- Determine the information problem to be solved- Brainstorm questions – what you need to know- Pick out key words embedded in your questions- Seek a variety of print and electronic materials for sources- Use appropriate criteria – authority, reliability, coverage, currency -- forselecting sources.- Gather resources- Determine if the source is usable- Access appropriate information systems, including AVLonline databases, library catalog, and Internet.- Distinguish facts from opinion- Accurately and completely summarize or paraphrase themain idea and supporting details and cite sources- Read, listen, view, and touch carefully to acquire information.- Organize information in a clear and systematic way- Present information in ways appropriate to the assignment- Produce products to communicate content.- Assess your product for completeness, strengths, and weaknesses- Determine the need for further information.Big 6 Model from Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz http://www.big6.com/
From University of Alberta, “Focuson Inquiry,” 2004:http://www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/curriculum/bysubject/focusoninquiry.pdf
Kuhlthau’s Model of the Library Search ProcessStage one: Task Initiation (Assignment) Feelings of uncertaintyStage two: Topic Selection Feelings of optimismStage three: Pre-focus Exploration Feelings of confusion, frustration, doubt
Kuhlthau’s Model of the Library Search ProcessStage four: Focus Formulation Feelings of clarityStage five: Information Collection Feelings of direction and confidenceStage six: Search Closue Feelings of reliefStage seven: Start writing Feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction
Defining plagiarism“….the act of appropriating the literary composition of another author, or excerpts, ideas, or passages therefrom, and passing the material off as ones own creation.” from “Glossary of Library Terms,” University of Colorodo at Boulder Libraries, http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/about/glossary.htm
Direct transfer of material fromoriginal sources If you use someone else’s phrasing without putting it in quotes, you have blatantly plagiarized. Even if you add the source in your bibliography or works cited, it is still plagiarism.
Paraphrasing someone’sthoughts on an issue When rewriting someone else’s words, sentences with similar vocabulary and grammatical structure as the original source can be construed as plagiarism. The best strategy is to put the text in your own words, and use either the body of your paper parenthetical documentation to cite the author.
Someone else’s original ideas Give credit to unique ideas and theories others have thought up. If you present the ideas of another individual without crediting them, you have committed plagiarism. The most obvious and commonly held ideas might not have to be credited. When in doubt, attribute.
Avoiding Plagiarism Always enclose phrases from your source text in quotation marks. This is the easiest way to avoid plagiarism. When paraphrasing, be sure you are changing rather than rearranging words. Even when you have rewritten phrases in your own words, you must credit the original source.
YES! You need to useIs it plagiarism? quotes and to cite your sourceYou read: You write:“Nineteen percent offull-time freshmen say Nineteen percent of full-they spend only 1 to 5 time freshmen say theyhours per week spend only 1 to 5 hourspreparing for classes…” per week preparing for classes.From: Young, Jeffrey R.Homework? What Homework?Chronicle of Higher Education, 49(15).12/6/2002.
Is it plagiarism? Yes! You must credit your source if you paraphraseYou read: text."Students are studying aboutone-third as much as facultysay they ought to, to do well,"said George D. Kuh, director You write:of the survey and a professor Most students spendof higher education at about one-third asIndiana University at much time studying asBloomington. faculty say they should.From: Young, Jeffrey R. Homework? WhatHomework? Chronicle of Higher Education, 49(15).12/6/2002
No. As long as you have included the Young Is it plagiarism? article in your bibliography, you have properly cited yourYou read: source."Students are studying about one- You write:third as much as faculty say theyought to, to do well," said George According to George D.D. Kuh, director of the survey and Kuh at Indianaa professor of higher education at University, studentsIndiana University at Bloomington. study about one-third of the time that isFrom: Young, Jeffrey R. Homework? expected by facultyWhat Homework? Chronicle of Higher (Young, 2002).Education, 49 (15).12/6/2002
No. Commonly known Is it plagiarism? facts or ideas do not have to be cited. (Can you find this information in at leastYou read: five sources?)“The tip given most You write:consistently by professorsand college officials is thatstudents should simply do College students shouldtheir homework. The most do their homework.commonly prescribedamount is at least two hoursof class preparation forevery hour spent in theclassroom…”From: Young, Jeffrey R. Homework?What Homework? Chronicle of HigherEducation, 49 (15).12/6/2002