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Ag. agent update Ag. agent update Presentation Transcript

  • AGRICULTURE AGENT UPDATE NORTHERN AG. RESEARCH CENTER HAVRE, MONTANA JUNE 27, 2013 Soils 101 Relative to Crop Production in Montana Olga Walsh Assistant Professor, Soil Nutrient Management Western Triangle Agricultural Research Center Montana State University
  • OUTLINE  Soils:  Definition  Soil profile  Soil texture  MT soils  Soil productivity:  Soil sampling  Nutrients ant plant growth  Mobile vs Immobile  MT deficiencies/toxicities  Fertilizer Strategies
  • SOIL DEFINED  “(i) The unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants  (ii) The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the Earth that has been subjected to and shows effects of genetic and environmental factors of: climate (including water and temperature effects), and macro- and microorganisms, conditioned by relief, acting on parent material over a period of time.  A product-soil differs from the material from which it is derived in many physical, chemical, biological, and morphological properties and characteristics.”(NRCS, 2013)
  • SOIL DEFINED  “Soil is a natural body comprised of solids (minerals and organic matter), liquid, and gases that occurs on the land surface, occupies space, and is characterized by one or both of the following: horizons, or layers, that are distinguishable from the initial material as a result of additions, losses, transfers, and transformations of energy and matter or the ability to support rooted plants in a natural environment.”(Soil Taxonomy)
  • SOIL IS A DYNAMIC BIOGEOCHEMICAL INTERFACE BETWEEN THE EARTH’S SPHERES
  • 12 SOIL TYPES 12 basic types of soils – soil orders reflect environment in which they form, their age, and the ecosystem they support NRCS, 2013 Scobe y
  • MT PREDOMINANT SOILS  Mollisols: form in semi- arid to semi-humid areas, typically under a grassland cover  Alfisols: form in semiarid to humid areas, typically under a hardwood forest cover  Entisols: young soils, do not show any profile development other than an A horizon. unaltered from their parent material, which can be unconsolidated sediment or rock. Inceptisols: weakly developed, one or more subsurface horizons, contains many unweathered minerals; form quickly through alteration of parent material; older than entisols; have no accumulation of clays, iron oxide, aluminium oxide or organic matter. NRCS, 2013
  • SOIL PROFILE soils.wisc.edu, 2013
  • COMPARISON OF MT’S PREDOMINANT SOILS A – maximum accumulation of humus E – zone of maximum weathering and leaching (elluvial) B – zone of maximum accumulation and alteration (illuvial) • Bw – almost no clay • Bt – more clay C – zone of minimal accumulation, alteration and cementation
  • SCOBEY – MT STATE SOIL  Scobey = Mollisol  Surface layer: very dark grayish brown clay loam; Subsurface layer: dark brown clay; Subsoil: dark grayish brown clay loam  Very deep, well drained soils on till plains, hills, and moraines in the north-central MT  >700,000 acres, among most productive soils in MT Golden Triangle (Havre-Conrad-GF): dryland winter and spring wheat  Formed in glacial till and under prairie vegetation  Av. annual precipitation ~ 12 in; av. annual air temperature ~ 43 F; 115 frost free days  Named for the town of Scobey, in NE MT. NRCS, 2013
  • MOLLISOL  From Latin word “Mollis”, meaning soft  These mineral soils developed on grasslands, a vegetation that has extensive fibrous root systems.  The topsoil of Mollisols is characteristically dark and rich with organic matter, giving it a lot of natural fertility  Typically well saturated with basic cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+) that are essential plant nutrients  Among the most fertile soils found on Earth
  • SOIL TEXTURE  Refers to the size of the particles that make up the soil 2 – 75 mm > 75mm Rock Very fine: 0.05 - 0.1 mm Fine: 0.1 - 0.25 mm Medium: 0.25 - 0.5 mm Coarse: 0.5 – 1 mm Very coarse: 1 -2 mm 0.002 to 0.05 < 0.002
  • SOIL TEXTURE % Clay % Silt % Sand Texture 15 70 15 Sandy Loam http://courses.soil.ncsu.edu/res ources/physics/texture/soiltextu re.swf
  • SOIL TEST AgVise, 2013  “Soil testing is the best tool available to determine the amount of each nutrient needed for the coming crop year”  Soil testing is the best tool available to determine the amount of each nutrient present in the soil from the previous crop year
  • SOIL TESTING  Soil probe allows a uniform slice of the soil profile to any depth.  Depths: 0-6" and 6-24", to 48“ for deep-rooted crops (sugarbeet)  Time: P, K, pH, %OM, salts, Ca, Mg, Zn,Fe, Mn, and Cu - any time of the year (minor changes)  Time: N, S, Cl - in the fall following harvest or early spring  Sample storage: cool, frozen or send to the lab immediately AgVise, 2013
  • SOIL SAMPLING METHODS  15-20 soil cores to represent a field  The cores are mixed and a portion is sent to the lab  Avoid non-representative areas  Provides average soil nutrient level in each field  Can result in under- or over- estimation  Field split into productivity zones (satellite canopy images, yield maps, salinity maps, soil type maps, topography, etc.)  Representative sample (10-15 cores) from each zone  Soil nutrient levels in each zone can be quite different  Field split into small equal sized areas (1 - 5 acres)  8-10 cores collected from the center of each grid or randomly within the grid  Nutrient levels are determined for each grid  Fertilizer recommendations – for each grid AgVise, 2013
  • NUTRIENTS AND PLANT GROWTH o Plant’s sufficiency range = range of nutrient necessary to meet plant’s nutritional needs and maximize growth o Nutrient levels outside of a plant’s sufficiency range cause crop growth and health to decline due to either a deficiency or toxicity Mc Cauley et al., 2009
  • MOBILE AND IMMOBILE NUTRIENTS BLA BLA BLA BLA Roger Bray, “A Nutrient Mobility Concept or Soil-Plant Relationships. 1954. Soil Science.
  • MT SOILS: COMMON DEFICIENCIES /TOXICITIES  Most common: N and P  Sometimes – K, S  Micronutrient deficiencies are fairly uncommon with deficiencies of B, Cl, Fe, and Zn occurring most often  Toxicities – uncommon, result of over-fertilization
  • ESSENTIAL PLANT NUTRIENTS Total of 16 essential nutrients 3 Macronutrients from air and water: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (C, H, O) 13 MACROnutrients from soil: 3 Primary nutrients - Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (N, P, K) 3 Secondary nutrients - Calcium, Magnesium and Sulfur (Ca, Mg, S) 7 MICROnutrients - Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper, Boron, Molybdenum, and Chlorine (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Cl)
  • ESSENTIAL PLANT NUTRIENTS Deficiency disrupts plant’s growth and reproduction Deficiency can be prevented or corrected only by supplying the element Nutrient is directly involved in the nutrition of the plant
  • YIELD POTENTIAL AND FERTILIZER Q 1. Which field has a higher Yield Potential? Q 2. Which field needs more fertilizer? Field A Field B
  • “BLANKET” VS PRECISION  Conventional application of N – one rate based on average needs of the field/fields  Variability in production potential(natural, acquired, spatial, temporal)  Average rate is excessive in some parts and inadequate in others  Precision Agriculture = timely and precise N application to meet plant needs as they vary across the landscape  Sensor-Based Technologies – precision agriculture tools, allow to account for variability and to make more informed decisions
  • PRECISION AGRICULTURE AND NUE • Yield Potential approach:  No guess-work  Minimizes producer’s risks  Higher NUE • Precision N Fertilization entails:  Right time and Right rate  They vary across the field to meet plants’ needs • Sensor-Based Technologies – precision agriculture tools, allow to account for all types of variability and to make more informed decisions
  • YIELD GOAL VS YIELD POTENTIAL  Yield Goal:  Average yield for past 5 years + 30% (just in case we have a good year)  Based on past (historical data)  Uses average N rates   Yield Potential:  Estimated using in-season data  Based on current crop nutrient status  Precise N rate (crop- and site-specific)
  • YIELD GOAL VS YIELD POTENTIAL Yield Goal  Sufficiency approach: to apply a fixed rate of N at a computed sufficiency level, regardless of YP Yield Potential:  Estimates of YP and crop response to N provide a physiological basis to estimate N removal and a biologically based N application rate Tabitha, WSU
  • YIELD POTENTIAL VARIES YEAR TO YEAR 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 “Maximum Attainable Yield” (Yield Goal) Actual Harvested Yield Should we fertilize for maximum yield every year? Alternative to Yield Goal - Yield Potential Source: Taylor, 2009
  • Yield Potential Prediction  The concept of sensing biomass in various crops  Biomass used as an indicator of nutrient need  Knowing how much biomass is produced => knowing how much N is removed from the soil and converted into biomass  Removal of N in harvested biomass and grain is highly correlated with yield
  • YIELD POTENTIAL AND RESPONSE TO N YP and RI are independent from one another:  High YP, High RI  High YP, Low RI  Low YP, High RI  Low YP, Low RI Field A Field B
  • PRECISION SENSOR’S BASICS Emits light and measures reflectance from plants Sensor reading - Similar to a plant physical examination Sensor can detect: • Plant Biomass • Plant Chlorophyll • Crop Yield • Water Stress • Plant diseases, and • Insect damage
  • CONCEPT SUMMARY 1. How much biomass is produced ? 2. What Yield is attainable without addition of N? 3. How responsive is the crop to N? 4. What Yield is attainable with addition of N? YPN = INSEY*RI NDVI = (NIR-red)/(NIR+red) INSEY = NDVI/GDD>0 RI = NDVI (NRS) /NDVI (FP) Marty Knox is obtaining winter wheat canopy reflectance data using GreenSeeker optical sensor, WARC, Corvallis, MT, May 2013
  • red redNIR NIR 30% 50% 60% 8% NDVI = (NIR-red)/(NIR+red) NDVI (1) = (0.60 - 0.08)/(0.60 + 0.08) = 0.76 NDVI (2) = (0.50 - 0.30)/(0.50 + 0.30) = 0.25 (1) (2)
  • CONCEPT SUMMARY 1. How much biomass is produced ? 2. What Yield is attainable without addition of N? 3. How responsive is the crop to N? 4. What Yield is attainable with addition of N? YPN = INSEY*RI NDVI = (NIR-red)/(NIR+red) INSEY = NDVI/GDD>0 RI = NDVI (NRS) /NDVI (FP)
  • VARIABLE RATE IN MONTANA “Sensor-based VRT saves fertilizer costs, improves crop production”  By Shannon Ruckman, The Prairie Star editor; 2008  Herb Oehlke  Farms Wheat and Barley, since1995  Ledger, 20 min from Conrad  Switched from blanket to variable-rate application  Saved money and time  Uses GreenSeeker on all his wheat fields
  • VARIABLE-RATE IN MONTANA  “I really questioned if it would work”  “I wanted to know if it would work with the NRCS requirements”  “I can't under apply fertilizer, but I need to be more efficient at it. Net return is an important number.”  Saved 5.3 gallons of fertilizer per acre  Achieved 8 to 10 bus/ac increase in yield  “Had average yield- 57 bus/ac. The VRT fields yielded 67 to 70 bus /ac. At $10/bu, that adds up real fast. That’s $100 /ac!”
  • THANK YOU! QUESTIONS? ADDITIONAL SLIDES ON NUTRIENT ROLE/ DEFICIENCY
  • MACRONUTRIENTS
  • NUTRIENTS FROM AIR AND WATER Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen Base of all organic molecules, building blocks for growth Absorbed as CO2 Combined with H and O Transformed into carbohydrates in leaves in the process of photosynthesis
  • ESSENTIAL MACRONUTRIENTS  N, P, K Needed in greater amounts for growth Lacking from soil first Greater response
  • N DEFICIENCY  Light green upper (young) leaves Yellow lower (older) leaves
  • ESSENTIAL MACRO NUTRIENTS: P  Catalyses biochemical reactions Component of DNA (genetic memory) Component of energy molecules Key element in photosynthesis
  • P DEFICIENCY  Dark purple discoloration on the leaf tips, advancing down the leaf Stunted plants with fewer shoots
  • ESSENTIAL MACRO NUTRIENTS: K  Photosynthesis and movement of nutrients Protein synthesis Activation of plant enzymes Regulation water use
  • K DEFICIENCY  Marginal chlorosis and necrosis on older leaves Shorter internodes, stunting
  • ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS  Ca, Mg, S Needed in moderate amounts
  • ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS: CA  Cell structure, membranes Nutrient uptake Reaction to negative environmental factors Defense against disease
  • CA DEFICIENCY Poor root growth, stunted dark rotting roots Symptoms – in new growth (necrotic spots in young leaves), leaves collapse before unrolling
  • ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS: MG Chlorophyll formation Light-absorbing pigments Amino acids and proteins Resistance to drought and disease
  • MG DEFICIENCY Pale green, chlorotic young leaves Folded or twisted leaves Symptoms similar to drought
  • ESSENTIAL SECONDARY NUTRIENTS: S  Component of amino acids and proteins  Component of enzymes and vitamins  Formation of Chlorophyll
  • S DEFICIENCY Seedlings: pale yellow chlorosis on young leaves S deficient leaf (left) normal (right)
  • MICRONUTRIENTS
  • MICRONUTRIENTS  Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Cl Needed in very small amounts Involved in metabolic reactions as part of enzymes (reused, not consumed) Can be corrected with a fraction of pound per acre rate
  • IRON (FE) Respiration Photosynthesis Enzymatic Activator Chlorophyll Synthesis
  • FE DEFICIENCY  Failure to produce sufficient chlorophyll  Interveinal chlorosis, green/yellow stripes  New leaves turn white
  • MANGANESE (MN) Component of various enzyme systems for:  energy production protein synthesis, and growth regulation
  • MN DEFICIENCY Interveinal chlorosis  Brown necrotic spots on leaves White/gray spots on leaves  Premature leaf drop and delayed maturity
  • ZINC (ZN) Respiration Photosynthesis Enzymatic Activator Chlorophyll Synthesis
  • ZN DEFICIENCY First appear on middle-aged and old leaves Muddy gray-green leaf color Leaves appear drought stressed, with necrotic spots
  • COPPER (CU)  Catalyst in photosynthesis and respiration  Constituent of enzymes  Involved in building and converting amino acids to proteins  Carbohydrate and protein metabolism  Plant cell wall constituent
  • CU DEFICIENCY  Leaf tip die-back followed by a twisting or wrapping of the leaves  Delayed maturity  Stunted, misshapen heads
  • BORON (B)  Cell wall strength and development  Cell division  Fruit and seed development  Sugar transport
  • B DEFICIENCY  Saw tooth effect on younger leaves Pale, “water-soaked” new shoots Head sterility
  • MOLYBDENUM (MO)  Conversion of nitrates (NO3 ) into amino acids in the plant  Conversion of inorganic P into organic forms in the plant  Protein synthesis  Sulfur metabolism
  • MO DEFICIENCY  Stunted plants Flowering/Seed formation affected Hollow stems Brittle, discolored leaves
  • CHLORIDE (CL) Photosynthesis Stomata regulation Gas and water balance in cells Nutrient transport (K, Ca, Mg) Disease resistance
  • CL DEFICIENCY Physiological Leaf Spot Syndrome White to brown spots on leaves Starts in lower leaves at tillering Similar to tan spot, smaller spots, no “halo”
  • MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY High soil pH (uptake decreases as pH increases) – all but Mo MT typical pH = 7-8, varies from 4.5 to 8.5 Low organic matter MT typical OM = 1-4% Cool, wet weather
  • MICRONUTRIENT PRODUCTS Citri-Che Crop Mix 1 (N, S, Cu, Mn, Zn) Gainer High Phos (N Nitrogen, Phosphate, Potash, Sulfur, Boro n, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc