slides Sprott, J. C. (n.d.). Is global warming for real? [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/ lectures/warming.ppt In-text: (Sprott, n.d.) Fogarty, B. E. (2009, November). Politics and power lesson [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from the St. Catherine University Blackboard site: http://blackboard8.stkate.edu In-text: (Fogarty, 2009).Podcasts Dabrowski, G. (Producer). (2009, August 13). Learning through podcasting [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://media.stkate.edu In text: (Dabrowski, 2009). Rickert / Feb. 2011 4