20th century


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Brief discussion of the events at the start of the 20th century

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20th century

  2. 2. SCIENCE AND URBAN LIFE• By the turn of the 20th century, four out of ten Americans lived in cities• In response to urbanization, technological advances began to meet communication, transportation, and space demands Artist Annie Bandez
  3. 3. SKYSCRAPERS • Skyscrapers emerged after two critical inventions: elevators & steel skeletons that bear weight • Famous examples include; Daniel Burnham’s Flatiron Building in NYC, Louis Sullivan’s Wainwright Building in St. Louis • The skyscraper was America’s greatest contribution to architecture and solved the issue of how to best use limited and expensive spaceFlatiron Building - 1902
  4. 4. Another view of Burnham’s Flatiron Building
  5. 5. ELECTRIC TRANSIT• Changes in transportation allowed cities to spread outward• By the turn of the century, intricate networks of electric streetcars – also called trolley cars –ran from outlying neighborhoods to downtown offices & stores
  6. 6. “EL’S” AND SUBWAYS • A few large cities moved their streetcars far above street level, creating elevated or “el” trains • Other cities built subways by moving their rail lines underground
  7. 7. BRIDGES & PARKS• Steel-cable suspension bridges, like the Brooklyn Bridge, also brought cities’ sections closer• Some urban planners sought to include landscaped areas & parks• Frederick Law Olmsted was instrumental in drawing up plans for Central park, NYC Central Park is an oasis among Manhattan’s skyscrapers
  8. 8. CITY PLANNING: CHICAGO • Daniel Burnham oversaw the transformation of Chicago’s lakefront from swampy wasteland to elegant parks strung along Lake Michigan • Today Chicago’s lakefront is one of the most beautiful shorelines in North America
  9. 9. NEW TECHNOLOGIES• New developments in communication brought the nation closer• Advances in printing, aviation, and photography helped speed the transfer of information
  10. 10. A REVOLUTION IN PRINTING • By 1890, the literacy rate in the U.S. was nearly 90% • American mills began to produce huge quantities of cheap paper from wood pulp • Electrical web-perfecting presses printed on both sides of paper at the same time • Faster production and lower costs made newspapers and magazines more affordable (most papers sold for 1 cent)
  11. 11. AIRPLANES• In the early 20th century, brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright, experimented with engines and aircrafts• They commissioned a four- cylinder internal combustion engine, chose a propeller, and built a biplane• On December 17, 1903 they flew their plane for 12 seconds covering 120 feet• Within two years the brothers were making 30 minute flights• By 1920, the U.S. was using airmail flights regularly Actual photo of Wright Brother’s first flight 12/17/03
  12. 12. PHOTOGRAPHY EXPLOSION • Before 1880, photography was a professional activity • Subjects could not move and the film had to be developed immediately • George Eastman invented lighter weight equipment and more versatile film • In 1888, Eastman introduced his Kodak Camera • The $25 camera came with1888 100-picture roll of filmKodak
  13. 13. SECTION 2: EXPANDING PUBLIC EDUCATION• Between 1865 and 1895, states passed laws requiring 12 to 16 weeks of annual education for students ages 8-14, but the curriculum was poor and the teachers were usually not qualified• However, the number of kindergartens expanded from 200 in 1880 to 3,000 in 1900
  14. 14. HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT SOARS • High schools expanded their curriculum to include science, civics and social studies • By 1900 500,000 teen- agers were enrolled in high schoolsElroy High School Photo 1906
  15. 15. RACIAL DISCRIMINATION • African Americans were mostly excluded from secondary education • In 1890 less than 1% attended high school • By 1910 that figured had reached only 3%African American school in the south about 1920
  16. 16. EDUCATION FOR IMMIGRANTS• Unlike African Americans, immigrants were encouraged to go to school• Most immigrants sent their children to public schools• Also, thousands of adult immigrants attended night schools to learn English
  17. 17. EXPANDING HIGHER ED • In 1900, less than 3% of America’s youth attended college • Between 1880 and 1920 college enrollments more than quadrupled • Professional schools were established for law and medicine
  18. 18. AFRICAN AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES FORMED• After the Civil War, thousands of African Americans pursued higher education despite being excluded from white institutions• Blacks founded Howard, Fisk, and Tuskegee Universities (founded by Booker T. Washington)• W.E.B. Dubois founded the Niagara Movement, which sought liberal arts educations for all blacks W.E.B. Dubois
  19. 19. SECTION 3: SEGREGATION AND DISCRIMINATION • By the turn of the 20th century, Southern States had adopted a broad system of legal discrimination • Blacks had to deal with voting restrictions, Jim Crow laws, Supreme Court set-backs, and physical violence
  20. 20. WHAT IS DISCRIMINATION?• Discrimination involves:• Beliefs : "This group of people is inferior because"• Emotions : "I hate this group of people."• Actions : "I will deny opportunity/hurt/kill members of this group."
  21. 21. VOTING RESTRICTIONS • All Southern states imposed new voting restrictions and denied legal equality to African Americans • Some states limited the vote to those who could read, other states had a poll tax which had to be paid prior to voting
  22. 22. JIM CROW LAWS• Southern states passed segregation laws to separate white and black people in public and private facilities• These laws came to be known as “Jim Crow Laws”, named after an old minstrel song• Racial segregation was put into effect in schools, hospitals, parks, and transportation systems throughout the South
  23. 23. PLESSY v. FERGUSON • Eventually a legal case reached the U.S. Supreme Court to test the constitutionality of segregation • In 1896, in Plessy v. Ferguson the Supreme Court ruled that the segregation of races was legal and did not violate the 14th Amendment
  24. 24. RACE RELATIONS - 1900• Blacks faced legal discrimination as well as informal rules and customs• Meant to humiliate these “rules” included; whites never shaking the hand of an African America, blacks had to yield the sidewalk to whites, blacks also had to remove their hats in the presence of whites
  25. 25. VIOLENCE • African Americans who did not follow the racial etiquette could face severe punishment or death • Between 1882-1892, more than 1,400 black men and women were shot, burned, or lynched • Lynching peaked in the 1880s and 90s but continued well into the 20th century
  27. 27. DISCRIMINATION IN THE NORTH• While most African Americans lived in the segregated South, many blacks had migrated to the North in hopes of better jobs & equality• However, the North had its own brand of racism as blacks got low paying jobs and lived in segregated neighborhoods
  28. 28. DISCRIMINATION IN THE WEST • Discrimination in the west was most often directed against Mexican and Asian immigrants • Mexicans were often forced in Debt Peonage – a system of forced labor due to debt • Asians were increasingly excluded from mainstream societyAnti-Asian Cartoon
  29. 29. • Add “Black Notions”• http://youtu.be/IH Mo64KSApQ
  30. 30. SECTION 4: DAWN OF A MASS CULTURE• Many middle class Americans fought off city congestion and dull industrial work by enjoying amusement parks, bicycling, tennis and spectator sports• American leisure was developing into a multi- million dollar industry
  31. 31. AMUSEMENT PARKS • To meet the recreational needs of city dwellers, Chicago, NYC and other cities began setting aside land for parks • Amusement parks were constructed on the outskirts of cities • These parks had picnic grounds and a variety ofConey Island was America’s most famous amusement park in the late 19th century rides
  32. 32. BICYCLING & TENNIS• After the introduction of the “safety bike” in 1885, Americans increasingly enjoyed biking• By 1890, 312 companies made over 10,000,000 bikes• Tennis also was very popular in the late 19th century On the right is the “safety bike” – much easier and safer to ride
  33. 33. SPECTATOR SPORTS • Americans not only participated in new sports, but became avid fans of spectator sports • Baseball and boxing became profitable businesses • Mark Twain called baseball, “the very symbol of the booming 19th century”1897 Baseball team picture Kansas State University
  34. 34. NEWSPAPERS• Mass-production printing techniques led to the publication of millions of books, magazines, and newspapers• Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were two leading publishers whose Hearst (above) and competition led to more Pulitzer initiated what was known as and more sensational “Yellow newspaper reporting Journalism”
  35. 35. Characteristicsof YellowJournalismincluded huge,sensational,exaggeratedheadlines
  36. 36. Some contendthat Hearst andPulitzer’s YellowJournalism wasresponsible forthe Spanish-American War in1898
  37. 37. PROMOTING FINE ARTS • By 1900, free circulating Public libraries numbered in the thousands • By 1900, most major cities had art galleries • In the early 20th century, the Ashcan School of American Art painted urban lifeThis portrait was done by RobertHenri, who led the Ashcan School
  38. 38. ASHCANSCHOOL Title: Dempsey and Firpo, 1924 Artist: George Wesley Bellows
  39. 39. ASHCANSCHOOL Unsigned work, 1930
  40. 40. POPULAR FICTION• “Dime” novels were popular & inexpensive• Most of these focused on adventure tales and heroes of the west• Some readers preferred a more realistic portrayal from authors Mark Twain, Jack London, and Willa Cather
  41. 41. GROWING CONSUMERISM • The turn of the century witnessed the beginnings of the shopping center, department and chain stores, and the birth of modern advertising
  42. 42. THE DEPARTMENT STORE• Marshall Field of Chicago brought the first department store to America• Field’s motto was “Give the lady what she wants”• Field also pioneered the “bargain basement” concept Marshall Fields has been around for almost 150 years
  43. 43. CHAIN STORES • In the 1870s, F.W. Woolworth found that if he offered an item at a low price, “the consumer would purchase it on the spur of the moment” • By 1911, the Woolworth chain had 596 stores and sold $1,000,000 per week
  44. 44. ADVERTISING• Expenditures for advertising was under $10 million a year in 1865, but increased to $95 million by 1900• Ads appeared in newspapers, magazines and on billboards
  45. 45. CATALOGS AND RFD • Montgomery Ward and Sears were two pioneers in catalog sales • By 1910, 10 million Americans shopped by mail • In 1896 the Post Office introduced a rural free delivery (RFD) system that brought packages directly to every home