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AGRICULTURE AGENT UPDATE
NORTHERN AG. RESEARCH CENTER
HAVRE, MONTANA
JUNE 27, 2013
Soils 101
Relative to Crop Production
i...
OUTLINE
 Soils:
 Definition
 Soil profile
 Soil texture
 MT soils
 Soil productivity:
 Soil sampling
 Nutrients an...
SOIL DEFINED
 “(i) The unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the
immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a ...
SOIL DEFINED
 “Soil is a natural body comprised of solids (minerals and
organic matter), liquid, and gases that occurs on...
SOIL IS A DYNAMIC BIOGEOCHEMICAL INTERFACE
BETWEEN THE EARTH’S SPHERES
12 SOIL TYPES
12 basic types of soils – soil orders reflect environment in
which they form, their age, and the ecosystem t...
MT PREDOMINANT SOILS
 Mollisols: form in semi-
arid to semi-humid
areas, typically under a
grassland cover
 Alfisols: fo...
SOIL PROFILE
soils.wisc.edu, 2013
COMPARISON OF MT’S PREDOMINANT SOILS
A – maximum
accumulation of humus
E – zone of maximum
weathering and leaching
(elluvi...
SCOBEY – MT STATE SOIL
 Scobey = Mollisol
 Surface layer: very dark grayish brown clay
loam; Subsurface layer: dark brow...
MOLLISOL
 From Latin word “Mollis”, meaning soft
 These mineral soils developed on grasslands, a
vegetation that has ext...
SOIL TEXTURE
 Refers to the size of the particles that make up
the soil
2 – 75 mm
> 75mm
Rock
Very fine: 0.05 - 0.1 mm
Fi...
SOIL TEXTURE
% Clay % Silt % Sand Texture
15 70 15 Sandy Loam
http://courses.soil.ncsu.edu/res
ources/physics/texture/soil...
SOIL TEST
AgVise, 2013
 “Soil testing is the best tool available to determine
the amount of each nutrient needed for the
...
SOIL TESTING
 Soil probe allows a uniform slice of the soil profile
to any depth.
 Depths: 0-6" and 6-24", to 48“ for de...
SOIL SAMPLING METHODS
 15-20 soil cores to
represent a field
 The cores are mixed and
a portion is sent to the lab
 Avo...
NUTRIENTS AND PLANT GROWTH
o Plant’s sufficiency range = range of nutrient necessary to
meet plant’s nutritional needs and...
MOBILE AND IMMOBILE NUTRIENTS
BLA
BLA
BLA
BLA
Roger Bray, “A Nutrient Mobility Concept or Soil-Plant
Relationships. 1954. ...
MT SOILS:
COMMON DEFICIENCIES /TOXICITIES
 Most common: N and P
 Sometimes – K, S
 Micronutrient deficiencies are fairl...
ESSENTIAL PLANT NUTRIENTS
Total of 16 essential nutrients
3 Macronutrients from air and water: Carbon,
Hydrogen, Oxygen ...
ESSENTIAL PLANT NUTRIENTS
Deficiency disrupts plant’s growth and
reproduction
Deficiency can be prevented or corrected
o...
YIELD POTENTIAL AND FERTILIZER
Q 1. Which field has a higher Yield Potential?
Q 2. Which field needs more fertilizer?
Fiel...
“BLANKET” VS PRECISION
 Conventional application of N – one rate based on
average needs of the field/fields
 Variability...
PRECISION AGRICULTURE AND NUE
• Yield Potential approach:
 No guess-work
 Minimizes producer’s risks
 Higher NUE
• Prec...
YIELD GOAL VS YIELD POTENTIAL
 Yield Goal:
 Average yield for past 5 years + 30% (just in case we have a
good year)
 Ba...
YIELD GOAL VS YIELD POTENTIAL
Yield Goal
 Sufficiency approach: to apply a fixed rate of N at a
computed sufficiency leve...
YIELD POTENTIAL VARIES YEAR TO YEAR
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
“Ma...
Yield Potential Prediction
 The concept of sensing biomass in various crops
 Biomass used as an indicator of nutrient ne...
YIELD POTENTIAL AND RESPONSE TO N
YP and RI are independent from one another:
 High YP, High RI
 High YP, Low RI
 Low Y...
PRECISION SENSOR’S BASICS
Emits light and measures reflectance from plants
Sensor reading - Similar to a plant physical ...
CONCEPT SUMMARY
1. How much
biomass is
produced ?
2. What Yield is
attainable without
addition of N?
3. How
responsive is
...
red
redNIR
NIR
30%
50%
60% 8%
NDVI = (NIR-red)/(NIR+red)
NDVI (1) = (0.60 - 0.08)/(0.60 + 0.08) = 0.76
NDVI (2) = (0.50 - ...
CONCEPT SUMMARY
1. How much
biomass is
produced ?
2. What Yield is
attainable without
addition of N?
3. How responsive
is ...
VARIABLE RATE IN MONTANA
“Sensor-based VRT saves fertilizer
costs, improves crop production”
 By Shannon Ruckman, The Pra...
VARIABLE-RATE IN MONTANA
 “I really questioned if it would work”
 “I wanted to know if it would work with the NRCS
requi...
THANK YOU!
QUESTIONS?
ADDITIONAL SLIDES ON
NUTRIENT ROLE/ DEFICIENCY
MACRONUTRIENTS
NUTRIENTS FROM AIR AND WATER
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Base of all organic molecules, building
blocks for growth
Absorbe...
ESSENTIAL MACRONUTRIENTS
 N, P, K
Needed in greater amounts for
growth
Lacking from soil first
Greater response
N DEFICIENCY
 Light green upper (young) leaves
Yellow lower (older) leaves
ESSENTIAL MACRO NUTRIENTS: P
 Catalyses biochemical reactions
Component of DNA (genetic memory)
Component of energy mol...
P DEFICIENCY
 Dark purple discoloration on the leaf
tips, advancing down the leaf
Stunted plants with fewer shoots
ESSENTIAL MACRO NUTRIENTS: K
 Photosynthesis and movement of nutrients
Protein synthesis
Activation of plant enzymes
R...
K DEFICIENCY
 Marginal chlorosis and necrosis on older
leaves
Shorter internodes, stunting
ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS
 Ca, Mg, S
Needed in moderate amounts
ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS: CA
 Cell structure, membranes
Nutrient uptake
Reaction to negative environmental factors...
CA DEFICIENCY
Poor root growth, stunted dark rotting roots
Symptoms – in new growth (necrotic spots in young
leaves), le...
ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS: MG
Chlorophyll formation
Light-absorbing pigments
Amino acids and proteins
Resistance t...
MG DEFICIENCY
Pale green, chlorotic young leaves
Folded or twisted leaves
Symptoms similar to drought
ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS: S
 Component of amino acids and proteins
 Component of enzymes and vitamins
 Formation o...
S DEFICIENCY
Seedlings: pale yellow
chlorosis on young
leaves
S deficient leaf (left)
normal (right)
MICRONUTRIENTS
MICRONUTRIENTS
 Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Cl
Needed in very small amounts
Involved in metabolic reactions as part
of enzym...
IRON (FE)
Respiration
Photosynthesis
Enzymatic Activator
Chlorophyll Synthesis
FE DEFICIENCY
 Failure to produce sufficient chlorophyll
 Interveinal chlorosis, green/yellow stripes
 New leaves turn ...
MANGANESE (MN)
Component of various enzyme systems
for:
 energy production
protein synthesis, and
growth regulation
MN DEFICIENCY
Interveinal chlorosis
 Brown necrotic spots on leaves
White/gray spots on leaves
 Premature leaf drop an...
ZINC (ZN)
Respiration
Photosynthesis
Enzymatic Activator
Chlorophyll Synthesis
ZN DEFICIENCY
First appear on middle-aged and old leaves
Muddy gray-green leaf color
Leaves appear drought stressed,
wi...
COPPER (CU)
 Catalyst in photosynthesis and respiration
 Constituent of enzymes
 Involved in building and converting am...
CU DEFICIENCY
 Leaf tip die-back followed by a twisting or
wrapping of the leaves
 Delayed maturity
 Stunted, misshapen...
BORON (B)
 Cell wall strength and development
 Cell division
 Fruit and seed development
 Sugar transport
B DEFICIENCY
 Saw tooth effect on younger leaves
Pale, “water-soaked” new shoots
Head sterility
MOLYBDENUM (MO)
 Conversion of nitrates (NO3 ) into amino
acids in the plant
 Conversion of inorganic P into organic
for...
MO DEFICIENCY
 Stunted plants
Flowering/Seed formation affected
Hollow stems
Brittle, discolored leaves
CHLORIDE (CL)
Photosynthesis
Stomata regulation
Gas and water balance in cells
Nutrient transport (K, Ca, Mg)
Disease...
CL DEFICIENCY
Physiological Leaf Spot Syndrome
White to brown spots on leaves
Starts in lower leaves at tillering
Simi...
MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY
High soil pH (uptake decreases as pH
increases) – all but Mo
MT typical pH = 7-8, varies from 4....
MICRONUTRIENT PRODUCTS
Citri-Che Crop Mix 1 (N, S, Cu, Mn, Zn)
Gainer High Phos (N
Nitrogen, Phosphate, Potash, Sulfur, ...
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  • Transcript of "Ag. agent update"

    1. 1. AGRICULTURE AGENT UPDATE NORTHERN AG. RESEARCH CENTER HAVRE, MONTANA JUNE 27, 2013 Soils 101 Relative to Crop Production in Montana Olga Walsh Assistant Professor, Soil Nutrient Management Western Triangle Agricultural Research Center Montana State University
    2. 2. OUTLINE  Soils:  Definition  Soil profile  Soil texture  MT soils  Soil productivity:  Soil sampling  Nutrients ant plant growth  Mobile vs Immobile  MT deficiencies/toxicities  Fertilizer Strategies
    3. 3. SOIL DEFINED  “(i) The unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants  (ii) The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the Earth that has been subjected to and shows effects of genetic and environmental factors of: climate (including water and temperature effects), and macro- and microorganisms, conditioned by relief, acting on parent material over a period of time.  A product-soil differs from the material from which it is derived in many physical, chemical, biological, and morphological properties and characteristics.”(NRCS, 2013)
    4. 4. SOIL DEFINED  “Soil is a natural body comprised of solids (minerals and organic matter), liquid, and gases that occurs on the land surface, occupies space, and is characterized by one or both of the following: horizons, or layers, that are distinguishable from the initial material as a result of additions, losses, transfers, and transformations of energy and matter or the ability to support rooted plants in a natural environment.”(Soil Taxonomy)
    5. 5. SOIL IS A DYNAMIC BIOGEOCHEMICAL INTERFACE BETWEEN THE EARTH’S SPHERES
    6. 6. 12 SOIL TYPES 12 basic types of soils – soil orders reflect environment in which they form, their age, and the ecosystem they support NRCS, 2013 Scobe y
    7. 7. MT PREDOMINANT SOILS  Mollisols: form in semi- arid to semi-humid areas, typically under a grassland cover  Alfisols: form in semiarid to humid areas, typically under a hardwood forest cover  Entisols: young soils, do not show any profile development other than an A horizon. unaltered from their parent material, which can be unconsolidated sediment or rock. Inceptisols: weakly developed, one or more subsurface horizons, contains many unweathered minerals; form quickly through alteration of parent material; older than entisols; have no accumulation of clays, iron oxide, aluminium oxide or organic matter. NRCS, 2013
    8. 8. SOIL PROFILE soils.wisc.edu, 2013
    9. 9. COMPARISON OF MT’S PREDOMINANT SOILS A – maximum accumulation of humus E – zone of maximum weathering and leaching (elluvial) B – zone of maximum accumulation and alteration (illuvial) • Bw – almost no clay • Bt – more clay C – zone of minimal accumulation, alteration and cementation
    10. 10. SCOBEY – MT STATE SOIL  Scobey = Mollisol  Surface layer: very dark grayish brown clay loam; Subsurface layer: dark brown clay; Subsoil: dark grayish brown clay loam  Very deep, well drained soils on till plains, hills, and moraines in the north-central MT  >700,000 acres, among most productive soils in MT Golden Triangle (Havre-Conrad-GF): dryland winter and spring wheat  Formed in glacial till and under prairie vegetation  Av. annual precipitation ~ 12 in; av. annual air temperature ~ 43 F; 115 frost free days  Named for the town of Scobey, in NE MT. NRCS, 2013
    11. 11. MOLLISOL  From Latin word “Mollis”, meaning soft  These mineral soils developed on grasslands, a vegetation that has extensive fibrous root systems.  The topsoil of Mollisols is characteristically dark and rich with organic matter, giving it a lot of natural fertility  Typically well saturated with basic cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+) that are essential plant nutrients  Among the most fertile soils found on Earth
    12. 12. SOIL TEXTURE  Refers to the size of the particles that make up the soil 2 – 75 mm > 75mm Rock Very fine: 0.05 - 0.1 mm Fine: 0.1 - 0.25 mm Medium: 0.25 - 0.5 mm Coarse: 0.5 – 1 mm Very coarse: 1 -2 mm 0.002 to 0.05 < 0.002
    13. 13. SOIL TEXTURE % Clay % Silt % Sand Texture 15 70 15 Sandy Loam http://courses.soil.ncsu.edu/res ources/physics/texture/soiltextu re.swf
    14. 14. SOIL TEST AgVise, 2013  “Soil testing is the best tool available to determine the amount of each nutrient needed for the coming crop year”  Soil testing is the best tool available to determine the amount of each nutrient present in the soil from the previous crop year
    15. 15. SOIL TESTING  Soil probe allows a uniform slice of the soil profile to any depth.  Depths: 0-6" and 6-24", to 48“ for deep-rooted crops (sugarbeet)  Time: P, K, pH, %OM, salts, Ca, Mg, Zn,Fe, Mn, and Cu - any time of the year (minor changes)  Time: N, S, Cl - in the fall following harvest or early spring  Sample storage: cool, frozen or send to the lab immediately AgVise, 2013
    16. 16. SOIL SAMPLING METHODS  15-20 soil cores to represent a field  The cores are mixed and a portion is sent to the lab  Avoid non-representative areas  Provides average soil nutrient level in each field  Can result in under- or over- estimation  Field split into productivity zones (satellite canopy images, yield maps, salinity maps, soil type maps, topography, etc.)  Representative sample (10-15 cores) from each zone  Soil nutrient levels in each zone can be quite different  Field split into small equal sized areas (1 - 5 acres)  8-10 cores collected from the center of each grid or randomly within the grid  Nutrient levels are determined for each grid  Fertilizer recommendations – for each grid AgVise, 2013
    17. 17. NUTRIENTS AND PLANT GROWTH o Plant’s sufficiency range = range of nutrient necessary to meet plant’s nutritional needs and maximize growth o Nutrient levels outside of a plant’s sufficiency range cause crop growth and health to decline due to either a deficiency or toxicity Mc Cauley et al., 2009
    18. 18. MOBILE AND IMMOBILE NUTRIENTS BLA BLA BLA BLA Roger Bray, “A Nutrient Mobility Concept or Soil-Plant Relationships. 1954. Soil Science.
    19. 19. MT SOILS: COMMON DEFICIENCIES /TOXICITIES  Most common: N and P  Sometimes – K, S  Micronutrient deficiencies are fairly uncommon with deficiencies of B, Cl, Fe, and Zn occurring most often  Toxicities – uncommon, result of over-fertilization
    20. 20. ESSENTIAL PLANT NUTRIENTS Total of 16 essential nutrients 3 Macronutrients from air and water: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (C, H, O) 13 MACROnutrients from soil: 3 Primary nutrients - Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (N, P, K) 3 Secondary nutrients - Calcium, Magnesium and Sulfur (Ca, Mg, S) 7 MICROnutrients - Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper, Boron, Molybdenum, and Chlorine (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Cl)
    21. 21. ESSENTIAL PLANT NUTRIENTS Deficiency disrupts plant’s growth and reproduction Deficiency can be prevented or corrected only by supplying the element Nutrient is directly involved in the nutrition of the plant
    22. 22. YIELD POTENTIAL AND FERTILIZER Q 1. Which field has a higher Yield Potential? Q 2. Which field needs more fertilizer? Field A Field B
    23. 23. “BLANKET” VS PRECISION  Conventional application of N – one rate based on average needs of the field/fields  Variability in production potential(natural, acquired, spatial, temporal)  Average rate is excessive in some parts and inadequate in others  Precision Agriculture = timely and precise N application to meet plant needs as they vary across the landscape  Sensor-Based Technologies – precision agriculture tools, allow to account for variability and to make more informed decisions
    24. 24. PRECISION AGRICULTURE AND NUE • Yield Potential approach:  No guess-work  Minimizes producer’s risks  Higher NUE • Precision N Fertilization entails:  Right time and Right rate  They vary across the field to meet plants’ needs • Sensor-Based Technologies – precision agriculture tools, allow to account for all types of variability and to make more informed decisions
    25. 25. YIELD GOAL VS YIELD POTENTIAL  Yield Goal:  Average yield for past 5 years + 30% (just in case we have a good year)  Based on past (historical data)  Uses average N rates   Yield Potential:  Estimated using in-season data  Based on current crop nutrient status  Precise N rate (crop- and site-specific)
    26. 26. YIELD GOAL VS YIELD POTENTIAL Yield Goal  Sufficiency approach: to apply a fixed rate of N at a computed sufficiency level, regardless of YP Yield Potential:  Estimates of YP and crop response to N provide a physiological basis to estimate N removal and a biologically based N application rate Tabitha, WSU
    27. 27. YIELD POTENTIAL VARIES YEAR TO YEAR 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 “Maximum Attainable Yield” (Yield Goal) Actual Harvested Yield Should we fertilize for maximum yield every year? Alternative to Yield Goal - Yield Potential Source: Taylor, 2009
    28. 28. Yield Potential Prediction  The concept of sensing biomass in various crops  Biomass used as an indicator of nutrient need  Knowing how much biomass is produced => knowing how much N is removed from the soil and converted into biomass  Removal of N in harvested biomass and grain is highly correlated with yield
    29. 29. YIELD POTENTIAL AND RESPONSE TO N YP and RI are independent from one another:  High YP, High RI  High YP, Low RI  Low YP, High RI  Low YP, Low RI Field A Field B
    30. 30. PRECISION SENSOR’S BASICS Emits light and measures reflectance from plants Sensor reading - Similar to a plant physical examination Sensor can detect: • Plant Biomass • Plant Chlorophyll • Crop Yield • Water Stress • Plant diseases, and • Insect damage
    31. 31. CONCEPT SUMMARY 1. How much biomass is produced ? 2. What Yield is attainable without addition of N? 3. How responsive is the crop to N? 4. What Yield is attainable with addition of N? YPN = INSEY*RI NDVI = (NIR-red)/(NIR+red) INSEY = NDVI/GDD>0 RI = NDVI (NRS) /NDVI (FP) Marty Knox is obtaining winter wheat canopy reflectance data using GreenSeeker optical sensor, WARC, Corvallis, MT, May 2013
    32. 32. red redNIR NIR 30% 50% 60% 8% NDVI = (NIR-red)/(NIR+red) NDVI (1) = (0.60 - 0.08)/(0.60 + 0.08) = 0.76 NDVI (2) = (0.50 - 0.30)/(0.50 + 0.30) = 0.25 (1) (2)
    33. 33. CONCEPT SUMMARY 1. How much biomass is produced ? 2. What Yield is attainable without addition of N? 3. How responsive is the crop to N? 4. What Yield is attainable with addition of N? YPN = INSEY*RI NDVI = (NIR-red)/(NIR+red) INSEY = NDVI/GDD>0 RI = NDVI (NRS) /NDVI (FP)
    34. 34. VARIABLE RATE IN MONTANA “Sensor-based VRT saves fertilizer costs, improves crop production”  By Shannon Ruckman, The Prairie Star editor; 2008  Herb Oehlke  Farms Wheat and Barley, since1995  Ledger, 20 min from Conrad  Switched from blanket to variable-rate application  Saved money and time  Uses GreenSeeker on all his wheat fields
    35. 35. VARIABLE-RATE IN MONTANA  “I really questioned if it would work”  “I wanted to know if it would work with the NRCS requirements”  “I can't under apply fertilizer, but I need to be more efficient at it. Net return is an important number.”  Saved 5.3 gallons of fertilizer per acre  Achieved 8 to 10 bus/ac increase in yield  “Had average yield- 57 bus/ac. The VRT fields yielded 67 to 70 bus /ac. At $10/bu, that adds up real fast. That’s $100 /ac!”
    36. 36. THANK YOU! QUESTIONS? ADDITIONAL SLIDES ON NUTRIENT ROLE/ DEFICIENCY
    37. 37. MACRONUTRIENTS
    38. 38. NUTRIENTS FROM AIR AND WATER Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen Base of all organic molecules, building blocks for growth Absorbed as CO2 Combined with H and O Transformed into carbohydrates in leaves in the process of photosynthesis
    39. 39. ESSENTIAL MACRONUTRIENTS  N, P, K Needed in greater amounts for growth Lacking from soil first Greater response
    40. 40. N DEFICIENCY  Light green upper (young) leaves Yellow lower (older) leaves
    41. 41. ESSENTIAL MACRO NUTRIENTS: P  Catalyses biochemical reactions Component of DNA (genetic memory) Component of energy molecules Key element in photosynthesis
    42. 42. P DEFICIENCY  Dark purple discoloration on the leaf tips, advancing down the leaf Stunted plants with fewer shoots
    43. 43. ESSENTIAL MACRO NUTRIENTS: K  Photosynthesis and movement of nutrients Protein synthesis Activation of plant enzymes Regulation water use
    44. 44. K DEFICIENCY  Marginal chlorosis and necrosis on older leaves Shorter internodes, stunting
    45. 45. ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS  Ca, Mg, S Needed in moderate amounts
    46. 46. ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS: CA  Cell structure, membranes Nutrient uptake Reaction to negative environmental factors Defense against disease
    47. 47. CA DEFICIENCY Poor root growth, stunted dark rotting roots Symptoms – in new growth (necrotic spots in young leaves), leaves collapse before unrolling
    48. 48. ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS: MG Chlorophyll formation Light-absorbing pigments Amino acids and proteins Resistance to drought and disease
    49. 49. MG DEFICIENCY Pale green, chlorotic young leaves Folded or twisted leaves Symptoms similar to drought
    50. 50. ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS: S  Component of amino acids and proteins  Component of enzymes and vitamins  Formation of Chlorophyll
    51. 51. S DEFICIENCY Seedlings: pale yellow chlorosis on young leaves S deficient leaf (left) normal (right)
    52. 52. MICRONUTRIENTS
    53. 53. MICRONUTRIENTS  Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Cl Needed in very small amounts Involved in metabolic reactions as part of enzymes (reused, not consumed) Can be corrected with a fraction of pound per acre rate
    54. 54. IRON (FE) Respiration Photosynthesis Enzymatic Activator Chlorophyll Synthesis
    55. 55. FE DEFICIENCY  Failure to produce sufficient chlorophyll  Interveinal chlorosis, green/yellow stripes  New leaves turn white
    56. 56. MANGANESE (MN) Component of various enzyme systems for:  energy production protein synthesis, and growth regulation
    57. 57. MN DEFICIENCY Interveinal chlorosis  Brown necrotic spots on leaves White/gray spots on leaves  Premature leaf drop and delayed maturity
    58. 58. ZINC (ZN) Respiration Photosynthesis Enzymatic Activator Chlorophyll Synthesis
    59. 59. ZN DEFICIENCY First appear on middle-aged and old leaves Muddy gray-green leaf color Leaves appear drought stressed, with necrotic spots
    60. 60. COPPER (CU)  Catalyst in photosynthesis and respiration  Constituent of enzymes  Involved in building and converting amino acids to proteins  Carbohydrate and protein metabolism  Plant cell wall constituent
    61. 61. CU DEFICIENCY  Leaf tip die-back followed by a twisting or wrapping of the leaves  Delayed maturity  Stunted, misshapen heads
    62. 62. BORON (B)  Cell wall strength and development  Cell division  Fruit and seed development  Sugar transport
    63. 63. B DEFICIENCY  Saw tooth effect on younger leaves Pale, “water-soaked” new shoots Head sterility
    64. 64. MOLYBDENUM (MO)  Conversion of nitrates (NO3 ) into amino acids in the plant  Conversion of inorganic P into organic forms in the plant  Protein synthesis  Sulfur metabolism
    65. 65. MO DEFICIENCY  Stunted plants Flowering/Seed formation affected Hollow stems Brittle, discolored leaves
    66. 66. CHLORIDE (CL) Photosynthesis Stomata regulation Gas and water balance in cells Nutrient transport (K, Ca, Mg) Disease resistance
    67. 67. CL DEFICIENCY Physiological Leaf Spot Syndrome White to brown spots on leaves Starts in lower leaves at tillering Similar to tan spot, smaller spots, no “halo”
    68. 68. MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY High soil pH (uptake decreases as pH increases) – all but Mo MT typical pH = 7-8, varies from 4.5 to 8.5 Low organic matter MT typical OM = 1-4% Cool, wet weather
    69. 69. MICRONUTRIENT PRODUCTS Citri-Che Crop Mix 1 (N, S, Cu, Mn, Zn) Gainer High Phos (N Nitrogen, Phosphate, Potash, Sulfur, Boro n, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc
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