Research Methods• Types of research• Developmental research designs• Ethics1/23/00      Developmental Research Methods and...
People with whom adolescents spend their time       (Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1994)                                     ...
Interpretation•   affective experience•   emotional support•   working through issues•   particular child characteristics1...
1/23/00          Developmental Research Methods and Designs        10          The Effects of Drawing on Memory           ...
The Effects of Drawing on Memory               Performance (Butler et al, 1995)             20             15             ...
Mean Percent of Relevant              Components Recalled at 2 years         100          80Mean %          60            ...
Prosocial Development from 7 to 19      7      6                                                                   Interna...
Infant Locomotion (Adolph, 1997)1/23/00     Developmental Research Methods and Designs   221/23/00     Developmental Resea...
Microgenetic• Expensive• High drop out rates• Practice effects/boring 1/23/00     Developmental Research Methods and Desig...
Experimental Design• Random assignment          random sampling rare          representative sampling• Selection bias• Sub...
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Methods

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Methods

  1. 1. Research Methods• Types of research• Developmental research designs• Ethics1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 1 Types of Research• Descriptive• Correlational• Experimental1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 2 Descriptive ResearchExample: How do adolescents spend their time?1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 3
  2. 2. People with whom adolescents spend their time (Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1994) Friends Alone Family Others Classmates 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 4 Correlational Research Example: Are children’s friendships related to their relationships with siblings? 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 5 Becoming a sibling… Sibling interaction at 6 months 14 monthsPeer playquality .44* .47*Fantasyplay .25 .51* (Kramer & Gottman, 1992) 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 6
  3. 3. Interpretation• affective experience• emotional support• working through issues• particular child characteristics1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 7 Experimental ResearchExample: Does drawing improve children’s memory for an event?1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 81/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 9
  4. 4. 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 10 The Effects of Drawing on Memory Performance (Butler et al, 1995) 20 15 10 RECALL 5 0 NO DRAW DRAW1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 11 Measures• Independent variable: drawing vs telling alone• Dependent variable: memory performance1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 12
  5. 5. The Effects of Drawing on Memory Performance (Butler et al, 1995) 20 15 10 Tell Draw 5 0 Free Recall Direct ?1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 13 Developmental Designs• Cross-sectional• Longitudinal• Sequential• Microgenetic1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 14 Children’s Memory for Medical Emergencies: 2 Years Later 100 80% Accuracy 60 Injury 40 Hospital 20 0 2 3-4 5-6 8-9 12-13 Age in Years Peterson, 19991/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 15
  6. 6. Mean Percent of Relevant Components Recalled at 2 years 100 80Mean % 60 Injury 40 Hospital 20 0 3-6 8-13 Age in Years 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 16 Cross-sectional • Cheap and fast • tells little about how change occurs • cohort effects 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 17 Longitudinal • see patterns of change • subjects are own control • expensive • high drop out rates • practice effects • how to assess same behavior at different ages • other events cloud conclusions 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 18
  7. 7. Prosocial Development from 7 to 19 7 6 Internalized Law 5 Hedonistic, self- focused 4 3 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 Age in Years (Eisenberg et al, 1995)1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 19 Cross-sequential• same strength and weaknesses as longitudinal, just not as striking• less time, less $1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 20 Microgenetic• target process of change1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 21
  8. 8. Infant Locomotion (Adolph, 1997)1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 221/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 23 Strategies on “Safe” and “Risky” Declines1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 24
  9. 9. Microgenetic• Expensive• High drop out rates• Practice effects/boring 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 25 Are you doing all you can to stimulate your infant’s development? 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 26 The Objectives of Babyscapes • Faciliate parent-child bonding • Provide multi-sensory learning • Increase attention span 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 27
  10. 10. Experimental Design• Random assignment random sampling rare representative sampling• Selection bias• Subject variables• Differential “mortality”1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 28 Ethics: Selected Issues• Do no harm!• Informed consent• Confidentiality• Obtain necessary assistance• Beneficial treatments1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 29

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